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Article

Implant Soft-Tissue Attachment Using 3D Oral Mucosal Models—A Pilot Study

School of Clinical Dentistry, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK
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Dent. J. 2020, 8(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8030072
Received: 2 June 2020 / Revised: 23 June 2020 / Accepted: 3 July 2020 / Published: 7 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft Tissue Integration and Osseointegration around Dental Implants)
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate soft-tissue attachment to different metal, ceramic, and polymer implant surfaces using an inflamed, three-dimensional (3D), tissue-engineered, human oral mucosal model, as well as multiple-endpoint qualitative and quantitative biological approaches. Methods: Normal human oral fibroblasts, OKF6/TERT-2 keratinocytes and THP-1 monocytes were cultured, and full-thickness, 3D oral mucosal models were engineered inside tissue culture inserts. Sand-blasted and acid-etched (SLA) and machined (M) titanium–zirconium alloy (TiZr; commercially known as Roxolid; Institut Straumann AG, Switzerland), ceramic (ZrO2), and polyether ether ketone (PEEK) rods (Ø 4 mm × 8 mm) were inserted into the center of tissue-engineered oral mucosa following a Ø 4mm punch biopsy. Inflammation was simulated with addition of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha to the culture medium. Implant soft-tissue attachment was assessed using histology, an implant pull-test with PrestoBlue assay, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: Inflamed, full-thickness, 3D human oral mucosal models with inserted implants were successfully engineered and histologically characterized. The implant pull-test with PrestoBlue assay showed higher viability of the tissue that remained attached to the TiZr-SLA surface compared to the other test groups. This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). SEM analysis showed evidence of epithelial cell attachment on different implant surfaces. Conclusions: The inflamed, 3D, oral mucosal model has the potential to be used as a suitable in vitro test system for visualization and quantification of implant soft-tissue attachment. The results of our study indicate greater soft tissue attachment to TiZr-SLA compared to TiZr-M, ceramic, and PEEK surfaces. View Full-Text
Keywords: oral mucosa; tissue engineering; implant; soft tissue attachment; titanium; zirconia oral mucosa; tissue engineering; implant; soft tissue attachment; titanium; zirconia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Barker, E.; AlQobaly, L.; Shaikh, Z.; Franklin, K.; Moharamzadeh, K. Implant Soft-Tissue Attachment Using 3D Oral Mucosal Models—A Pilot Study. Dent. J. 2020, 8, 72. https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8030072

AMA Style

Barker E, AlQobaly L, Shaikh Z, Franklin K, Moharamzadeh K. Implant Soft-Tissue Attachment Using 3D Oral Mucosal Models—A Pilot Study. Dentistry Journal. 2020; 8(3):72. https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8030072

Chicago/Turabian Style

Barker, Emilia, Lina AlQobaly, Zahab Shaikh, Kirsty Franklin, and Keyvan Moharamzadeh. 2020. "Implant Soft-Tissue Attachment Using 3D Oral Mucosal Models—A Pilot Study" Dentistry Journal 8, no. 3: 72. https://doi.org/10.3390/dj8030072

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