Innovation Meets Tradition in the Sheep and Goat Dairy Industry

A special issue of Dairy (ISSN 2624-862X). This special issue belongs to the section "Dairy Small Ruminants".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2021) | Viewed by 26897

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Cagliari, 09042 Cagliari, Italy
Interests: food-omics; mass spectrometry; food safety; toxicology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Cagliari, 09042 Cagliari, Italy
Interests: food; dairy; metabolomics; chemometrics; spectroscopy; mass spectrometry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) are small ruminant species widely distributed throughout the world. They are raised in intensive or extensive production systems, usually on a smallholder farming system basis. Sheep and goat dairy products play an important economic role in many countries, particularly in the Mediterranean region, being closely linked to the culture and traditions of vast areas.

Today, traditional ovine and caprine dairy production chains, from farmers to exporters, are facing the challenges of innovation, sustainability, safety, and productivity, while at the same time protecting each product’s individual characteristics.

This Special Issue will welcome scientific contributions in the field of ovine and caprine dairy production with ground-breaking perspectives and approaches, from physical-chemistry studies on milk and dairy, to new feeding strategies, herd management, nutritional quality, animal welfare, sustainability, and omics studies.

Prof. Dr. Pierluigi Caboni
Prof. Dr. Paola Scano
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • milk and dairy products
  • dairy composition and chemical–physical properties
  • food quality and safety
  • omics sciences
  • impact of process methods
  • dairy microbiology
  • animal feeding strategies
  • animal welfare
  • environmental sustainability

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 166 KiB  
Editorial
Innovation Meets Tradition in the Sheep and Goat Dairy Industry
by Paola Scano and Pierluigi Caboni
Dairy 2021, 2(3), 422-424; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2030033 - 5 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1951
Abstract
Small ruminants, such as sheep and goats, are mostly raised in smallholder farming systems widely distributed throughout the world [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation Meets Tradition in the Sheep and Goat Dairy Industry)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

10 pages, 1516 KiB  
Communication
GC-MS Metabolomics and Antifungal Characteristics of Autochthonous Lactobacillus Strains
by Paola Scano, M. Barbara Pisano, Antonio Murgia, Sofia Cosentino and Pierluigi Caboni
Dairy 2021, 2(3), 326-335; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2030026 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3467
Abstract
Lactobacillus strains with the potential of protecting fresh dairy products from spoilage were studied. Metabolism and antifungal activity of different L. plantarum, L. brevis, and L. sakei strains, isolated from Sardinian dairy and meat products, were assessed. The metabolite fingerprint of [...] Read more.
Lactobacillus strains with the potential of protecting fresh dairy products from spoilage were studied. Metabolism and antifungal activity of different L. plantarum, L. brevis, and L. sakei strains, isolated from Sardinian dairy and meat products, were assessed. The metabolite fingerprint of each strain was obtained by GC-MS and data submitted to multivariate statistical analysis. The discriminant analysis correctly classified samples to the Lactobacillus species and indicated that, with respect to the other species, L. plantarum had higher levels of organic acids, while L. brevis and L. sakei showed higher levels of sugars than L. plantarum. Partial Least Square (PLS) regression correlated the GC-MS metabolites to the antifungal activity (p < 0.05) of Lactobacillus strains and indicated that organic acids and oleamide are positively related with this ability. Some of the metabolites identified in this study have been reported to possess health promoting proprieties. These overall results suggest that the GC-MS-based metabolomic approach is a useful tool for the characterization of Lactobacillus strains as biopreservatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation Meets Tradition in the Sheep and Goat Dairy Industry)
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18 pages, 1557 KiB  
Article
Quality Control in Fiore Sardo PDO Cheese: Detection of Heat Treatment Application and Production Chain by MRI Relaxometry and Image Analysis
by Roberto Anedda, Riccardo Melis and Elena Curti
Dairy 2021, 2(2), 270-287; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2020023 - 26 May 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4470
Abstract
Fiore Sardo (FS), a traditional Italian cheese, is present in the market as a heterogeneous variety of products. The use of heat-treated (HT) milk is forbidden by the official production protocol, but no official analytical method able to detect heat application is yet [...] Read more.
Fiore Sardo (FS), a traditional Italian cheese, is present in the market as a heterogeneous variety of products. The use of heat-treated (HT) milk is forbidden by the official production protocol, but no official analytical method able to detect heat application is yet available. Here, a combined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relaxometry and image analysis approach to recognize FS made from raw milk is presented. Artisanal FS cheeses were produced from raw milk (RC) by five shepherds in accordance with the official protocol. They were compared to HT-milk counterparts (HTC). Additionally, industrially manufactured commercial FS cheeses (I) were also purchased and compared to RC and HTC. Relaxometry data of FS indicated the presence of two water populations; the ratio of characteristic relaxation time constant T2 and area fraction (Score, Ṩ) of the fastest relaxing population was used to compare RC, HTC and I samples. RC from HTC were successfully discriminated, the latter exhibiting lower Ṩ (enhanced protein hydration). I cheeses exhibited the lowest Ṩ values, sometimes comparable to HTC. Since visual appearance of RC and HTC is appreciably different, an image analysis deep learning approach using MRI and photographic pictures was adopted to discriminate the two productions, with promising percentages (>93%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation Meets Tradition in the Sheep and Goat Dairy Industry)
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10 pages, 1122 KiB  
Article
LC-QTOF/MS Untargeted Metabolomics of Sheep Milk under Cocoa Husks Enriched Diet
by Cristina Manis, Paola Scano, Anna Nudda, Silvia Carta, Giuseppe Pulina and Pierluigi Caboni
Dairy 2021, 2(1), 112-121; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2010011 - 22 Feb 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3421
Abstract
The aim of this work was to evaluate, by an untargeted metabolomics approach, changes of milk metabolites induced by the replacement of soybean hulls with cocoa husks in the ewes’ diet. Animals were fed with a soybean diet integrated with 50 or 100 [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to evaluate, by an untargeted metabolomics approach, changes of milk metabolites induced by the replacement of soybean hulls with cocoa husks in the ewes’ diet. Animals were fed with a soybean diet integrated with 50 or 100 g/d of cacao husks. Milk samples were analyzed by an ultra high performance liquid chromatograph coupled to a time of flight mass spectrometer (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) platform. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the time of sampling profoundly affected metabolite levels, while differences between treatments were evident at the fourth week of sampling. Cocoa husks seem to induce level changes of milk metabolites implicated in the thyroid hormone metabolism and ubiquinol-10 biosynthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation Meets Tradition in the Sheep and Goat Dairy Industry)
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11 pages, 856 KiB  
Article
Functional Odd- and Branched-Chain Fatty Acid in Sheep and Goat Milk and Cheeses
by Anna Nudda, Fabio Correddu, Alberto Cesarani, Giuseppe Pulina and Gianni Battacone
Dairy 2021, 2(1), 79-89; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2010008 - 5 Feb 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4114
Abstract
The inverse association between the groups of odd-chain (OCFA) and branched-chain (BCFA) and the development of diseases in humans have generated interest in the scientific community. In experiment 1, the extent of the passage of odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (OBCFA) from milk [...] Read more.
The inverse association between the groups of odd-chain (OCFA) and branched-chain (BCFA) and the development of diseases in humans have generated interest in the scientific community. In experiment 1, the extent of the passage of odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (OBCFA) from milk fat to fresh cheese fat was studied in sheep and goats. Milk collected in two milk processing plants in west Sardinia (Italy) was sampled every 2 weeks during spring (March, April and May). In addition, a survey was carried out to evaluate the seasonal variation of the OBCFA concentrations in sheep and goats’ cheeses during all lactation period from January to June. Furthermore, to assess the main differences among the sheep and goat cheese, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to cheese fatty acids (FA) profile. Concentrations of OBCFA in fresh cheese fat of both species were strongly related to the FA content in the unprocessed raw milk. The average contents of OBCFA were 4.12 and 4.13 mg/100 mg of FA in sheep milk and cheese, respectively, and 3.12 and 3.17 mg/100 mg of FA in goat milk and cheese, respectively. The OBCFA concentration did no differed between milk and cheese in any species. The content of OBCFA was significantly higher in sheep than goats’ dairy products. The OBCFA composition of the cheese was markedly affected by the period of sampling in both species: odd and branched FA concentrations increased from March to June. The seasonal changes of OBCFA in dairy products were likely connected to variations in the quality of the diet. The PCA confirmed the higher nutritional quality of sheep cheese for beneficial FA, including OBCFA compared to the goat one, and the importance of the period of sampling in the definition of the fatty acids profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation Meets Tradition in the Sheep and Goat Dairy Industry)
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16 pages, 1064 KiB  
Article
Survival of Selected Pathogenic Bacteria during PDO Pecorino Romano Cheese Ripening
by Giacomo Lai, Rita Melillo, Massimo Pes, Margherita Addis, Antonio Fadda and Antonio Pirisi
Dairy 2020, 1(3), 297-312; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy1030020 - 7 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3989
Abstract
This study was conducted to assess, for the first time, the survival of the pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Staphylococcus aureus during the ripening of protected designation of origin (PDO) Pecorino Romano cheese. A total of twenty-four [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to assess, for the first time, the survival of the pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Staphylococcus aureus during the ripening of protected designation of origin (PDO) Pecorino Romano cheese. A total of twenty-four cheese-making trials (twelve from raw milk and twelve from thermized milk) were performed under the protocol specified by PDO requirements. Sheep cheese milk was first inoculated before processing with approximately 106 colony-forming unit (CFU) mL−1 of each considered pathogen and the experiment was repeated six times for each selected pathogen. Cheese composition and pathogens count were then evaluated in inoculated raw milk, thermized milk, and cheese after 1, 90, and 150 days of ripening. pH, moisture, water activity, and salt content of cheese were within the range of the commercial PDO Pecorino Romano cheese. All the cheeses made from raw and thermized milk were microbiologically safe after 90 days and 1 day from their production, respectively. In conclusion, when Pecorino Romano cheese is produced under PDO specifications, from raw or thermized milk, a combination of factors including the speed and extent of curd acidification in the first phase of the production, together with an intense salting and a long ripening time, preclude the possibility of growth and survival of L. monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and E. coli O157:H7. Only S. aureus can be still detectable at such low levels that it does not pose a risk to consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation Meets Tradition in the Sheep and Goat Dairy Industry)
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12 pages, 787 KiB  
Article
An Untargeted Metabolomic Comparison of Milk Composition from Sheep Kept Under Different Grazing Systems
by Paola Scano, Patrizia Carta, Ignazio Ibba, Cristina Manis and Pierluigi Caboni
Dairy 2020, 1(1), 30-41; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy1010004 - 5 Apr 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4265
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different feedings on main traits and polar and semi-polar metabolite profiles of ovine milk. The milk metabolome of two groups of Sarda sheep kept under different grazing systems were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different feedings on main traits and polar and semi-polar metabolite profiles of ovine milk. The milk metabolome of two groups of Sarda sheep kept under different grazing systems were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and multivariate statistical analysis (MVA). The results of discriminant analysis indicated that the two groups showed a different metabolite profile, i.e., milk samples of sheep kept under Grazing System 1 (GS1) were richer in nucleosides, inositols, hippuric acid, and organic acids, while milk of sheep under Grazing System 2 (GS2) showed higher levels of phosphate. Statistical analysis of milk main traits indicates that fat content was significantly higher in GS1 samples while milk from GS2 sheep had more urea, trans-vaccenic acid, and rumenic acid. MVA studies of the associations between milk main traits and metabolite profile indicated that the latter reflects primarily the long chain fatty acid content, the somatic cell count (SCC), and lactose levels. All together, these results demonstrated that an integrated holistic approach could be applied to deepen knowledge about the effects of feeding on sheep’s milk composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation Meets Tradition in the Sheep and Goat Dairy Industry)
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