Special Issue "Sunscreens: Efficacy and Safety—An Overview and Update"

A special issue of Cosmetics (ISSN 2079-9284).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2017).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Marisanna Centini
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biotechnologies, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
Interests: photoprotection; sunscreen; photostability; antioxidant and radical scavenging; microparticulate systems; supramolecular systems; odours molecules
Prof. Dr. Cecilia Anselmi
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Biotechnologies, Chemistry and Pharmacy, Spinoff of the University of Siena UNICOSME-SI, Via della Diana 2, 53100 Siena, Italy
Interests: photoprotection; sunscreen; photostability; antioxidant and radical scavenging; microparticulate systems; supramolecular systems; odours molecules

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sun exposure has been associated with numerous types of acute and chronic skin reactions such as sun burns, photo-immune suppression, photo-aging and skin cancer. Sunscreens are considered to be a useful approach for skin photo-protection against UV radiations. Recent studies have shown that visible and IR radiations are responsible for changes in the skin physiology.

Although the population is more informed about the risks of excessive sun exposure and the importance of sunscreen usage, over the past decade a continuous increase in skin cancer incidences has been registered. Therefore, sunscreen is still a very important and current topic. In the past few decades, sunscreens products and UV filters have evolved continuously. Their marketing is constantly changing based on the progress of scientific knowledge. Accordingly, legal requirements have changed and expanded along with methods for efficacy evaluation. Furthermore, the usage of cosmetic UV filters has expanded to a large number of daily skin and hair care products. Sunscreens are applied on a large skin area, for a long period of time, particular attention has been paid to their efficacy and safety. Modern sunscreens use a combination of several organic and inorganic UV filters to provide broad photo-protection, reaching the highest SPF value. UV absorption properties and substantivity are the factors that contribute to the effectiveness of sun-screening agents.

To be safe and efficient, sunscreen should cover and protect the skin without penetration or permeation into deeper skin layers (if it is possible) in order to avoid systemic absorption. Photo-stability is another important factor that can affect both sunscreen effectiveness and safety. Development of new technologies, such as micro and nanoparticulate delivery systems, offers improved efficacy and safety (low toxicity, better tolerability, reduced percutaneous absorption, enhanced photo-stability and substantivity).

Therefore, the aim of this Special Issue “Sunscreens: Efficacy and Safety—An Overview and Update”, is to provide an overview of the current knowledge in this field, through original papers, reviews and short communications.

Prof. Dr. Marisanna Centini
Prof. Dr. Cecilia Anselmi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cosmetics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • photoprotection
  • sunscreens
  • photostability
  • substantivity
  • percutaneous absorption
  • efficacy and safety evaluation

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Article
The New Sunscreens among Formulation Strategy, Stability Issues, Changing Norms, Safety and Efficacy Evaluations
Cosmetics 2017, 4(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics4020015 - 16 May 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6304
Abstract
The sun-and-skin interactions have controversial sides. Besides important beneficial effects, we need to take into consideration also some serious harmful results. In particular, these are connected to the portion of the solar spectrum traditionally identified as ultraviolet type A and B. The topical [...] Read more.
The sun-and-skin interactions have controversial sides. Besides important beneficial effects, we need to take into consideration also some serious harmful results. In particular, these are connected to the portion of the solar spectrum traditionally identified as ultraviolet type A and B. The topical application of sunscreens (and the avoidance of extreme exposure to sun rays) is worldwide recognized as the best strategy to avoid sunburn and oedema. Moreover, such strategy can efficiently prevent the onset of skin cancer. Therefore, the first aim of sunscreen products is to efficiently minimize all damage of sun exposure, while, at the same time, keeping good skin tolerability, avoiding safety problems and developing pleasant sensorial properties. Sunscreens, i.e., substances able to reflect and/or absorb, at a partial or complete extent, UV radiation are the key actors in skin protection. They are used to implement the level of primary photoprotection against UV rays. This means that when they absorb the radiation energy, their molecules pass to an excited state and successively re-emit energy in other forms (vibrational, rotational, infrared radiation) to come back to the ground state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sunscreens: Efficacy and Safety—An Overview and Update)
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Article
Sunburn Protection by Sunscreen Sprays at Beach
Cosmetics 2017, 4(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics4010010 - 18 Mar 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5333
Abstract
Background: The efficacy of sunscreen is evaluated by SPF values, which are quantitatively determined in laboratories on the backs of human subjects according to a standardized procedure. However, SPF cannot be directly translated to sunburn protection under real-life situations because actual efficacy depends [...] Read more.
Background: The efficacy of sunscreen is evaluated by SPF values, which are quantitatively determined in laboratories on the backs of human subjects according to a standardized procedure. However, SPF cannot be directly translated to sunburn protection under real-life situations because actual efficacy depends on various factors related to human behaviors and environmental conditions. This study clinically evaluated the efficacy of two sunscreen sprays (SPF 30 and SPF 70) under natural sunlight exposure on healthy subjects at the beach. Methods: Twenty subjects were divided into two cells for the two sunscreen sprays (SPF 70 and SPF 30) in a single-center, actual usage test. The primary endpoint of the study was sunburn protection on the dorsal arms and the secondary endpoint was protection on the face and neck. Subjects stayed at the beach for 4 h after application of the sunscreens with normal beach activities. Subjects’ behavior at the beach, the amounts of sunscreen applied and reapplied, and environmental conditions were all recorded. Results: There was no significant sunburn for a majority of the subjects in either cell. However, neither sunscreen completely blocked the sunburn, especially the face/neck area. We found that the SPF 70 sunscreen was more effective than the SPF 30 sunscreen. Conclusion: Modern sunscreen sprays, applied liberally, are effective in providing sunburn protection for the body in a beach setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sunscreens: Efficacy and Safety—An Overview and Update)
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Review

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Review
Cutaneous Permeation and Penetration of Sunscreens: Formulation Strategies and In Vitro Methods
Cosmetics 2018, 5(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics5010001 - 25 Dec 2017
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 6561
Abstract
Sunscreens are the most common products used for skin protection against the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation. However, as frequent application is recommended, the use of large amount of sunscreens could reflect in possible systemic absorption and since these preparations are often applied [...] Read more.
Sunscreens are the most common products used for skin protection against the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation. However, as frequent application is recommended, the use of large amount of sunscreens could reflect in possible systemic absorption and since these preparations are often applied on large skin areas, even low penetration rates can cause a significant amount of sunscreen to enter the body. An ideal sunscreen should have a high substantivity and should neither penetrate the viable epidermis, the dermis and the systemic circulation, nor in hair follicle. The research of methods to assess the degree of penetration of solar filters into the skin is nowadays even more important than in the past, due to the widespread use of nanomaterials and the new discoveries in cosmetic formulation technology. In the present paper, different in vitro studies, published in the last five years, have been reviewed, in order to focus the attention on the different methodological approaches employed to effectively assess the skin permeation and retention of sunscreens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sunscreens: Efficacy and Safety—An Overview and Update)
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