Experimental Ideas for Novel FEL Facilities Based on Plasma Acceleration

A special issue of Condensed Matter (ISSN 2410-3896). This special issue belongs to the section "Spectroscopy and Imaging in Condensed Matter".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (17 February 2023) | Viewed by 11188

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
INFN–LNF, Via E. Fermi 54, 00044 Frascati, Italy
Interests: high brightness photoinjectors; free-electron lasers; advanced acceleration concepts; plasma accelerators

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Guest Editor
1. INFN–LNF, Via E. Fermi 54, 00044 Frascati, Italy
2. CNR - Istituto Struttura della Materia and Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza Area Science Park, 34149 Trieste, Italy
3. RICMASS - Rome International Center for Materials Science – Superstripes, Via dei Sabelli 119A, 00185 Roma, Italy
Interests: correlation phenomena in X-ray absorption spectroscopy; X-ray absorption in elements of geophysical interest; dust and aerosol characterization; ultra-trace detection for indoor and outdoor environmental studies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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CNR-ISM, c/o Lab. Elettra, 34127 Trieste, Italy
Interests: atomic and molecular physics; electron spectroscopy; time-resolved spectroscopy; XUV and X-ray instrumentation; synchrotron and FEL; research infrastructures

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Guest Editor
Physics Department, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma, Italy
Interests: free electron lasers; X-ray absorption spectroscopy; protein crystallography; coherent imaging; density functional theory; liquid jet sample delivery

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is devoted to user applications of new-generation high-brilliance radiation sources. It was influenced by the "EuPRAXIA@SPARC_LAB” User Workshop held in Frascati on 14-15 October 2021, an event dedicated to the new FEL facility based on plasma acceleration. EuPRAXIA is the first European project that aims to develop a dedicated particle accelerator research infrastructure based on novel plasma acceleration concepts and laser technology (http://www.eupraxia-project.eu/).

Contributions to the Special Issue We, therefore, invite you to contribute research focused on targeting soft X-rays, VUV and XUV radiation ranges and the predicted properties of the EUPRAXIA FEL facility. Manuscripts that combine high-power laser and HHG sources in multidimensional spectroscopy investigations will also be considered.

Prof. Dr. Massimo Ferrario
Prof. Dr. Augusto Marcelli
Dr. Marcello Coreno
Prof. Dr. Francesco Stellato
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  •  FEL
  •  plasma acceleration
  •  photon sources
  •  coherent imaging
  •  X-ray spectroscopy
  •  time-resolved spectroscopy
  •  Raman spectroscopy
  •  HHG sources
  •  photo-fragmentation

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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7 pages, 1407 KiB  
Article
Pump-Probe X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy of Free-Standing Graphane
by Roberto Costantini, Dario Marchiani, Maria Grazia Betti, Carlo Mariani, Samuel Jeong, Yoshikazu Ito, Alberto Morgante and Martina Dell’Angela
Condens. Matter 2023, 8(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat8020031 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1906
Abstract
Free-standing nanoporous graphene was hydrogenated at about 60 at.% H uptake, as determined by the emerging of the sp3 bonding component in the C 1s core level investigated by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Fully unsupported graphane was investigated by XPS under [...] Read more.
Free-standing nanoporous graphene was hydrogenated at about 60 at.% H uptake, as determined by the emerging of the sp3 bonding component in the C 1s core level investigated by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Fully unsupported graphane was investigated by XPS under optical excitation at 2.4 eV. At a laser fluence of 1.6 mJ/cm2, a partial irreversible dehydrogenation of the graphane was observed, which could be attributed either to the local temperature increase or to a photo-induced softening of the H-to-C stretching mode. The sub-ns dynamics of the energy shift and peak broadening of the C 1s core level revealed two different decay constants: 210 ps and 130 ps, respectively, the former associated with photovoltage dynamics and the latter with thermal heating on a time scale comparable with the synchrotron temporal resolution. Full article
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9 pages, 1939 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Ultrafast Charge-Transfer and Redox Dynamics in Layered Transition Metal Oxides
by Guannan Qian, Xiaobiao Huang, Jun-Sik Lee, Piero Pianetta and Yijin Liu
Condens. Matter 2023, 8(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat8010025 - 5 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1732
Abstract
The rapid development and broad deployment of rechargeable batteries have fundamentally transformed modern society by revolutionizing the sectors of consumer electronics, transportation, and grid energy storage. Redox reactions in active battery cathode materials are ubiquitous, complicated, and functionally very important. While a lot [...] Read more.
The rapid development and broad deployment of rechargeable batteries have fundamentally transformed modern society by revolutionizing the sectors of consumer electronics, transportation, and grid energy storage. Redox reactions in active battery cathode materials are ubiquitous, complicated, and functionally very important. While a lot of effort has been devoted to investigating redox heterogeneity and its progressive evolution upon prolonged battery cycling, the ultrafast dynamics in these systems are largely unexplored. In this article, we discuss the potential significance of understanding redox dynamics in battery cathodes in the ultrafast time regime. Here, we outline a conceptual experimental design for investigating the ultrafast electron transport in an industry-relevant layered transition metal oxide battery cathode using a plasma-acceleration-based X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) facility. Going beyond the proposed experiment, we provide our perspectives on the use of compact FEL sources for applied research, which, in our view, is an area of tremendous potential. Full article
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16 pages, 1403 KiB  
Article
Theoretical Study of Vibrational Properties of Peptides: Force Fields in Comparison and Ab Initio Investigation
by Nicole Luchetti and Velia Minicozzi
Condens. Matter 2022, 7(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat7030053 - 15 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1863
Abstract
Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a valuable tool to obtain information about protein secondary structure. The far-infrared (FIR) spectrum is characterized by a complex combination of different molecular contributions which, for small molecules, may be interpreted with the help of quantum-mechanical (QM) calculations. Unfortunately, [...] Read more.
Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a valuable tool to obtain information about protein secondary structure. The far-infrared (FIR) spectrum is characterized by a complex combination of different molecular contributions which, for small molecules, may be interpreted with the help of quantum-mechanical (QM) calculations. Unfortunately, the high computational cost of QM calculations makes them inapplicable to larger molecules, such as proteins and peptides. In this work, we present a theoretical study on the secondary structure, molecular properties, and vibrational spectra of different peptides, using both a classical and a QM approach. Our results show that the amide I main peak value, and related quantities, such as dipole strength (DS) and transition dipole moment (TDM), depends on protein secondary structure; in particular, from QM calculations arises that α-rich molecular systems present lower intensities than β-rich ones. Furthermore, it is possible to decouple and identify the intensity of the different contributions of the inter- and intra-molecular motions which characterize the FIR spectrum, starting from the results obtained with QM calculations. Full article
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Review

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16 pages, 2147 KiB  
Review
Progress and Perspectives of Spectroscopic Studies on Carbon K-Edge Using Novel Soft X-ray Pulsed Sources
by Zeinab Ebrahimpour, Marcello Coreno, Luca Giannessi, Massimo Ferrario, Augusto Marcelli, Federico Nguyen, Seyed Javad Rezvani, Francesco Stellato and Fabio Villa
Condens. Matter 2022, 7(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat7040072 - 6 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2195
Abstract
The development of novel coherent and brilliant sources, such as soft X-ray free electron laser (FEL) and high harmonic generation (HHG), enables new ultrafast analysis of the electronic and structural dynamics of a wide variety of materials. Soft X-ray FEL delivers high-brilliance beams [...] Read more.
The development of novel coherent and brilliant sources, such as soft X-ray free electron laser (FEL) and high harmonic generation (HHG), enables new ultrafast analysis of the electronic and structural dynamics of a wide variety of materials. Soft X-ray FEL delivers high-brilliance beams with a short pulse duration, high spatial coherence and photon energy tunability. In comparison with FELs, HHG X-ray sources are characterized by a wide spectral bandwidth and few- to sub-femtosecond pulses. The approach will lead to the time-resolved reconstruction of molecular dynamics, shedding light on different photochemical pathways. The high peak brilliance of soft X-ray FELs facilitates investigations in a nonlinear regime, while the broader spectral bandwidth of the HHG sources may provide the simultaneous probing of multiple components. Significant technical breakthroughs in these novel sources are under way to improve brilliance, pulse duration, and to control spectral bandwidth, spot size, and energy resolution. Therefore, in the next few years, the new generation of soft X-ray sources combined with novel experimental techniques, new detectors, and computing capabilities will allow for the study of several extremely fast dynamics, such as vibronic dynamics. In the present review, we discuss recent developments in experiments, performed with soft X-ray FELs and HHG sources, operating near the carbon K-absorption edge, being a key atomic component in biosystems and soft materials. Different spectroscopy methods such as time-resolved pump-probe techniques, nonlinear spectroscopies and photoelectron spectroscopy studies have been addressed in an attempt to better understand fundamental physico-chemical processes. Full article
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30 pages, 8920 KiB  
Review
Perspectives of Gas Phase Ion Chemistry: Spectroscopy and Modeling
by Mauro Satta, Mattea Carmen Castrovilli, Francesca Nicolanti, Anna Rita Casavola, Carlo Mancini Terracciano and Antonella Cartoni
Condens. Matter 2022, 7(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat7030046 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2546
Abstract
The study of ions in the gas phase has a long history and has involved both chemists and physicists. The interplay of their competences with the use of very sophisticated commercial and/or homemade instrumentations and theoretical models has improved the knowledge of thermodynamics [...] Read more.
The study of ions in the gas phase has a long history and has involved both chemists and physicists. The interplay of their competences with the use of very sophisticated commercial and/or homemade instrumentations and theoretical models has improved the knowledge of thermodynamics and kinetics of many chemical reactions, even if still many stages of these processes need to be fully understood. The new technologies and the novel free-electron laser facilities based on plasma acceleration open new opportunities to investigate the chemical reactions in some unrevealed fundamental aspects. The synchrotron light source can be put beside the FELs, and by mass spectrometric techniques and spectroscopies coupled with versatile ion sources it is possible to really change the state of the art of the ion chemistry in different areas such as atmospheric and astro chemistry, plasma chemistry, biophysics, and interstellar medium (ISM). In this manuscript we review the works performed by a joint combination of the experimental studies of ion–molecule reactions with synchrotron radiation and theoretical models adapted and developed to the experimental evidence. The review concludes with the perspectives of ion–molecule reactions by using FEL instrumentations as well as pump probe measurements and the initial attempt in the development of more realistic theoretical models for the prospective improvement of our predictive capability. Full article
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