Special Issue "Selected Papers from The 13th Conference on Atomically Controlled Surfaces, Interfaces and Nanostructures (ACSIN 2016)"

A special issue of Condensed Matter (ISSN 2410-3896).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 November 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Augusto Marcelli

Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Rome) Italy
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Interests: synchrotron radiation research; synchrotron radiation instrumentation: IR and x-ray optics; x-ray absorption spectroscopy; circular magnetic x-ray dichroism; time resolved concurrent experiments; high Tc superconductors and quantum materials; multiple scattering theory applied to core level x-ray absorption spectra; dust and aerosol characterization and ultra-trace detection; FTIR spectromicroscopy and imaging applied to protein, cells and tissues
Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Antonio Bianconi

Rome International Center for Materials Science Superstripes (RICMASS), Via dei Sabelli 119A, 00185 Roma, Italy
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Fax: +39 06 4957697
Interests: Experimental methods: synchrotron radiation research, XANES spectroscopy, many body effects in XANES, and scanning micro x-ray diffraction; Materials: transition metal oxides, high Tc superconductors, metallo-proteins, and biological systems; Quantum phenomena in complex matter: lattice and electronic complexity, polymorphism, valence fluctuation, multi-band Hubbard models, superstripes, nanoscale electronic phase separation, protein fluctuations, effective charge and coordination in active sites of metalloproteins, and origin of life

Special Issue Information

This special issue will publish selected papers from the ACSIN 2016 conference, 9-15 October 2016 in Rome, Italy. Submissions should be received before the start of the conference and will be rapidly reviewed during or shortly after the conference. 

The year 2016 will mark the 27th anniversary of the ACSIN series and it will happen in Rome at the Bruno Touschek Congress Center of Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. The first International Symposium on Atomically Controlled Surfaces and Interfaces was held in 1991 – Tokyo, supported by the Thin Film and Surface Physics Division in The Japan Society of Applied Physics in commemoration of its 20th anniversary. Bearing in mind the developments in nanoscience and nanotechnology, the word “Nanostructures” has been added to the name of the conference since the fifth International Conference on Atomically Controlled Surfaces, Interfaces and Nanostructures (ACSIN-5) was held in Aix-en Provence in 1999. Following the successful series of ACSIN conferences in Tokyo (ACSIN-9, 2007), Granada (ACSIN-10, 2009), Saint Petersburg (ACSIN-11, 2011), and Tsukuba (ACSIN-12, 2013).

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Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Unraveling the Peculiarities in the Temperature-Dependent Structural Evolution of Black Phosphorus
Condens. Matter 2017, 2(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat2010011
Received: 9 January 2017 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
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Abstract
Black phosphorous (BP) is one of the important emerging two-dimensional systems. We have undertaken a structural investigation of BP in the temperature range of 320 K to 85 K using synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The XRD pattern of BP is heavily influenced
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Black phosphorous (BP) is one of the important emerging two-dimensional systems. We have undertaken a structural investigation of BP in the temperature range of 320 K to 85 K using synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The XRD pattern of BP is heavily influenced by the preferred orientation effects. Collection of the diffraction pattern in a standard capillary geometry with controlled capillary rotations perpendicular to the X-ray direction permitted us to provide insights to the effects of the preferred orientation. In the range of 320 K to 85 K, BP remains in the so-called “A17” orthorhombic structure. Lattice parameters show a regular shrinkage with the lowering of the temperature as expected for any elemental metallic system. Dense temperature sampling permitted us to observe a small but clear deviation from the linear behavior in of one of the in-plane lattice parameters. This temperature-dependent structural evolution seems to provide some insights into the temperature dependence of the macroscopic properties of BP such as the Hall coefficient, thermal conductivity, etc. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Metastability Phenomena in VO2 Thin Films
Condens. Matter 2017, 2(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat2010010
Received: 1 December 2016 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 18 February 2017
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Abstract
VO2 is a transition metal oxide in which complex electronic phases appear near the metal-to-insulator transition due to electron correlation and electron–lattice interactions. This system is characterized by a metal-to-insulator transition (MIT) at around 341 K. The metal (high T) phase is
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VO2 is a transition metal oxide in which complex electronic phases appear near the metal-to-insulator transition due to electron correlation and electron–lattice interactions. This system is characterized by a metal-to-insulator transition (MIT) at around 341 K. The metal (high T) phase is tetragonal while the insulator (low T) phase is monoclinic and the resistivity changes at the MIT by about five orders of magnitude. Here, we report investigations of the MIT in a thin VO2 film deposited on a sapphire substrate showing hysteresis. The MIT has been characterized by resistance measurements versus temperature and a DC magnetic field. The thin sample shows different final resistance values in both the insulating and metallic state after different temperature cycles. Moreover, some cycles do not close in the insulating phase. An unexpected magnetic dependence of the temperature cycle in the sample was also observed. The results show that the MIT of VO2 can be controlled by reducing the thickness below 40 nm in micron-sized ribbons since MIT is associated with the emergence of coexisting metastable conformations controlled by the thickness-dependent misfit strain and stress distributions induced by the mismatch between thin ribbon film and the substrate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Photoluminescence of Rare-Earth Ions in the Nanocrystalline GaAs/SnO2 Heterostructure and the Photoinduced Electrical Properties Related to the Interface
Condens. Matter 2017, 2(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat2010009
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 4 January 2017 / Accepted: 24 January 2017 / Published: 7 February 2017
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Abstract
Deposition of an SnO2 thin film was carried out by sol–gel-dip-coating and doped with Ce3+ or Eu3+, and a GaAs layer was deposited by resistive evaporation or sputtering. This investigation combines the emission properties of these rare-earth ions with
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Deposition of an SnO2 thin film was carried out by sol–gel-dip-coating and doped with Ce3+ or Eu3+, and a GaAs layer was deposited by resistive evaporation or sputtering. This investigation combines the emission properties of these rare-earth ions with the unique transport properties generated by the heterostructure assembly. Illumination with light with energy above the GaAs bandgap and below the SnO2 bandgap drastically increases the GaAs/SnO2 heterostructure conductance, which becomes practically temperature-independent. This was associated with the presence of interface conduction, possibly a two-dimensional electron gas at the GaAs/SnO2 interface. This feature takes place only for the sample where the GaAs bottom layer is deposited via sputtering. Irradiation with energies above the SnO2 bandgap only excites the top oxide layer. The heterostructure assembly GaAs/SnO2:Eu leads to emission from Eu3+, unlike SnO2 deposition directly on a glass substrate, where the Eu3+ transitions are absent. Eu emission comes along a broad band, located at a higher energy compared to Eu3+ transitions, which are blue-shifted as the thermal annealing temperature increases. Luminescence from Ce3+ ions in the heterostructure can be detected, but the ions overlap with emission from the matrix, and a cleaning procedure helps to identify Ce3+ transitions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Facile Design of a Plasmonic Nanolaser
Condens. Matter 2017, 2(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat2010008
Received: 10 November 2016 / Revised: 15 January 2017 / Accepted: 27 January 2017 / Published: 4 February 2017
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Abstract
A spaser consists of a plasmonic noble-metal nanostructure that acts as nanocavity, when incorporated or surface-coupled two-level emitters constitute the nanoscale gain medium. Suited two-level emitters are, for instance, laser dyes. Optical pumping may provide efficient excitation energy transfer between the two-level emitters
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A spaser consists of a plasmonic noble-metal nanostructure that acts as nanocavity, when incorporated or surface-coupled two-level emitters constitute the nanoscale gain medium. Suited two-level emitters are, for instance, laser dyes. Optical pumping may provide efficient excitation energy transfer between the two-level emitters in the gain medium and the surface plasmons sustained in the nanocavity. Strong resonant coupling of the surface plasmon modes to the gain medium may establish an inherent feedback amplification mechanism which finally drives the spaser action. In this contribution, we demonstrate that spaser emission can be generated by amplifying longitudinal surface plasmon modes in gold nanorods by optically pumping surface-attached resonantly-coupled laser dyes. Therefore, we synthesized gold nanorods whose longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peak was adjusted between 680 and 700 nm. The gain medium was realized by electrostatically attaching the laser dye phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate via the positively-charged CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) bilayer to the gold-nanorod surface. Phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate exhibits fluorescence at 700 nm. Fluorescence quenching experiments unambiguously gave indication of resonant excitation energy transfer. The fluorescence intensity ratio I F 0 / I F follows the Stern–Volmer relationship, and the Stern–Volmer coefficient was determined as KSV = 1.22 × 106 M−1. The spaser emission was observed in fs transient absorption spectra as an ultrafast decaying narrow emission peak around 716 nm. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Domain Boundaries on the Diffraction Patterns of One-Dimensional Structures
Condens. Matter 2017, 2(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat2010007
Received: 10 November 2016 / Revised: 17 January 2017 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 31 January 2017
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Abstract
Motivated by diffraction experiments on the (2√3 x √3) R30◦ reconstructed Si(111) surface due to deposition of rare earth elements (Dy, Tb) and silicide formation, we analyse the splitting and non-splitting of superstructure diffraction spots. For this purpose, we model diffraction patterns for
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Motivated by diffraction experiments on the (2√3 x √3) R30◦ reconstructed Si(111) surface due to deposition of rare earth elements (Dy, Tb) and silicide formation, we analyse the splitting and non-splitting of superstructure diffraction spots. For this purpose, we model diffraction patterns for one-dimensional structures generated by the binary surface technique and use supercell models to keep the analysis simple. Diffraction patterns are calculated in the framework of the kinematical diffraction theory, and they are analyzed as a function of the domains and domain boundaries. Basic properties of the diffraction pattern are analyzed for model systems of a two-fold and a three-fold periodicity. The rules derived from these calculations are applied to the “real-world” system of Si(111)-(2√3 × √3) R30◦-RESix (RE = Dy or Tb). Depending on the combination of domains and domain boundaries of different types, a plethora of different features are observed in the diffraction patterns. These are analyzed to determine the sizes of both domain boundaries and domains from experimentally observed splitting of specific superstructure spots. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of the Lattice Mismatch on the Atomic Ordering of ZnO Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition onto Single Crystal Surfaces with Variable Mismatch (InP, GaAs, GaN, SiC)
Condens. Matter 2017, 2(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat2010003
Received: 10 November 2016 / Revised: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 19 December 2016 / Published: 8 January 2017
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Abstract
It has previously been reported that epitaxial growth of ZnO can be obtained at low temperatures by atomic layer deposition (ALD) onto a GaN (0001-Ga) surface, corresponding to a ~2.3% compressive lattice mismatch of the deposited ZnO. The question addressed here is the
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It has previously been reported that epitaxial growth of ZnO can be obtained at low temperatures by atomic layer deposition (ALD) onto a GaN (0001-Ga) surface, corresponding to a ~2.3% compressive lattice mismatch of the deposited ZnO. The question addressed here is the atomic ordering of deposited ZnO as a function of the lattice mismatch between ZnO and several single-crystal seeding surfaces. We have deposited ZnO using ALD onto either the (111) cubic or (0001) hexagonal surfaces of a set of available single-crystal substrates (GaAs, InP, GaN, SiC), for which the lattice mismatch varies over a wide range of values, positive and negative. It is found that deposition onto surfaces with very high extensive lattice mismatch (GaAs, InP) leads to polycrystalline ZnO, similar to the configuration obtained on an amorphous SiO2 surface. In contrast, ZnO ALD deposition onto both 2H-GaN (0001-Ga) and 4H-SiC (0001-Si) surfaces with lower and compressive mismatch leads to epitaxial ordering over the whole substrate temperature range of 180–250 °C. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Tuning the Electronic Structure of Hydrogen-Decorated Silicene
Condens. Matter 2017, 2(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat2010001
Received: 9 November 2016 / Revised: 15 December 2016 / Accepted: 19 December 2016 / Published: 23 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3886 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The effects of strain, charge doping, and external electric field on the electronic structure of a free-standing silicene layer decorated by hydrogen atoms are studied by first-principles density functional theory. Various phases, including insulating, metallic, spin-polarized, and half-metallic have been found, depending on
[...] Read more.
The effects of strain, charge doping, and external electric field on the electronic structure of a free-standing silicene layer decorated by hydrogen atoms are studied by first-principles density functional theory. Various phases, including insulating, metallic, spin-polarized, and half-metallic have been found, depending on these external factors. The most efficient way of switching the system between these phases is charge doping. The character of the energy gap of the H/silicene system can also be modified, and for charged or for strained systems, the originally indirect gap can be tuned to become direct. The obtained results are very promising in view of the silicene functionalization and potential applications of silicene in the fields of spintronics and optoelectronics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Analytical Model for Evaluation of the Properties of Metallic Coatings in RF Structures
Condens. Matter 2016, 1(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat1010012
Received: 16 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 December 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
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Abstract
A simple analytic model based on the equations of the propagation matrices theory has been developed in order to evaluate the effective skin depth of coated metallic surfaces. With particular attention to the R&D of highly-performing accelerating structures, different thick coatings with excellent
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A simple analytic model based on the equations of the propagation matrices theory has been developed in order to evaluate the effective skin depth of coated metallic surfaces. With particular attention to the R&D of highly-performing accelerating structures, different thick coatings with excellent mechanical and electrical properties have been considered such as molybdenum and its oxides, p-doped SiC, and TiN. Calculations show that copper coated with a p-type SiC may exhibit an improved hardness and a higher thermal resistance. Combined with experimental tests, this study may support the identification of reliable multilayers capable of improving the higher power performance of radio-frequency (RF) structures in terms of the accelerating gradient in order to increase the resistance to the high thermal stress of structures made with copper. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Early Stage of Sb Ultra-Thin Film Growth: Crystal Structure and Electron Band Structure
Condens. Matter 2016, 1(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat1010011
Received: 10 November 2016 / Revised: 8 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
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Abstract
The evolution of the electron band structure upon the reduction of Sb film on a Si(111)-(6 × 6)Au substrate, relevant to topological insulator properties, is experimentally systematically investigated by the reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), in situ surface electron transport and angular resolved
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The evolution of the electron band structure upon the reduction of Sb film on a Si(111)-(6 × 6)Au substrate, relevant to topological insulator properties, is experimentally systematically investigated by the reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), in situ surface electron transport and angular resolved photoemission spectroscopy methods. The experiments reveal that a bilayer (BL) of Sb is crystalline but the subsequent three BLs on top of it form amorphous layers. The five-BL-thick film transforms back to the crystalline form. The bilayer as well as 1.2- and 3.8-BL-thick films show the electron band structure with a relatively large energy gap at the Γ point of the Brillouin zone. The theoretically predicted band structure is observed at 4.8 BL coverage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Theory of Plasmons for Two-Dimensional Materials in the Random Phase Approximation
Condens. Matter 2016, 1(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat1010009
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 December 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
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Abstract
A theory is derived for plasmons in two-dimensional (2D) materials by using three-dimensional (3D) plasmon theory, which was reported previously in the random phase approximation under high frequency conditions. When the 3D local electron density is expressed by the 2D local electron density
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A theory is derived for plasmons in two-dimensional (2D) materials by using three-dimensional (3D) plasmon theory, which was reported previously in the random phase approximation under high frequency conditions. When the 3D local electron density is expressed by the 2D local electron density n 2 D multiplied by the delta function in the thickness direction, a self-consistent integral equation for the scalar potential is derived using only n 2 D and the 2D Coulomb potential. The integral equation consists of the edge and planar plasmon terms which give their resonant frequencies. These frequencies are analytically calculated for uniform 2D atomic layers and nanodisks with step function-like electron densities at their edges. The light emission intensities from the nanodisks are also calculated. These frequencies are compared with those for the 2D and 3D Weyl fermions, i.e., massless Dirac fermions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Neutron Study of Multilevel Structures of Diamond Gels
Condens. Matter 2016, 1(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat1010010
Received: 9 November 2016 / Revised: 5 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
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Abstract
The structure of a hydrogel consisting of diamond nanoparticles formed by the explosion method has been studied. Small angle neutron scattering has been used as a method for characterization of the gel. Joint approaches for data analysis in reciprocal and direct space have
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The structure of a hydrogel consisting of diamond nanoparticles formed by the explosion method has been studied. Small angle neutron scattering has been used as a method for characterization of the gel. Joint approaches for data analysis in reciprocal and direct space have been developed to restore a multilevel structure. The pristine hydrogel of positively charged diamond particles (~5 nm in size, concentration ~5 wt %), even by four-fold dilution below its formation critical point, (C* ~ 4 wt %) retains practically the original structure where single particles are joined into small groups integrated into chain fractal-type aggregates creating a network. This indicates a local stability of the gel and means a transformation of continuous gel into a system of micro-domains suspended in water. A perfection of the diamond crystals’ facets was revealed that is of principal importance for the configuration of potentials, inducing the diamonds’ electrostatic attraction due to different electric charges of facets. It is distinguished from the results for the suspensions of diamonds in graphene shells that showed a deviation of scattering from Porod’s law. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Silicene Nanoribbons on Pb-Reconstructed Si(111) Surface
Condens. Matter 2016, 1(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat1010008
Received: 10 November 2016 / Revised: 27 November 2016 / Accepted: 29 November 2016 / Published: 5 December 2016
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Abstract
We report on the initial stage of growing of silicon nanostructures on Pb-induced 3×3 and 3×7 reconstructed Si(111) surfaces. The deposition of 0.75 monolayer of Si at a temperature of around 200 K results in Si nanoribbons a few-nanometers
[...] Read more.
We report on the initial stage of growing of silicon nanostructures on Pb-induced 3 × 3 and 3 × 7 reconstructed Si(111) surfaces. The deposition of 0.75 monolayer of Si at a temperature of around 200 K results in Si nanoribbons a few-nanometers in length running in three equivalent high symmetry directions of Si(111) surface, as revealed by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy measurements. The nanoribbons are predominantly 1.6 nm wide and show local 3 × 3 reconstruction. These findings are interpreted within the framework of silicene nanoribbons grown on a bare Si(111) surface. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development of Nano-Carbon Biosensors Using Glycan for Host Range Detection of Influenza Virus
Condens. Matter 2016, 1(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat1010007
Received: 6 October 2016 / Revised: 11 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 1 December 2016
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Abstract
Nano-carbon materials are promising canidates for applications in high performance devices, including highly sensitive biosensors. We have developed a self-alignment process for nano-carbon field effect transistors (FETs), using a carbon nanowall (CNW)—a nano-carbon materials—to fabricate CNW-FETs. We measured the pH dependence of the
[...] Read more.
Nano-carbon materials are promising canidates for applications in high performance devices, including highly sensitive biosensors. We have developed a self-alignment process for nano-carbon field effect transistors (FETs), using a carbon nanowall (CNW)—a nano-carbon materials—to fabricate CNW-FETs. We measured the pH dependence of the device properties. The binding molecules are known to be key components for biosensors. We are concentrating on the development of an influenza virus sensor, because the influenza virus is a major public health problem and a highly sensitive sensor is urgently required. We estimated the size of detected molecules of glycan for influenza viruses using atomic force microscopy. The typical molecule size is around 1 nm, and this may be suitable for electronic detection using a FET structure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Inner-Shell Ionization and Fragmentation of Isolated Endohedral Fullerene Ions by XUV Radiation
Condens. Matter 2016, 1(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat1010006
Received: 24 October 2016 / Revised: 10 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 21 November 2016
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Abstract
The photon–ion merged-beams technique for photoabsorption studies of ionized nanoparticles with synchrotron radiation is introduced. As an example, recent results from photoionization and photofragmentation of the endohedral fullerene ions Lu3N@C80+, Lu3N@C80
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The photon–ion merged-beams technique for photoabsorption studies of ionized nanoparticles with synchrotron radiation is introduced. As an example, recent results from photoionization and photofragmentation of the endohedral fullerene ions Lu3 N @ C 80 + , Lu3 N @ C 80 2 + , and Lu3 N @ C 80 3 + are briefly discussed, highlighting the sensitivity and versatility of the experimental technique. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Calculated Effects of Disorder on the Mo Core Levels in Purple Bronze Li2Mo12O34
Condens. Matter 2016, 1(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat1010005
Received: 23 September 2016 / Revised: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 4 November 2016 / Published: 14 November 2016
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Abstract
The band structures of ordered and thermally disordered Li2Mo12O34 are calculated by use of ab initio density functional theory (DFT)–Linear Muffin-Tin Method (LMTO) with a focus on the behavior of the Mo 3d -core levels. It is shown
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The band structures of ordered and thermally disordered Li 2 Mo 12 O 34 are calculated by use of ab initio density functional theory (DFT)–Linear Muffin-Tin Method (LMTO) with a focus on the behavior of the Mo 3d -core levels. It is shown that thermal disorder and zero-point motion lead to substantial core level broadening, and the broadening at room temperature is predicted to be sufficiently larger than at zero degrees to allow for a detection by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. However, real purple bronze has 10% Li vacancies, and static disorder will attenuate the T-dependent broadening. It is argued that core level spectroscopies could be a useful tool for the measurement of thermal disorders in many materials, especially for those with minor static disorder. Studies of core levels in magnetic materials will be helpful for an understanding of T-dependent spin moments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Theoretical Investigations for Strain Relaxation and Growth Mode of InAs Thin layers on GaAs(111)A
Condens. Matter 2016, 1(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat1010004
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 2 November 2016 / Accepted: 3 November 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
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Abstract
The growth mode of InAs/GaAs(111)A is systematically investigated using our macroscopic theory with the aid of empirical potential calculations that determine parameter values used in the macroscopic theory. Here, stacking-fault tetrahedron (SFT) found in InAs/GaAs(111)A and misfit dislocation (MD) formations are employed as
[...] Read more.
The growth mode of InAs/GaAs(111)A is systematically investigated using our macroscopic theory with the aid of empirical potential calculations that determine parameter values used in the macroscopic theory. Here, stacking-fault tetrahedron (SFT) found in InAs/GaAs(111)A and misfit dislocation (MD) formations are employed as strain relaxation mechanisms. The calculated results reveal that the MD formation occurs at the layer thickness h about 7 monolayers (MLs). Moreover, we found that the SFT forming at h about 4 MLs makes surface atoms move upward to reduce the strain energy to promote the two dimensional (2D) growth. Therefore, the SFT in addition to the MD plays an important role in strain relaxation in InAs thin layers on GaAs(111)A. The macroscopic free energy calculations for the growth mode imply that the InAs growth on the GaAs(111)A proceeds along the lower energy path from the 2D-coherent (h ≤ 4 MLs) to the 2D-MD (h ≥ 7 MLs) via the 2D-SFT (4 MLs ≤ h ≤ 7 MLs). Consequently, the 2D growth on the InAs/GaAs(111)A results from strain relaxation due to the formation of the SFT near the surface and the subsequent MD formation at the interface. Full article
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