Clinical Nutrition in Metabolic Disorders

A special issue of Clinics and Practice (ISSN 2039-7283).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 May 2024 | Viewed by 2069

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Interests: chronic inflammation; molecular nutrition; nutritional immunology; functional foods

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Guest Editor
Department of Nutritional Science and Dietetics, University of Peloponnese, Tripoli, Greece
Interests: randomized controlled clinical trials; human bioavailability studies, as well as studies on experimental models and cell culture lines; biochemical and biological processes of natural products and bioactive compounds in health and disease
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Guest Editor
UCL Division of Medicine, University College London, London, UK
Interests: diet; gut health; natural products; phytochemicals; inflammation; inflammatory bowel disease; oxidative stress
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, metabolic disorders have constituted a major public health issue and affect millions of people worldwide. Metabolic disorders, such as obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia, are associated with chronic degenerative diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease.

Although the role of nutrition on metabolism and metabolic disorders is well investigated and documented, there is still a growing interest in the elucidation of the nutrients/foods that execute their actions on human metabolism and metabolic disorders. Also, it is of great importance to investigate how functional foods impact the metabolism and contribute to the prevention/treatment of metabolic diseases.

Therefore, our Special Issue welcomes manuscripts that aim to clarify the interaction of nutrients with human metabolism and investigate the effects of functional foods on metabolic disorders. Clinical trials that investigate the role of functional foods on metabolic disorders and their pathophysiological mechanisms, such as inflammation, oxidative stress, gut microbiota dysbiosis, and epigenetic mechanisms, are welcome.

Dr. Charalampia Amerikanou
Dr. Aristea Gioxari
Dr. Efstathia Papada
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Clinics and Practice is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nutrients
  • foods
  • metabolic disorders
  • obesity
  • diabetes
  • hypertension
  • hyperlipidemia
  • inflammation
  • oxidative stress
  • gut microbiota

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 238 KiB  
Article
Comparisons of the Rates of Large-for-Gestational-Age Newborns between Women with Diet-Controlled Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Those with Non-Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
by Sirida Pittyanont, Narongwat Suriya, Sirinart Sirilert and Theera Tongsong
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(2), 536-545; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14020041 - 25 Mar 2024
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Abstract
(1) Objectives: The primary objective is to compare the rate of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) between women with diet-controlled gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and those with non-GDM, and to assess whether or not diet-controlled GDM is an independent factor of LGA fetuses. The secondary [...] Read more.
(1) Objectives: The primary objective is to compare the rate of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) between women with diet-controlled gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and those with non-GDM, and to assess whether or not diet-controlled GDM is an independent factor of LGA fetuses. The secondary objectives are to compare the rates of other common adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preeclampsia, cesarean section rate, preterm birth, and low Apgar score, between pregnancies with diet-controlled GDM and non-GDM pregnancies. (2) Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on singleton pregnancies, diagnosed with GDM and non-GDM between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation, based on a two-step screening test. The prospective database of the obstetric department was accessed to retrieve the records meeting the inclusion criteria, and full medical records were comprehensively reviewed. The patients were categorized into two groups, GDM (study group) and non-GDM (control group). The main outcome was the rate of LGA newborns, and the secondary outcomes included pregnancy-induced hypertension, preterm birth, cesarean rate, low Apgar scores, etc. (3) Results: Of 1364 recruited women, 1342 met the inclusion criteria, including 1177 cases in the non-GDM group and 165 (12.3%) in the GDM group. Maternal age and pre-pregnancy BMI were significantly higher in the GDM group. The rates of LGA newborns, PIH, and cesarean section were significantly higher in the GDM group (15.1% vs. 7.1%, p-value < 0.001; 7.8% vs. 2.6%, p-value = 0.004; and 54.5% vs. 41.5%, p-value = 0.002; respectively). On logistic regression analysis, GDM was not significantly associated with LGA (odds ratio 1.64, 95% CI: 0.97–2.77), while BMI and gender were still significantly associated with LGA. Likewise, GDM was not significantly associated with the rate of PIH (odds ratio: 1.7, 95% CI: 0.825–3.504), while BMI and maternal age were significantly associated with PIH, after controlling confounding factors. (4) Conclusions: The rates of LGA newborns, PIH, and cesarean section are significantly higher in women with diet-controlled GDM than those with non-GDM. Nevertheless, the rates of LGA newborns and PIH are not directly caused by GDM but mainly caused high pre-pregnancy BMI and advanced maternal age, which are more commonly encountered among women with GDM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Nutrition in Metabolic Disorders)
18 pages, 1180 KiB  
Article
Health Patterns across Adulthood: An Age-Based Investigation of the Nutritional Status, Homocysteine, and CoQ10 of Bank Staff
by Markus Schauer, Susanne Mair, Mohamad Motevalli, Derrick Tanous, Martin Burtscher and Katharina Wirnitzer
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(2), 443-460; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14020034 - 14 Mar 2024
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Abstract
Background: This study aimed to evaluate age-specific variations in the blood levels of micronutrients, homocysteine, and CoQ10, along with physical activity (PA) patterns, among 123 Austrian adult bankers in operational and frontline roles (mean age: 43 years; 50% female). Methods: Blood analysis was [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to evaluate age-specific variations in the blood levels of micronutrients, homocysteine, and CoQ10, along with physical activity (PA) patterns, among 123 Austrian adult bankers in operational and frontline roles (mean age: 43 years; 50% female). Methods: Blood analysis was conducted to assess micronutrients and the serum concentrations of homocysteine and CoQ10. The micronutrient values in whole blood were compared to sex-specific reference ranges and categorized as below, within, or above them. The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire was utilized to assess PA patterns. Participants were classified as young adults (18–34 years), middle-aged adults (35–49 years), and older adults (50–64 years). Results: Significant age-based differences were found in participants’ mean homocysteine levels (p = 0.039) and homocysteine categories (p = 0.034), indicating an increasing prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia with age. No significant difference between age categories was observed for sex, BMI, diet types, PA levels, sedentary behavior, and CoQ10 (p > 0.05). There was no significant age-based difference in the blood concentrations of most minerals and vitamins (p > 0.05), except for magnesium among females (p = 0.008) and copper among males (p = 0.042). Conclusion: The findings offer initial evidence of the age-related differences in the health status of adult bankers, providing insights for customized approaches to occupational health that support the importance of metabolic health and overall well-being across adulthood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Nutrition in Metabolic Disorders)
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10 pages, 247 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Vitamin D Levels and Blood Glucose and Cholesterol Levels
by Eman Elsheikh, Abdulhakim Ibrahim Alabdullah, Sarah Saleh Al-Harbi, Amal Omar Alagha, Dhiyaa Hassan AlAhmed and Mazen Moraya Ali Alalmaee
Clin. Pract. 2024, 14(2), 426-435; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract14020032 - 29 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Background: Vitamin D deficiency has reached epidemic proportions globally. Observational data link low vitamin D status to diabetes, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome, but interventional trials on the effects of supplementation are limited. Objective: We investigated associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and [...] Read more.
Background: Vitamin D deficiency has reached epidemic proportions globally. Observational data link low vitamin D status to diabetes, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome, but interventional trials on the effects of supplementation are limited. Objective: We investigated associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and metabolic markers in Saudi adults. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study analyzed the clinical records of 476 patients from Saudi Arabia, aged 15–78 years. According to 25(OH)D levels, participants were stratified as vitamin D-sufficient (≥30 ng/mL), -insufficient (21–29 ng/mL), or -deficient (≤20 ng/mL). The outcomes were diabetic status (fasting glucose, HbA1c) and lipid panel results. Results: Higher diabetes prevalence was significantly associated with lower 25(OH)D levels (10.1% in the sufficient group, 11.6% in the insufficient group, and 18.3% in the deficient group). Similarly, worse lipid profiles were associated with more severe hypovitaminosis D, including a total cholesterol level of ≥240 mg/dL (5.3% in participants with normal vitamin D levels vs. 18.9% in those with deficient levels) and LDL ≥ 160 mg/dL (6.9% in participants with normal vitamin D levels vs. 13.2% in those with deficient levels). Vitamin D deficiency disproportionately affected women and adults > 45 years old. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is endemic in Saudi Arabia and strongly linked to worsened metabolic markers. Optimizing vitamin D status through screening and correcting the deficiency may provide a cost-effective approach to confronting the regional diabetes epidemic and reducing cardiovascular disease risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Nutrition in Metabolic Disorders)
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