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New Advances in Nutrition and Health

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2023) | Viewed by 20264

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Nutritional Science and Dietetics, University of Peloponnese, Antikalamos, Kalamata, Messinia, Greece
Interests: Aristea Gioxari is experienced in conducting randomized controlled clinical trials, human bioavailability studies, as well as studies on experimental models and cell culture lines, investigating the biochemical and biological processes of natural products and bioactive compounds in health and disease.
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Guest Editor
1 Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science, University of Peloponnese, Antikalamos, 24100, Kalamata, Greece
2 Department of Dietetics and Nutritional Science, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, 70 El. Venizelou Ave., 17671 Athens, Greece
Interests: Maria Dimitriou’s research interests include the investigation of diet and lifestyle and their links to cardiometabolic traits, the genetic susceptibility of complex diseases, as well as gene-diet interactions in disease. She has also contributed to large-scale gene-by-diet interaction projects.

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nutrition is fundamental for health and development. Poor nutritional status has been associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, impaired infant and child growth, a high risk of developing chronic diseases, inflammation, infection, and poor disease prognosis. Nutritional status also has a direct impact on psychosocial well-being and quality of life.

Nutrients can regulate metabolic processes under a nutrient–gene–environment interaction complex, which in turn affects growth, ageing, and susceptibility to non-communicable diseases. Addressing the two-opponent health threats, under- and overnutrition are amongst the greatest challenges worldwide. Recently, the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted obesity’s negative impact on disease prognosis and risk of hospitalization.

Evidence-based strategies to address malnutrition are urgent, while “sustainable nutrition”, might counteract the environmental burden of overconsumption in the near future.

In this Special Issue of IJERPH, we would like to increase the knowledge on current topics relevant to the full spectrum of nutrition science. Original research articles, reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses covering all aspects of nutrition in humans are welcome (dietary patterns, nutrition requirements, foods and food components, functional foods, food supplements, gene–diet interaction, sustainable nutrition, obesity, malnutrition, non-communicable diseases, epidemiology, metabolism, endocrinology, inflammation, infection, cell and molecular biology, ageing, enteral/parenteral nutrition, obstetrics, pediatrics, psychosocial well-being, nutrition behavior, new approaches, and technology).

Dr. Aristea Gioxari
Dr. Maria Dimitriou
Guest Editors

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nutrition
  • diet
  • foods and food components
  • humans
  • health
  • disease
  • new approaches

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 802 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Medical Nutrition Intervention on the Management of Hyperphosphatemia in Hemodialysis Patients with Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease: A Case Series
by Elena Moroșan, Violeta Popovici, Viviana Elian, Adriana Maria Dărăban, Andreea Ioana Rusu, Monica Licu, Magdalena Mititelu and Oana Karampelas
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5049; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065049 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2679
Abstract
The treatment and interdisciplinary management of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) continue to improve long-term outcomes. The medical nutrition intervention’s role is to establish a healthy diet plan for kidney protection, reach blood pressure and blood glucose goals, and prevent or delay [...] Read more.
The treatment and interdisciplinary management of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) continue to improve long-term outcomes. The medical nutrition intervention’s role is to establish a healthy diet plan for kidney protection, reach blood pressure and blood glucose goals, and prevent or delay health problems caused by kidney disease. Our study aims to report the effects of medical nutrition therapy—substituting foods rich in phosphorus-containing additives with ones low in phosphates content on phosphatemia and phosphate binders drug prescription in stage 5 CKD patients with hemodialysis. Thus, 18 adults with high phosphatemia levels (over 5.5 mg/dL) were monitored at a single center. Everyone received standard personalized diets to replace processed foods with phosphorus additives according to their comorbidities and treatment with prosphate binder drugs. Clinical laboratory data, including dialysis protocol, calcemia, and phosphatemia, were evaluated at the beginning of the study, after 30 and 60 days. A food survey was assessed at baseline and after 60 days. The results did not show significant differences between serum phosphate levels between the first and second measurements; thus, the phosphate binders’ initial doses did not change. After 2 months, phosphate levels decreased considerably (from 7.322 mg/dL to 5.368 mg/dL); therefore, phosphate binder doses were diminished. In conclusion, medical nutrition intervention in patients with hemodialysis significantly reduced serum phosphate concentrations after 60 days. Restricting the intake of processed foods containing phosphorus additives—in particularized diets adapted to each patient’s comorbidities—and receiving phosphate binders represented substantial steps to decrease phosphatemia levels. The best results were significantly associated with life expectancy; at the same time, they showed a negative correlation with the dialysis period and participants’ age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Nutrition and Health)
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16 pages, 658 KiB  
Article
Relation of Minimally Processed Foods and Ultra-Processed Foods with the Mediterranean Diet Score, Time-Related Meal Patterns and Waist Circumference: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in University Students
by Paraskevi Detopoulou, Vassilios Dedes, Dimitra Syka, Konstantinos Tzirogiannis and Georgios I. Panoutsopoulos
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(4), 2806; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20042806 - 4 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2929
Abstract
Ultra-processed foods are associated with chronic diseases, cardiometabolic factors and obesity. According to the NOVA system, foods are classified into four categories (from 1 = unprocessed to 4 = ultra-processed foods). The purpose of the present study was to assess the consumption of [...] Read more.
Ultra-processed foods are associated with chronic diseases, cardiometabolic factors and obesity. According to the NOVA system, foods are classified into four categories (from 1 = unprocessed to 4 = ultra-processed foods). The purpose of the present study was to assess the consumption of minimally processed foods (MPF) and ultra-processed foods (UPF) in university students and their relationship with obesity, Mediterranean diet adherence and meal patterns. In total, 346 students (269 women) of the University of Peloponnese participated. A food frequency questionnaire was used, and the MedDietScore was calculated. The % energy contribution of MPF and UPF was calculated. The identification of meal patterns was performed via principal component analysis. Both multivariate regression and Spearman’s correlations were used to measure the association of UPF/MPF consumption with anthropometric indices (body mass index, BMI and waist circumference, WC), Mediterranean diet adherence and early/late meal patterns. UPF and MPF provided 40.7 ± 13.6% and 44.3 ± 11.9% (mean ± standard deviation) of energy intake, respectively. In multi-adjusted linear regression models UPF consumption (% energy) was positively associated with WC in men but it was not related to BMI (total sample, men, women). UPF consumption was negatively related to the MedDietScore (Spearman rho = −0.214, p < 0.001) and an “early eating” pattern (Spearman rho = −0.120, p = 0.029) and positively associated with a “late eating” meal pattern (Spearman rho = 0.190, p = 0.001). MPF consumption was positively associated with the MedDietScore (Spearman rho = 0.309, p < 0.001) and an “early eating” pattern (Spearman rho = 0.240, p < 0.001). In conclusion, UPF consumption was positively related to WC in male university students. Nutritional and sociodemographic correlates of UPF consumption, such as low Mediterranean diet adherence and having a “late eating” pattern serve as a basis to better understand the UPF consumption-central obesity relation in young adults and should be considered in nutrition education programs for young adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Nutrition and Health)
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9 pages, 350 KiB  
Article
Objective and Subjective Appetite Assessment in Patients with Gynecological Cancer: A Pre- and Post-Operative Pilot Study
by Iro-Spyridoula Gounitsioti, Dimitrios Poulimeneas, Maria G. Grammatikopoulou, Charalambos Kotzamanidis, Konstantinos Gkiouras, Meletios P. Nigdelis, Dimitrios Tsolakidis, Alexios Papanikolaou, Basil C. Tarlatzis, Dimitrios P. Bogdanos, Maria Tsigga and Dimitrios G. Goulis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(16), 10322; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191610322 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1761
Abstract
Although appetite and its disorders have been implicated in disease progression and outcomes, ghrelin concentrations, an objective appetite measure, are rarely assessed in patients with gynecological malignancies. The present study aimed to assess changes in post-operative versus pre-operative appetite levels in patients with [...] Read more.
Although appetite and its disorders have been implicated in disease progression and outcomes, ghrelin concentrations, an objective appetite measure, are rarely assessed in patients with gynecological malignancies. The present study aimed to assess changes in post-operative versus pre-operative appetite levels in patients with gynecological cancers scheduled for tumor removal surgery (N = 53). Acylated ghrelin concentrations were assessed as an objective appetite proxy, whereas the Council of Nutrition appetite questionnaire (CNAQ) was employed as a subjective appetite measure. Ghrelin concentrations were increased post-operatively (median: 12.1 pg/mL, IQR: 0.67 to 23.5, p-value = 0.001) but the perceived appetite of patients (CNAQ) remained unchanged (median: −1, IQR: −3 to 1). Tumor removal surgery decreased all anthropometric indices (body weight, body mass index, waist and hips circumferences, triceps skinfolds, body fat, fat mass and fat mass index, p-value ≤ 0.001 for all) and doubled the risk of malnutrition among patients. No difference was recorded in the change in participants’ objective and subjective appetite when they were classified according to the tumor type. No correlation was observed between ghrelin concentrations and CNAQ score pre-operatively (Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient = −0.181, p-value = 0.298) or post-operatively (Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient = 0.071, p-value = 0.684). The observed post-operative rise in ghrelin concentrations is associated with body weight loss and consists of a possible defense mechanism of the human body, aiming to prolong survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Nutrition and Health)
13 pages, 1221 KiB  
Article
Association of Dietary Patterns with MRI Markers of Hepatic Inflammation and Fibrosis in the MAST4HEALTH Study
by Athina I. Amanatidou, Andriana C. Kaliora, Charalampia Amerikanou, Stefan Stojanoski, Natasa Milosevic, Chara Vezou, Mirjana Beribaka, Rajarshi Banerjee, Ioanna-Panagiota Kalafati, Ilias Smyrnioudis, Mary Jo Kurth, Aimo Kannt, M. Pilar Francino, Sophie Visvikis-Siest, Panos Deloukas, Carlos Llorens, Fernando Marascio, Natasa Milic, Milica Medic-Stojanoska, Amalia Gastaldelli, Maria Giovanna Trivella and George V. Dedoussisadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 971; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020971 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3333
Abstract
Whereas the etiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is complex, the role of nutrition as a causing and preventive factor is not fully explored. The aim of this study is to associate dietary patterns with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters in a [...] Read more.
Whereas the etiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is complex, the role of nutrition as a causing and preventive factor is not fully explored. The aim of this study is to associate dietary patterns with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters in a European population (Greece, Italy, and Serbia) affected by NAFLD. For the first time, iron-corrected T1 (cT1), proton density fat fraction (PDFF), and the liver inflammation fibrosis score (LIF) were examined in relation to diet. A total of 97 obese patients with NAFLD from the MAST4HEALTH study were included in the analysis. A validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess the quality of diet and food combinations. Other variables investigated include anthropometric measurements, total type 2 diabetes risk, physical activity level (PAL), and smoking status. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to identify dietary patterns. Six dietary patterns were identified, namely “High-Sugar”, “Prudent”, “Western”, “High-Fat and Salt”, “Plant-Based”, and “Low-Fat Dairy and Poultry”. The “Western” pattern was positively associated with cT1 in the unadjusted model (beta: 0.020, p-value: 0.025) and even after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), PAL, smoking, the center of the study, and the other five dietary patterns (beta: 0.024, p-value: 0.020). On the contrary, compared with low-intake patients, those with medium intake of the “Low-Fat Dairy and Poultry” pattern were associated with lower values of cT1, PDFF, and LIF. However, patients with a “Low-Fat Dairy and Poultry” dietary pattern were negatively associated with MRI parameters (cT1: beta: −0.052, p-value: 0.046, PDFF: beta: −0.448, p-value: 0.030, LIF: beta: −0.408, p-value: 0.025). Our findings indicate several associations between MRI parameters and dietary patterns in NAFLD patients, highlighting the importance of diet in NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Nutrition and Health)
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14 pages, 1068 KiB  
Article
Mediterranean Diet Implementation to Protect against Advanced Lung Cancer Index (ALI) Rise: Study Design and Preliminary Results of a Randomised Controlled Trial
by Aristea Gioxari, Dimitrios Tzanos, Christina Kostara, Panos Papandreou, Giannis Mountzios and Maria Skouroliakou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3700; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073700 - 1 Apr 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3355
Abstract
The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been inversely associated with lung cancer (LC) risk. Hereby we show the preliminary results of our prospective randomised controlled trial in inflammatory and nutritional status of LC patients after 3-month implementation of MD. In total, 30 patients with [...] Read more.
The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been inversely associated with lung cancer (LC) risk. Hereby we show the preliminary results of our prospective randomised controlled trial in inflammatory and nutritional status of LC patients after 3-month implementation of MD. In total, 30 patients with small-cell or non-small-cell LC (stages III–IV) were enrolled. They were randomly assigned either to Control group, receiving general nutritional guidelines, or the MD group, in which a personalised MD plan was provided. Medical and dietary history, anthropometrics, blood biomarkers, and circulating antioxidant vitamins were assessed. The main outcome was a significantly higher advanced lung cancer inflammation index (ALI) in patients of the control arm than those following MD (p = 0.003). In the MD group, platelets were significantly reduced at the study endpoint (p = 0.044). BMI and body fat mass remained unchanged in both arms, but serum glucose was significantly higher in control compared to MD group (p = 0.017). In conclusion, we showed for the first time that implementing a personalised MD for 3 months is promising to regulate prognostic biomarkers in advanced LC. The final results of our on-going trial will shed a light on the inflammatory, antioxidant and nutritional status of LC patients following MD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Nutrition and Health)
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Review

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41 pages, 4014 KiB  
Review
Lockdown Due to COVID-19 and Its Consequences on Diet, Physical Activity, Lifestyle, and Other Aspects of Daily Life Worldwide: A Narrative Review
by Teresa Rubio-Tomás, Maria Skouroliakou and Dimitrios Ntountaniotis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(11), 6832; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19116832 - 2 Jun 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3676
Abstract
The novel coronavirus, termed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is responsible for the disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Besides the important rates of mortality and morbidity directly attributed to the infection itself, many studies detected an important shift towards mostly [...] Read more.
The novel coronavirus, termed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is responsible for the disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Besides the important rates of mortality and morbidity directly attributed to the infection itself, many studies detected an important shift towards mostly unhealthy lifestyle patterns in previously healthy non-infected populations all around the world. Although most of the changes in lifestyle had or will have a negative impact on general population health status, some findings are encouraging. Notwithstanding that there was an obvious necessity for governments to apply national lockdowns, it is also necessary to identify and comprehend the consequences they have caused. A narrative literature review was performed, based on scientific articles and previous reviews. An accurate description of changes in eating habits and alcohol consumption, physical activity, mental health, daily routines, economic impacts, and broader effects on society is provided for each continent and different age groups through this review. The volume of selected scientific surveys encompasses approximately 400,000 persons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Nutrition and Health)
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