Special Issue "Climate Change Resilience and Urban Sustainability"

A special issue of Climate (ISSN 2225-1154).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2019)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Heejun Chang

Department of Geography, Portland State University, 1721 SW Broadway, Portland,OR 97201, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: hydrology and water resources; climate change impact assessment; urban ecosystem services; spatial analysis
Guest Editor
Dr. Lauren McPhillips

Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: hydrology; biogeochemistry; urban; suburban landscapes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Climate change is likely to increase the frequency and intensity of weather-related hazards in the urban environment, and many cities are grappling with the potential impacts of these hazards. To enhance resilience of urban systems to climate change, an integrated coupled approach that encompasses social, ecological, and technological systems has been suggested. This Special Issue seeks to introduce a collection of such endeavors, drawing from the fields of urban climate science, ecology, engineering, geography, hydrology, planning, and more. We welcome papers addressing, but not limited to, the following issues:

  • Extreme events and urban infrastructure resilience
  • Effects of extreme events on hydrology and ecology in the urban environment
  • The role of urban green infrastructure in achieving climate resilience
  • Spatial analysis of vulnerable urban populations to climate-related events
  • Evolution of urban policy and knowledge systems addressing climate resilience
  • Climate change adaptation planning
  • Modeling coupled socio-eco-technological systems to address urban climate resilience

Prof. Dr. Heejun Chang
Dr. Lauren McPhillips
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Climate is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • climate change
  • urban resilience
  • extreme events
  • urban sustainability
  • climate adaptation
  • urban floods
  • urban infrastructure
  • socio-ecological-technological system
  • green infrastructure

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Green Infrastructure Financing as an Imperative to Achieve Green Goals
Climate 2019, 7(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7030039
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 2 March 2019 / Accepted: 3 March 2019 / Published: 9 March 2019
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Abstract
Green infrastructure (GI) has increasingly gained popularity for achieving adaptation and mitigation goals associated with climate change and extreme weather events. To continue implementing GI, financial tools are needed for upfront project capital or development costs and later for maintenance. This study’s purpose [...] Read more.
Green infrastructure (GI) has increasingly gained popularity for achieving adaptation and mitigation goals associated with climate change and extreme weather events. To continue implementing GI, financial tools are needed for upfront project capital or development costs and later for maintenance. This study’s purpose is to evaluate financing tools used in a selected GI dataset and to assess how those tools are linked to various GI technologies and other GI project characteristics like cost and size. The dataset includes over 400 GI U.S. projects, comprising a convenience sample, from the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA). GI project characteristics were organized to answer a number of research questions using descriptive statistics. Results indicated that the number of projects and overall cost shares were mostly located in a few states. Grants were the most common financial tool with about two-thirds of the projects reporting information on financial tools receiving grant funding. Most projects reported financing from only one tool with a maximum of three tools. Projects primarily included multiple GI technologies averaging three and a maximum of nine. The most common GI technologies were bioswales, retention, rain gardens, and porous pavements. These findings are useful for decision-makers evaluating funding support for GI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change Resilience and Urban Sustainability)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle On the Development and Optimization of an Urban Design Comfort Model (UDCM) on a Passive Solar Basis at Mid-Latitude Sites
Climate 2019, 7(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7010001
Received: 11 November 2018 / Revised: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 18 December 2018 / Published: 24 December 2018
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Abstract
Urban climatology is a complex field owed to the intersecting parameters. In city planning, neighborhood fabric and vegetation plays a great role in modifying arid microclimates. This work presents an approach to enable urban designers to find the optimum land use parameters to [...] Read more.
Urban climatology is a complex field owed to the intersecting parameters. In city planning, neighborhood fabric and vegetation plays a great role in modifying arid microclimates. This work presents an approach to enable urban designers to find the optimum land use parameters to achieve pedestrian thermal comfort. In this study, a model was developed based on ENVI-met simulations of two urban and suburban sites in Cairo, Egypt. Initial design parameters were; compactness degree, grass coverage, leaf area density, trees ground coverage, and asphalt and buildings areas. After regression analysis, the step-wise algorithm succeeded in creating the best fit of 94% R2 and 92% adjusted R2. The suggested Urban Design Comfort Model (UDCM) was examined using MATLAB to find the optimum design parameters. Optimum values were applied to generate primitive urban configurations using Grasshopper. The primitives were simulated again in ENVI-met to validate UDCM. The resulted value of Physiological Equivalent Temperature, PET at peak time was reduced from the initial result of ENVI-met (42.3 °C) in both sites to reach (38.7 °C) then (36.8 °C) after refinement with extra foliage. This approach, as a tool for urban designers, not only facilitates and speeds up urban form design process on a passive basis, but also provides deep insights on the development of UDCM considering all different city transects rather than two. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change Resilience and Urban Sustainability)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Observational Evidence of Neighborhood Scale Reductions in Air Temperature Associated with Increases in Roof Albedo
Climate 2018, 6(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli6040098
Received: 14 October 2018 / Revised: 17 November 2018 / Accepted: 23 November 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
The effects of neighborhood-scale land use and land cover (LULC) properties on observed air temperatures are investigated in two regions within Los Angeles County: Central Los Angeles and the San Fernando Valley (SFV). LULC properties of particular interest in this study are albedo [...] Read more.
The effects of neighborhood-scale land use and land cover (LULC) properties on observed air temperatures are investigated in two regions within Los Angeles County: Central Los Angeles and the San Fernando Valley (SFV). LULC properties of particular interest in this study are albedo and tree fraction. High spatial density meteorological observations are obtained from 76 personal weather-stations. Observed air temperatures were then related to the spatial mean of each LULC parameter within a 500 m radius “neighborhood” of each weather station, using robust regression for each hour of July 2015. For the neighborhoods under investigation, increases in roof albedo are associated with decreases in air temperature, with the strongest sensitivities occurring in the afternoon. Air temperatures at 14:00–15:00 local daylight time are reduced by 0.31 °C and 0.49 °C per 1 MW increase in daily average solar power reflected from roofs per neighborhood in SFV and Central Los Angeles, respectively. Per 0.10 increase in neighborhood average albedo, daily average air temperatures were reduced by 0.25 °C and 1.84 °C. While roof albedo effects on air temperature seem to exceed tree fraction effects during the day in these two regions, increases in tree fraction are associated with reduced air temperatures at night. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change Resilience and Urban Sustainability)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Relationship between City Size, Coastal Land Use, and Summer Daytime Air Temperature Rise with Distance from Coast
Climate 2018, 6(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli6040084
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 24 October 2018 / Accepted: 25 October 2018 / Published: 27 October 2018
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Abstract
The relationship between city size, coastal land use, and air temperature rise with distance from coast during summer day is analyzed using the meso-scale weather research and forecasting (WRF) model in five coastal cities in Japan with different sizes and coastal land use [...] Read more.
The relationship between city size, coastal land use, and air temperature rise with distance from coast during summer day is analyzed using the meso-scale weather research and forecasting (WRF) model in five coastal cities in Japan with different sizes and coastal land use (Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, Hiroshima, and Sendai) and inland cities in Germany (Berlin, Essen, and Karlsruhe). Air temperature increased as distance from the coast increased, reached its maximum, and then decreased slightly. In Nagoya and Sendai, the amount of urban land use in coastal areas is less than the other three cities, where air temperature is a little lower. As a result, air temperature difference between coastal and inland urban area is small and the curve of air temperature rise is smaller than those in Tokyo and Osaka. In Sendai, air temperature in the inland urban area is the same as in the other cities, but air temperature in the coastal urban area is a little lower than the other cities, due to an approximate one degree lower sea surface temperature being influenced by the latitude. In three German cities, the urban boundary layer may not develop sufficiently because the fetch distance is not enough. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change Resilience and Urban Sustainability)
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