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Climate 2018, 6(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli6040084

Relationship between City Size, Coastal Land Use, and Summer Daytime Air Temperature Rise with Distance from Coast

1
Department of Architecture, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan
2
Department of Architecture, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527, Japan
3
Department of Architecture, Tohoku Institute of Technology, Sendai 982-8577, Japan
4
Department of Architecture, Kansai University, Suita 564-8680, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 24 October 2018 / Accepted: 25 October 2018 / Published: 27 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change Resilience and Urban Sustainability)
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Abstract

The relationship between city size, coastal land use, and air temperature rise with distance from coast during summer day is analyzed using the meso-scale weather research and forecasting (WRF) model in five coastal cities in Japan with different sizes and coastal land use (Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, Hiroshima, and Sendai) and inland cities in Germany (Berlin, Essen, and Karlsruhe). Air temperature increased as distance from the coast increased, reached its maximum, and then decreased slightly. In Nagoya and Sendai, the amount of urban land use in coastal areas is less than the other three cities, where air temperature is a little lower. As a result, air temperature difference between coastal and inland urban area is small and the curve of air temperature rise is smaller than those in Tokyo and Osaka. In Sendai, air temperature in the inland urban area is the same as in the other cities, but air temperature in the coastal urban area is a little lower than the other cities, due to an approximate one degree lower sea surface temperature being influenced by the latitude. In three German cities, the urban boundary layer may not develop sufficiently because the fetch distance is not enough. View Full-Text
Keywords: distance from coast; air temperature; land use; city size; Japan; Germany distance from coast; air temperature; land use; city size; Japan; Germany
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Takebayashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Moriyama, M.; Watanabe, H.; Miyazaki, H.; Kittaka, K. Relationship between City Size, Coastal Land Use, and Summer Daytime Air Temperature Rise with Distance from Coast. Climate 2018, 6, 84.

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