Special Issue "Climate Change on Crops, Foods and Diets"

A special issue of Climate (ISSN 2225-1154).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2017).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Angelika Ploeger
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Organic Food Quality and Food Culture, Faculty of Organic Agricultural Sciences, University of Kassel, Nordbahnhofstr. 1a, 37213 Witzenhausen, Germany
Interests: organic food quality; food culture; water resources management; nutritional studies, biochemistry
Mr. Sisira S. Withanachchi
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Department of Organic Food Quality and Food Culture, Faculty of Organic Agricultural Sciences, University of Kassel, Nordbahnhofstr. 1a, 37213 Witzenhausen, Germany
Interests: water resources management; food culture; food sovereignty; traditional knowledge; nutritional studies
Mr. Engin Koncagul

Guest Editor
United Nations World Water Assessment Programme Programme Office on Global Water Assessment, Division of Water Sciences, UNESCO

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The connectivity between food and climate is an inevitable factor. The diversity of food culture is dependent on certain climate conditions. Even though commercial globalization has had an immense effect on food culture, different eating habits and diet preferences can be observed in varied climate zones and regions throughout the world. In addition to this, economic growth often leads to the phenomenon of nutrition transition, changing food habits towards a Western diet, with high animal protein, which will cause a higher emission of climatically relevant gases. Scientists are conducting research all around the world to identify, understand, and analyze how severe the impact of agricultural and food systems on climate change are, or how adaptation abilities may function in the future. Given that globally, rain-fed agriculture is practised on approximately 80% of cultivated land and supplies more than 60% of the world's food, temporal and spatial variability (and availability) of water is one of the most critical issues in this complex problem.

Due to the climate change impacts, notably on rainfall patterns and river discharge, food production and, linked to that, the global market, could be severely altered. The yield of crops could drastically decline. The biodiversity in food production could be affected. Contrary to this, unsustainable food productions (e.g., the burning of woods for animal feed, high use of mineral fertilizers, multiple transportation of food for processing) also have negative consequences on climate, including greenhouse gas emission and other harmful impacts on ecosystems. The quantitative and qualitative changes in food patterns could influence food processing, distribution, and consumption. Large-scale climate variability and changes, such as drought, floods, and other natural hazards, could generate starvation that leads to uncountable deaths and a loss of diversity in plants and animals, as well as functioning ecosystems—leading to spiraling poverty. Therefore, deep and interdisciplinary discussions are demanded in a timely manner to understand the spatially and temporally climate-change impact on food systems and also the responsibility of societies (including their food habits).

Angelika Ploeger
Sisira S. Withanachchi
Engin Koncagul
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • food systems
  • sustainable agricultural systems
  • food cultures
  • nutrition transition
  • climate relevant emissions in food production
  • society and climate change
  • water resource
  • traditional knowledge

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Nitrous Oxide and Methane Fluxes from Smallholder Farms: A Scoping Study in the Anjeni Watershed
Climate 2016, 4(4), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli4040062 - 11 Dec 2016
Cited by 2
Abstract
While agricultural practices are widely reported to contribute to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, there are only limited measurements available for emission rates in the monsoon climate of the African continent. We conducted a scoping study to measure nitrous oxide (N2O-N) [...] Read more.
While agricultural practices are widely reported to contribute to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, there are only limited measurements available for emission rates in the monsoon climate of the African continent. We conducted a scoping study to measure nitrous oxide (N2O-N) and methane (CH4) emission rates from 24 plots constructed on smallholder agricultural farms along the slope catena of three transects in the sub-humid Anjeni watershed in the Ethiopian highlands. Greenhouse gas flux samples were collected in 2013, before, towards the end, and after the rainy monsoon phase. At each location, three plots were installed in groups: two plots grown with barley (one enriched with charcoal and the other without soil amendment) and lupine was grown on the third plot without any soil amendment. Preliminary study results showed that nitrous oxide emission rates varied from −275 to 522 μg·m−2·h−1 and methane emissions ranged from −206 to 264 μg·m−2·h−1 with overall means of 51 and 5 μg·m−2·h−1 for N2O-N and CH4, respectively. Compared with the control, charcoal and lupine plots had elevated nitrous oxide emissions. Plots amended with charcoal showed on average greater methane uptake than was emitted. While this study provides insights regarding nitrous oxide and methane emission levels from smallholder farms, studies of longer durations are needed to verify the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change on Crops, Foods and Diets)
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Open AccessArticle
Understanding Farmers’ Perceptions and Adaptations to Precipitation and Temperature Variability: Evidence from Northern Iran
Climate 2016, 4(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli4040058 - 03 Dec 2016
Cited by 16
Abstract
Precipitation and temperature variability present significant agricultural risks worldwide. Northern Iran’s agriculture mainly depends on paddy fields, which are directly affected by precipitation and temperature variability. The main aim of this study is to explore farmers’ attitudes towards precipitation and temperature variability and [...] Read more.
Precipitation and temperature variability present significant agricultural risks worldwide. Northern Iran’s agriculture mainly depends on paddy fields, which are directly affected by precipitation and temperature variability. The main aim of this study is to explore farmers’ attitudes towards precipitation and temperature variability and their adaptation strategies in paddy fields in a typical agricultural province in northern Iran. Primary survey data were collected from a sample of 382 paddy farmers of Rasht County in Guilan Province. Data have been analyzed using both summary statistics and bivariate analysis (Pearson, Spearman, and Eta correlation coefficients). Empirical findings reveal that most paddy farmers had experienced precipitation and temperature variability and were taking measures to reduce its negative impacts on their crops. Results also indicate that farm size and household income influence farmers’ perception to precipitation and temperature variability, while availability of water resources also influence farmers’ adaptation decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change on Crops, Foods and Diets)
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Open AccessArticle
Vulnerabilities and Adapting Irrigated and Rainfed Cotton to Climate Change in the Lower Mississippi Delta Region
Climate 2016, 4(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli4040055 - 28 Oct 2016
Cited by 9
Abstract
Anthropogenic activities continue to emit potential greenhouse gases (GHG) into the atmosphere leading to a warmer climate over the earth. Predicting the impacts of climate change (CC) on food and fiber production systems in the future is essential for devising adaptations to sustain [...] Read more.
Anthropogenic activities continue to emit potential greenhouse gases (GHG) into the atmosphere leading to a warmer climate over the earth. Predicting the impacts of climate change (CC) on food and fiber production systems in the future is essential for devising adaptations to sustain production and environmental quality. We used the CSM-CROPGRO-cotton v4.6 module within the RZWQM2 model for predicting the possible impacts of CC on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) production systems in the lower Mississippi Delta (MS Delta) region of the USA. The CC scenarios were based on an ensemble of climate projections of multiple GCMs (Global Climate Models/General Circulation Models) for climate change under the CMIP5 (Climate Model Inter-comparison and Improvement Program 5) program, that were bias-corrected and spatially downscaled (BCSD) at Stoneville location in the MS Delta for the years 2050 and 2080. Four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) drove these CC projections: 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5 (these numbers refer to radiative forcing levels in the atmosphere of 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5 W·m−2), representing the increasing levels of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission scenarios for the future, as used in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change-Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC-AR5). The cotton model within RZWQM2, calibrated and validated for simulating cotton production at Stoneville, was used for simulating production under these CC scenarios. Under irrigated conditions, cotton yields increased significantly under the CC scenarios driven by the low to moderate emission levels of RCP 2.6, 4.5, and 6.0 in years 2050 and 2080, but under the highest emission scenario of RCP 8.5, the cotton yield increased in 2050 but declined significantly in year 2080. Under rainfed conditions, the yield declined in both 2050 and 2080 under all four RCP scenarios; however, the yield still increased when enough rainfall was received to meet the water requirements of the crop (in about 25% of the cases). As an adaptation measure, planting cotton six weeks earlier than the normal (historical average) planting date, in general, was found to boost irrigated cotton yields and compensate for the lost yields in all the CC scenarios. This early planting strategy only partially compensated for the rainfed cotton yield losses under all the CC scenarios, however, supplemental irrigations up to 10 cm compensated for all the yield losses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change on Crops, Foods and Diets)
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Open AccessArticle
Simulated Regional Yields of Spring Barley in the United Kingdom under Projected Climate Change
Climate 2016, 4(4), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli4040054 - 21 Oct 2016
Cited by 9
Abstract
This paper assessed the effect of projected climate change on the grain yield of barley in fourteen administrative regions in the United Kingdom (UK). Climate data for the 2030s, 2040s and 2050s for the high emission scenario (HES), medium emissions scenario (MES) and [...] Read more.
This paper assessed the effect of projected climate change on the grain yield of barley in fourteen administrative regions in the United Kingdom (UK). Climate data for the 2030s, 2040s and 2050s for the high emission scenario (HES), medium emissions scenario (MES) and low emissions scenario (LES) were obtained from the UK Climate Projections 2009 (UKCP09) using the Weather Generator. Simulations were performed using the AquaCrop model and statistics of simulated future yields and baseline yields were compared. The results show that climate change could be beneficial to UK barley production. For all emissions scenarios and regions, differences between the simulated average future yields (2030s–2050s) and the observed yields in the baseline period (1961–1990) ranged from 1.4 to 4 tons·ha−1. The largest increase in yields and yield variability occurred under the HES in the 2050s. Absolute increases in yields over baseline yields were substantially greater in the western half of the UK than in the eastern regions but marginally from south to north. These increases notwithstanding, yield reductions were observed for some individual years due to saturated soil conditions (most common in Wales, Northern Ireland and South-West Scotland). These suggest risks of yield penalties in any growing season in the future, a situation that should be considered for planning adaptation and risk management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change on Crops, Foods and Diets)
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling of Soybean under Present and Future Climates in Mozambique
Climate 2016, 4(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli4020031 - 17 Jun 2016
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study aims to calibrate and validate the generic crop model (CROPGRO-Soybean) and estimate the soybean yield, considering simulations with different sowing times for the current period (1990–2013) and future climate scenario (2014–2030). The database used came from observed data, nine climate models [...] Read more.
This study aims to calibrate and validate the generic crop model (CROPGRO-Soybean) and estimate the soybean yield, considering simulations with different sowing times for the current period (1990–2013) and future climate scenario (2014–2030). The database used came from observed data, nine climate models of CORDEX (Coordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment)-Africa framework and MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications) reanalysis. The calibration and validation data for the model were acquired in field experiments, carried out in the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 growing seasons in the experimental area of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in Angónia, Mozambique. The yield of two soybean cultivars: Tgx 1740-2F and Tgx 1908-8F was evaluated in the experiments and modeled for two distinct CO2 concentrations. Our model simulation results indicate that the fertilization effect leads to yield gains for both cultivars, ranging from 11.4% (Tgx 1908-8F) to 15% (Tgx 1740-2Fm) when compared to the performance of those cultivars under current CO2 atmospheric concentration. Moreover, our results show that MERRA, the RegCM4 (Regional Climatic Model version 4) and CNRM-CM5 (Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques – Climatic Model version 5) models provided more accurate estimates of yield, while others models underestimate yield as compared to observations, a fact that was demonstrated to be related to the model’s capability of reproducing the precipitation and the surface radiation amount. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change on Crops, Foods and Diets)
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Open AccessArticle
Climate Change Adaptation Strategy in the Food Industry—Insights from Product Carbon and Water Footprints
Climate 2016, 4(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli4020026 - 04 May 2016
Cited by 11
Abstract
Climate change adds an additional layer of complexity that needs to be considered in business strategy. For firms in the food industry, many of the important climate impacts are not directly related to food processing so a value chain approach to adaptation is [...] Read more.
Climate change adds an additional layer of complexity that needs to be considered in business strategy. For firms in the food industry, many of the important climate impacts are not directly related to food processing so a value chain approach to adaptation is recommended. However, there is a general lack of operational tools to support this. In this study, carbon and water footprints were conducted at a low-precision screening level in three case studies in Australia: Smith’s potato chips, OneHarvest Calypso™ mango and selected Treasury Wine Estates products. The approach was cost-effective when compared to high-definition studies intended to support environmental labels and declarations, yet provided useful identification of physical, financial, regulatory and reputational hotspots related to climate change. A combination of diagnostic footprinting, downscaled climate projection and semi-quantitative value chain analysis is proposed as a practical and relevant toolkit to inform climate adaptation strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change on Crops, Foods and Diets)
Open AccessArticle
Association between Empirically Estimated Monsoon Dynamics and Other Weather Factors and Historical Tea Yields in China: Results from a Yield Response Model
Climate 2016, 4(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli4020020 - 08 Apr 2016
Cited by 20
Abstract
Farmers in China’s tea-growing regions report that monsoon dynamics and other weather factors are changing and that this is affecting tea harvest decisions. To assess the effect of climate change on tea production in China, this study uses historical weather and production data [...] Read more.
Farmers in China’s tea-growing regions report that monsoon dynamics and other weather factors are changing and that this is affecting tea harvest decisions. To assess the effect of climate change on tea production in China, this study uses historical weather and production data from 1980 to 2011 to construct a yield response model that estimates the partial effect of weather factors on tea yields in China, with a specific focus on East Asian Monsoon dynamics. Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kunze) has not been studied using these methods even though it is an important crop for human nutrition and the economic well-being of rural communities in many countries. Previous studies have approximated the monsoon period using historical average onset and retreat dates, which we believe limits our understanding of how changing monsoon patterns affect crop productivity. In our analysis, we instead estimate the monsoon season across China’s tea growing regions empirically by identifying the unknown breakpoints in the year-by-province cumulative precipitation. We find that a 1% increase in the monsoon retreat date is associated with 0.481%–0.535% reduction in tea yield. In the previous year, we also find that a 1% increase in the date of the monsoon retreat is associated with a 0.604% decrease in tea yields. For precipitation, we find that a 1% increase in average daily precipitation occurring during the monsoon period is associated with a 0.184%–0.262% reduction in tea yields. In addition, our models show that 1% increase in the average daily monsoon precipitation from the previous growing season is associated with 0.258%–0.327% decline in yields. We also find that a 1% decrease in solar radiation in the previous growing season is associated with 0.554%-0.864% decrease in tea yields. These findings suggest the need for adaptive management and harvesting strategies given climate change projections and the known negative association between excess rainfall and delayed monsoon retreat on tea quality and yield. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change on Crops, Foods and Diets)
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Open AccessArticle
The Relationships between Climate Variability and Crop Yield in a Mountainous Environment: A Case Study in Lamjung District, Nepal
Climate 2016, 4(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli4010013 - 02 Mar 2016
Cited by 26
Abstract
Several studies have concluded that mountainous countries such as Nepal are more vulnerable to climate change; thus, a changing climate should have a significant impact on crop yields. This work aims to explore the impact of climate change on major crop yields in [...] Read more.
Several studies have concluded that mountainous countries such as Nepal are more vulnerable to climate change; thus, a changing climate should have a significant impact on crop yields. This work aims to explore the impact of climate change on major crop yields in the mountainous parts of Nepal and to determine their relationships based on a regression model between historical climatic data and yield data for food crops. The study starts with an analysis of the last 30 years of climatic data from Lamjung district. Mann-Kendall and Sen’s Slope methods have been used for the trend analysis and quantification. The results showed an increase in temperature of approximately 0.02 °C to 0.07 °C per year in different seasons and a mixed trend in precipitation. Although there was no significant impact of the climate variables on the yields of all crops, the regression analysis revealed negative relationships between maize yield and summer precipitation and between wheat yield and winter minimum temperature, and a positive relationship between millet yield and summer maximum temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change on Crops, Foods and Diets)
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Open AccessArticle
Forest Dependent Indigenous Communities’ Perception and Adaptation to Climate Change through Local Knowledge in the Protected Area—A Bangladesh Case Study
Climate 2016, 4(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli4010012 - 19 Feb 2016
Cited by 12
Abstract
Forest-dependent indigenous communities rely on natural resources for their livelihoods, but those are currently under threat due to many factors, including the adverse impact of climate change. The present study looks into climate change-related perception and adaptation strategies of three forest-dependent indigenous communities, [...] Read more.
Forest-dependent indigenous communities rely on natural resources for their livelihoods, but those are currently under threat due to many factors, including the adverse impact of climate change. The present study looks into climate change-related perception and adaptation strategies of three forest-dependent indigenous communities, namely, Khasia, Tripura and Garo in the Lawachara National Park of Northeastern Bangladesh. Household surveys, focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and observation methods were used to unveil the climatic events, impacts and related adaptations. The events include the change in temperature and rainfall patterns, landslide, soil erosion and flash flood, heavy cold and fog, and natural calamities. Moreover, livelihood problems emanating from these events are the drying up of streams and wells, irregular rainfall, increased dieback and mortality of seedlings, pests, diseases, and the attack of crops by wild animals. Likewise, the reduction of soil moisture content, growing season and crop productivity, landslides, damage of roads and culverts, and increased human diseases are common. This study recognized 29 adaptation strategies and divided them into six management categories, drawing on their local knowledge of the natural resources and other technologies. The study reveals that, although adaptation strategies through land use and land cover changes are not enough to sustain their livelihoods, the tactics help them to reduce the risk of, and increase food security and community resilience against, climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change on Crops, Foods and Diets)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Adaptation Practices in the Agriculture Sector of Bangladesh: An Ecosystem Based Assessment
Climate 2016, 4(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli4010011 - 03 Feb 2016
Cited by 13
Abstract
Climate changes imposed differential impacts on Bangladesh in the form of sea level rise, extreme events, and variability, which has enormous economic, environmental and social cost. Such impacts are assorted across the ecosystems of the Southwest, Northwest and Central region of the country. [...] Read more.
Climate changes imposed differential impacts on Bangladesh in the form of sea level rise, extreme events, and variability, which has enormous economic, environmental and social cost. Such impacts are assorted across the ecosystems of the Southwest, Northwest and Central region of the country. Among the different sectors, agriculture is comparatively more vulnerable to climate change impacts. In order to reduce the climate change induced loss and damage, a series of adaptation options have been being practiced by the people at the local level for many years, but the effectiveness, profitability, and sustainability of such adaptation options are still not too well investigated or understood. From this backdrop, the study intends to identify, prioritize and evaluate the adaptation options in the agriculture of different ecosystems of Bangladesh. It is found that the economic gain of adopting rice prawn farming, replantation of rice, and saline tolerant and short duration rice varieties are much higher than the other adaption options. Through investing $10 in such adaptation options, $22, $4, $2 and $2 net return will be provided, respectively. Unavailability and less affordability are impeding the promotion of some effective adaption options, which require more attention from policy makers, while further research, demonstration and capacity building of the farmers will reduce vulnerability and build resilience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change on Crops, Foods and Diets)
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Open AccessArticle
A Survey of the Relationship between Climatic Heat Stress Indices and Fundamental Milk Components Considering Uncertainty
Climate 2015, 3(4), 876-900; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli3040876 - 13 Nov 2015
Cited by 3
Abstract
The main purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between four bioclimatic indices for cattle (environmental stress, heat load, modified heat load, and respiratory rate predictor indices) and three main milk components (fat, protein, and milk yield) considering uncertainty. The climate [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between four bioclimatic indices for cattle (environmental stress, heat load, modified heat load, and respiratory rate predictor indices) and three main milk components (fat, protein, and milk yield) considering uncertainty. The climate parameters used to calculate the climate indices were taken from the NASA-Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (NASA-MERRA) reanalysis from 2002 to 2010. Cow milk data were considered for the same period from April to September when the cows use the natural pasture. The study is based on a linear regression analysis using correlations as a summarizing diagnostic. Bootstrapping is used to represent uncertainty information in the confidence intervals. The main results identify an interesting relationship between the milk compounds and climate indices under all climate conditions. During spring, there are reasonably high correlations between the fat and protein concentrations vs. the climate indices, whereas there are insignificant dependencies between the milk yield and climate indices. During summer, the correlation between the fat and protein concentrations with the climate indices decreased in comparison with the spring results, whereas the correlation for the milk yield increased. This methodology is suggested for studies investigating the impacts of climate variability/change on food and agriculture using short term data considering uncertainty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change on Crops, Foods and Diets)
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Open AccessArticle
Drought Monitoring for Rice Production in Cambodia
Climate 2015, 3(4), 792-811; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli3040792 - 16 Oct 2015
Cited by 12
Abstract
Rice production underpins the national economy and the most rural livelihoods in Cambodia, but it is negatively impacted by repeated droughts. The research reported on in this paper focuses on relationships between drought occurrences in Cambodia’s most drought-prone province (Kampong Speu) and (i) [...] Read more.
Rice production underpins the national economy and the most rural livelihoods in Cambodia, but it is negatively impacted by repeated droughts. The research reported on in this paper focuses on relationships between drought occurrences in Cambodia’s most drought-prone province (Kampong Speu) and (i) damage to the annual rice harvest between 1994 and 2011, and (ii) the Niño 3.4 index. Droughts were identified using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI). In seven of the years between 1994 and 2006 droughts damaged >1000 ha of rice in the Kampong Speu province. Furthermore, in 11 years >200 ha of rice were damaged. A critical success index of 0.66 obtained for an analysis of SPI-defined drought and area rice damage in the province indicates a strong statistical relationship. A statistically significant correlation (r = −0.455) was achieved between Niño 3.4 and 12-month SPI values lagged by three months, this indicates the importance of ENSO linkages in explaining drought in this region. Late season droughts lead to greater rice damage than early- and mid-season droughts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change on Crops, Foods and Diets)
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