Coping with Flooding and Drought

A special issue of Climate (ISSN 2225-1154). This special issue belongs to the section "Climate Adaptation and Mitigation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2024 | Viewed by 9411

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Civil engineering, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B2, B-9000 Gent, Belgium
Interests: flooding; drought; spatial planning; remote sensing; risk management; laser scanning; GIS
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Global climate change induces numerous challenges for the current and future generations. Changing weather patterns, increased frequency, and intensity of natural hazards, rising sea levels, etc. affect all facets of societies worldwide. Coping with, and trying to slow down, the effects of climate change needs multi- and transdisciplinary approaches in which all scientific, technological, and social disciplines work together to determine and monitor the threats and risks, find solutions, and enhance resilience.

This Special Issue focuses on two aspects: flooding and drought in different layers of human activity.

Possible themes can be (but are not limited to):

  • Monitoring (the effects of) flooding and drought (e.g., regional, local, agriculture, cultural heritage, migration, water demand/ supply, ...);
  • Possible solutions/ good practices to cope with (adapt to, mitigate) the consequences of drought and flooding;
  • Early warning systems;
  • Risk management;
  • (Changes in) governance approaches to build resilience.

Prof. Dr. Greet Deruyter
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • climate change
  • risk management
  • flooding
  • drought
  • remote sensing
  • resilience
  • governance

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 348 KiB  
Article
Developing a Drought Resilience Matrix to Evaluate Water Supply Alternatives
by Krystal Okpa, Zeinab Farahmandfar and Masoud Negahban-Azar
Climate 2024, 12(5), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli12050066 - 7 May 2024
Viewed by 462
Abstract
Cities around the world are facing increased sensitivity to drought effects. Climate-change-induced drought affects not only the natural hydrology of the broad macroclimate but also those in the urban microclimates. The increasing frequency and duration of droughts are creating challenges for urban water [...] Read more.
Cities around the world are facing increased sensitivity to drought effects. Climate-change-induced drought affects not only the natural hydrology of the broad macroclimate but also those in the urban microclimates. The increasing frequency and duration of droughts are creating challenges for urban water utilities to convey water through distribution systems to customers reliably and consistently. This has led many urban areas like San Francisco, California, to search for unique alternative water supply projects to help bolster the drought resilience of the coupled human and natural water system. This paper focuses on applying the features of resilience (i.e., plan, adapt, absorb, and recover) through a drought resilience matrix to water supply alternatives to analyze how the addition of these projects would increase the overall water system’s drought resilience. San Francisco, California, was used as the case study to test the use of this matrix. Three portfolios (modifying existing supply, recycling, and desalination, as well as local approaches) were created and tested in the matrix. Each portfolio is composed of various alternative water supply projects that the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) is considering for implementation. Results concluded that the local approaches portfolio provided the most drought resilience, with the recycling and desalination portfolio providing the least resilience. The study approach and the presented findings will provide guidance to water utility professionals in supply planning to enhance drought resilience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coping with Flooding and Drought)
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23 pages, 55173 KiB  
Article
Visualising the Complexity of Drought: A Network Analysis Based on the Water Resilience Assessment Framework and the Actor-Relational Approach
by Joachim Vercruysse, Greet Deruyter, Renaat De Sutter and Luuk Boelens
Climate 2024, 12(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli12040055 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 909
Abstract
This paper discusses the increasing severity of droughts due to climate change. It emphasises the complexity of defining drought and the diverse perspectives among stakeholders. Lots of stakeholders with unclear responsibilities are involved, which can lead to uncertainty and indecisiveness in addressing the [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the increasing severity of droughts due to climate change. It emphasises the complexity of defining drought and the diverse perspectives among stakeholders. Lots of stakeholders with unclear responsibilities are involved, which can lead to uncertainty and indecisiveness in addressing the issue. To tackle this, the present paper proposes a methodology to dissect drought systems and reveal the intricate relationships between their components. This approach combines a comprehensive definition of drought with the “Water Resilience Assessment Framework” and an “Actor-Relational Approach”, visualised through network analysis. The methodology was applied to a case study situated in the Leie Basin of Flanders, Belgium. By employing this strategy, policymakers and mediators can gain a deeper understanding of drought, identify its root causes, and prioritise necessary changes for more effective drought and water management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coping with Flooding and Drought)
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23 pages, 3408 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Hydrometeorological Characteristics and Water Demand in Semi-Arid Mediterranean Catchments under Water Deficit Conditions
by Efthymia Stathi, Aristeidis Kastridis and Dimitrios Myronidis
Climate 2023, 11(7), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11070137 - 27 Jun 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1506
Abstract
Drought is one of the most complex and poorly understood catastrophes on the planet. Between the Greek mainland and Turkey, there is an area of Greece known as the South Aegean Islands, that experiences water supply issues. As a result, there are issues [...] Read more.
Drought is one of the most complex and poorly understood catastrophes on the planet. Between the Greek mainland and Turkey, there is an area of Greece known as the South Aegean Islands, that experiences water supply issues. As a result, there are issues related to the socioeconomic growth of some of these islands, and the need for water transportation by water vessels. Water transportation by ships to the Cyclades and Dodecanese areas from the mainland or other adjacent islands to satisfy urgent demands, on the other hand, is exceptionally expensive. The situation deteriorates during the summer, when drinking water needs can reach five times the norm, due to the heavy tourist season. Given these conditions, the aim of this research is to estimate hydrometeorological conditions, calculate the water balance, and determine water needs in three southern Aegean islands (Mykonos, Naxos, and Kos), where there is a water shortage, particularly during the summer months when tourism activity is at its peak. The modified Thornthwaite–Mather monthly hydrological balance model was applied to determine the water balance. Various water use datasets (drinking water, irrigation, water transportation) were employed to quantify the water demands in the three islands. According to the results, the available water (runoff + infiltration) seems to be more than sufficient to meet the needs of the islands of Naxos and Kos, since it far exceeds the increased needs of the islands. Yet, it appears that in Mykonos, where the water resources have been nearly entirely utilized, the available water, is just enough to meet the water needs. It is evident that all three islands present significant sources of available water, which could meet the growing needs of the residents. However, the absence of the necessary water exploitation projects, mainly concerning the surface runoff, has contributed to the intense water supply problems of the islands. The importance of the water harvesting projects becomes even more urgent under the conditions of climate change, with the decrease in annual rainfall likely to be a highly possible scenario, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coping with Flooding and Drought)
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20 pages, 4295 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Seasonal Drought Trends in the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor
by Sherly Shelton and Ross D. Dixon
Climate 2023, 11(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11020045 - 12 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3292
Abstract
In recent years, drought events have influenced agriculture, water-dependent industries, and energy supply in many parts of the world. The China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is particularly susceptible to drought events due to large-scale monsoon circulation anomalies. Using the 0.5 × 0.5 resolution rainfall [...] Read more.
In recent years, drought events have influenced agriculture, water-dependent industries, and energy supply in many parts of the world. The China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is particularly susceptible to drought events due to large-scale monsoon circulation anomalies. Using the 0.5 × 0.5 resolution rainfall and potential evapotranspiration data set from the Climatic Research Unit (CRU), we assessed the changes in seasonal drought variation and effects of climate variables on drought over the CPEC for the period of 1980 to 2018 using the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). Our results show a statistically significant negative trend of SPEI over the hyper-arid region for two monsoons (December–February and June–September) and intra-monsoonal seasons (March–May and October–November), suggesting that the hyper-arid region (southern and southwestern part of the CPEC) is experiencing more frequent drought. A high probability for the occurrence of winter (30–35%) and summer (20–25%) droughts are observed in hyper-arid regions and gradually decreases from south to north of the CPEC. Decreasing seasonal rainfall and increasing potential evapotranspiration with increasing temperature in hyper-arid and arid regions resulted in frequent drought events during the winter monsoon season (from December to February). The findings from this study provide a theoretical basis for the drought management of the CPEC and a framework for understanding changes in drought in this region from climate projections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coping with Flooding and Drought)
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19 pages, 4774 KiB  
Article
Temporal and Spatial Variability of Dryness Conditions in Kazakhstan during 1979–2021 Based on Reanalysis Data
by Irina Zheleznova, Daria Gushchina, Zhiger Meiramov and Alexander Olchev
Climate 2022, 10(10), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli10100144 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2432
Abstract
The spatial and temporal variability of dryness conditions in the territory of Kazakhstan during the period 1979–2021 was investigated using monthly and hourly ERA5 reanalysis data on air temperature and precipitation as well as various aridity indices. A large part of the territory [...] Read more.
The spatial and temporal variability of dryness conditions in the territory of Kazakhstan during the period 1979–2021 was investigated using monthly and hourly ERA5 reanalysis data on air temperature and precipitation as well as various aridity indices. A large part of the territory is characterized by the air temperature increase in summer and spring, as well as precipitation reduction, especially during the summer months. It was shown that the end of the 20th century (1979–2000) and the beginning of the 21st century (2001–2021) are characterized by different trends in air temperature and precipitation. All applied indices, i.e., the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), the Keetch–Byram Drought Index (KBDI), Standardized Precipitation (SPI) and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration (SPEI), showed increased dryness in most parts of the territory of Kazakhstan. KBDI indicated an increased risk of wildfires, especially in the southwestern and northwestern regions. The hottest and driest areas are situated in the regions that are simultaneously affected by rising temperatures and reduced precipitation in spring and summer. The strongest increase in aridity and fire risk in the southwest and northwest is mainly due to reduced precipitation in the summer. Minimal risks of droughts occur in the northern and central regions, where conditions in the early 21st century became even less favorable for drought formation compared to the late 20th century (increased precipitation in both spring and summer and lower summer temperatures). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coping with Flooding and Drought)
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