Plasma-Catalysis for Environmental and Energy-Related Applications

A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2021) | Viewed by 20970

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Guest Editor
Department of Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest, Romania
Interests: non-thermal plasma; plasma chemistry; water treatment; plasma–catalysis; pollution abatement; plasma agriculture

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Guest Editor
PROTMED Research Centre, Department of Systems Ecology and Sustainability, University of Bucharest, Spl. Independentei 91-95, 050095 Bucharest, Romania
Interests: advanced oxidation processes; adsorption processes; ion-exchange; hydrodechlorination; emerging pollutants
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plasma–catalysis has been a topic of research for many years due to its potential for applications in a wide range of chemical, environmental, and energy-related processes. Although non-thermal plasma offers an unconventional way to initiate chemical reactions in gas and in liquid, it suffers from low selectivity. The coupling of plasma with catalysis can steer the reactions in the desired direction, thus providing improved selectivity and reducing unwanted by-products.

Environmental applications have been focused on the removal of various air pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, as well as on the degradation of organic pollutants in water, such as dyes, phenolic compounds, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, etc. Energy applications of plasma–catalysis include hydrogen production, syngas production by partial oxidation of methane, higher hydrocarbons or oxygenates, carbon dioxide dry reforming, and ammonia synthesis.

Recently, significant research efforts have been devoted to explaining the mechanisms of plasma–catalyst interaction; however, the present understanding still leaves open questions related to the complex phenomena involved in plasma–catalysis.

This Special Issue welcomes research papers on experimental work and/or fundamental aspects of plasma–catalysis, as well as reviews that describe the state of the art in the abovementioned topics.

Dr. Monica Magureanu
Dr. Corina Bradu
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • pollution abatement
  • VOCs decomposition
  • NOx reduction
  • degradation of water pollutants
  • H2 production
  • syngas production
  • CO2 valorization
  • N2 fixation
  • non-thermal plasma
  • plasma–catalyst interaction
  • plasma–catalyst synergy

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 180 KiB  
Editorial
Catalysts: Special Issue on Plasma-Catalysis for Environmental and Energy-Related Applications
by Monica Magureanu and Corina Bradu
Catalysts 2021, 11(12), 1439; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11121439 - 26 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1290
Abstract
Plasma-catalysis has been a topic of research for many years due to its potential for applications in a wide range of chemical, environmental, and energy-related processes [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma-Catalysis for Environmental and Energy-Related Applications)

Research

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22 pages, 14568 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Packing Material Properties on Tars Removal by Plasma Catalysis
by Richard Cimerman, Mária Cíbiková, Leonid Satrapinskyy and Karol Hensel
Catalysts 2020, 10(12), 1476; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10121476 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2525
Abstract
Plasma catalysis has been utilized in many environmental applications for removal of various hydrocarbons including tars. The aim of this work was to study the tars removal process by atmospheric pressure DBD non-thermal plasma generated in combination with packing materials of various composition [...] Read more.
Plasma catalysis has been utilized in many environmental applications for removal of various hydrocarbons including tars. The aim of this work was to study the tars removal process by atmospheric pressure DBD non-thermal plasma generated in combination with packing materials of various composition and catalytic activity (TiO2, Pt/γAl2O3, BaTiO3, γAl2O3, ZrO2, glass beads), dielectric constant (5–4000), shape (spherical and cylindrical pellets and beads), size (3–5 mm in diameter, 3–8 mm in length), and specific surface area (37–150 m2/g). Naphthalene was chosen as a model tar compound. The experiments were performed at a temperature of 100 °C and a naphthalene initial concentration of approx. 3000 ppm, i.e., under conditions that are usually less favorable to achieve high removal efficiencies. For a given specific input energy of 320 J/L, naphthalene removal efficiency followed a sequence: TiO2 > Pt/γAl2O3 > ZrO2 > γAl2O3 > glass beads > BaTiO3 > plasma only. The efficiency increased with the increasing specific surface area of a given packing material, while its shape and size were also found to be important. By-products of naphthalene decomposition were analyzed by means of FTIR spectrometry and surface of packing materials by SEM analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma-Catalysis for Environmental and Energy-Related Applications)
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17 pages, 1370 KiB  
Article
Plasma-Catalysis for Volatile Organic Compounds Decomposition: Complexity of the Reaction Pathways during Acetaldehyde Removal
by Arlette Vega-González, Xavier Duten and Sonia Sauce
Catalysts 2020, 10(10), 1146; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10101146 - 3 Oct 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2572
Abstract
Acetaldehyde removal was carried out using non-thermal plasma (NTP) at 150 J·L−1, and plasma-driven catalysis (PDC) using Ag/TiO2/SiO2, at three different input energies—70, 350 and 1150 J·L−1. For the experimental configuration used, the PDC process [...] Read more.
Acetaldehyde removal was carried out using non-thermal plasma (NTP) at 150 J·L−1, and plasma-driven catalysis (PDC) using Ag/TiO2/SiO2, at three different input energies—70, 350 and 1150 J·L−1. For the experimental configuration used, the PDC process showed better results in acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) degradation. At the exit of the reactor, for both processes and for all the used energies, the same intermediates in CH3CHO decomposition were identified, except for acetone which was only produced in the PDC process. In order to contribute to a better understanding of the synergistic effect between the plasma and the catalyst, acetaldehyde/catalyst surface interactions were studied by diffuse-reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). These measurements showed that different species such as acetate, formate, methoxy, ethoxy and formaldehyde are present on the surface, once it has been in contact with the plasma. A reaction pathway for CH3CHO degradation is proposed taking into account all the identified compounds in both the gas phase and the catalyst surface. It is very likely that in CH3CHO degradation the presence of methanol, one of the intermediates, combined with oxygen activation by silver atoms on the surface, are key elements in the performance of the PDC process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma-Catalysis for Environmental and Energy-Related Applications)
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16 pages, 3913 KiB  
Article
Paracetamol Degradation by Catalyst Enhanced Non-Thermal Plasma Process for a Drastic Increase in the Mineralization Rate
by Noussaiba Korichi, Olivier Aubry, Hervé Rabat, Benoît Cagnon and Dunpin Hong
Catalysts 2020, 10(9), 959; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10090959 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3682
Abstract
In order to remediate the very poor mineralization of paracetamol in water, even when well degraded by using a Non-Thermal Plasma (NTP) process at a very low dissipated power, a plasma-catalyst coupling process was tested and investigated. A homemade glass fiber supported Fe [...] Read more.
In order to remediate the very poor mineralization of paracetamol in water, even when well degraded by using a Non-Thermal Plasma (NTP) process at a very low dissipated power, a plasma-catalyst coupling process was tested and investigated. A homemade glass fiber supported Fe3+ catalyst was immersed in the liquid to be treated in a Dielectric Barrier Discharge plasma reactor. The plasma-catalysis process, at the same low dissipated power, achieved a mineralization rate of 54% with a full conversion rate of paracetamol at 25 mg L−1 in initial concentration after 60 min treatment, thanks to Fenton-like effects. The synergetic effects of the plasma-catalysis coupling process also improved the Energy Yield by a factor of two. The catalyst before and after use for treatment was characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller and Thermogravimetric analysis. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography was used to measure the concentration of treated solution and to investigate the intermediates. Two of them, namely 1,4-hydroquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone, were formally identified. Some intermediates are presented in this paper as a function of treatment time and their UV absorbance spectra. NTP processes with and without catalyst coupling were compared in terms of acidity, conductivity, and nitrate concentrations in the treated solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma-Catalysis for Environmental and Energy-Related Applications)
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15 pages, 2550 KiB  
Article
The Potential Use of Core-Shell Structured Spheres in a Packed-Bed DBD Plasma Reactor for CO2 Conversion
by Yannick Uytdenhouwen, Vera Meynen, Pegie Cool and Annemie Bogaerts
Catalysts 2020, 10(5), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10050530 - 11 May 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3029
Abstract
This work proposes to use core-shell structured spheres to evaluate whether it allows to individually optimize bulk and surface effects of a packing material, in order to optimize conversion and energy efficiency. Different core-shell materials have been prepared by spray coating, using dense [...] Read more.
This work proposes to use core-shell structured spheres to evaluate whether it allows to individually optimize bulk and surface effects of a packing material, in order to optimize conversion and energy efficiency. Different core-shell materials have been prepared by spray coating, using dense spheres (as core) and powders (as shell) of SiO2, Al2O3, and BaTiO3. The materials are investigated for their performance in CO2 dissociation and compared against a benchmark consisting of a packed-bed reactor with the pure dense spheres, as well as an empty reactor. The results in terms of CO2 conversion and energy efficiency show various interactions between the core and shell material, depending on their combination. Al2O3 was found as the best core material under the applied conditions here, followed by BaTiO3 and SiO2, in agreement with their behaviour for the pure spheres. Applying a thin shell layer on the cores showed equal performance between the different shell materials. Increasing the layer thickness shifts this behaviour, and strong combination effects were observed depending on the specific material. Therefore, this method of core-shell spheres has the potential to allow tuning of the packing properties more closely to the application by designing an optimal combination of core and shell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma-Catalysis for Environmental and Energy-Related Applications)
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Review

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21 pages, 3341 KiB  
Review
Recent Developments in Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma-Assisted Catalytic Dry Reforming of Methane over Ni-Based Catalysts
by Xingyuan Gao, Ziting Lin, Tingting Li, Liuting Huang, Jinmiao Zhang, Saeed Askari, Nikita Dewangan, Ashok Jangam and Sibudjing Kawi
Catalysts 2021, 11(4), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11040455 - 1 Apr 2021
Cited by 50 | Viewed by 6088
Abstract
The greenhouse effect is leading to global warming and destruction of the ecological environment. The conversion of carbon dioxide and methane greenhouse gases into valuable substances has attracted scientists’ attentions. Dry reforming of methane (DRM) alleviates environmental problems and converts CO2 and [...] Read more.
The greenhouse effect is leading to global warming and destruction of the ecological environment. The conversion of carbon dioxide and methane greenhouse gases into valuable substances has attracted scientists’ attentions. Dry reforming of methane (DRM) alleviates environmental problems and converts CO2 and CH4 into valuable chemical substances; however, due to the high energy input to break the strong chemical bonds in CO2 and CH4, non-thermal plasma (NTP) catalyzed DRM has been promising in activating CO2 at ambient conditions, thus greatly lowering the energy input; moreover, the synergistic effect of the catalyst and plasma improves the reaction efficiency. In this review, the recent developments of catalytic DRM in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma reactor on Ni-based catalysts are summarized, including the concept, characteristics, generation, and types of NTP used for catalytic DRM and corresponding mechanisms, the synergy and performance of Ni-based catalysts with DBD plasma, the design of DBD reactor and process parameter optimization, and finally current challenges and future prospects are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma-Catalysis for Environmental and Energy-Related Applications)
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