Special Issue "Recent Advances on Nano-Catalysts for Biological Processes"

A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanostructured Catalysts".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 August 2022) | Viewed by 13359

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Pritam Kumar Dikshit
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Biotechnology, K. L. Deemed to be University, Guntur 522 502, Andhra Pradesh, India
Interests: biofuel; biopolymer; biological wastewater treatment; fermentation; nanomaterials
Prof. Dr. Beom Soo Kim
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Korea
Interests: bioplastics; biodegradable polymers; molecularly imprinted polymers; polyhydroxyalkanoates; green synthesis of nanoparticles; bioprocess engineering
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The importance of nanomaterials has increased significantly in recent years due to their wide range of applications in various sectors ranging from sensor technology to biomedicine and energy conversion, etc. Nanoparticles with a size of 100 nm or less have attracted great research attention due to their high surface to volume ratio and unusual and fascinating properties. Various methods such as physical, chemical, biological, and hybrid methods are available for the synthesis of these nanoparticles. However, the use of reliable, non-toxic, and eco-friendly technologies for the synthesis of nanoparticles is of utmost importance to expand their biological applications. Several biological applications of nanoparticles can be listed, e.g., carbohydrate hydrolysis, production of biofuel, immobilization of enzyme, biotransformation, gene and drug delivery, and the detection of pathogen and proteins. Recently, various nanocarriers have also been used for the immobilization of different enzymes to produce nanobiocatalysts (NBCs) which further enhance enzyme performance.

In view of this, this Special Issue aims to cover the most recent progress and advances in the application of nanocatalysts for biological processes. This Special Issue includes but is not limited to the green synthesis of nanoparticles, application of nanoparticles in wastewater treatment, dark fermentation, biofuel production, nanobiocatalysts in bioprocessing applications, usage of nanoparticles in pretreatment processes, and the production of other value-added products.

Dr. Pritam Kumar Dikshit
Prof. Dr. Beom Soo Kim
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Catalysts is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nanoparticles
  • Green synthesis of nanoparticles
  • Fermentation
  • Wastewater treatment
  • Biofuel production
  • Enzyme immobilization
  • Value-added products
  • Pretreatment
  • Dark fermentation

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Catalytic Activity of Biosynthesized Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles (MgO-NPs) for Inhibiting the Growth of Pathogenic Microbes, Tanning Effluent Treatment, and Chromium Ion Removal
Catalysts 2021, 11(7), 821; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11070821 - 06 Jul 2021
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 1598
Abstract
Magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO-NPs) were synthesized using the fungal strain Aspergillus terreus S1 to overcome the disadvantages of chemical and physical methods. The factors affecting the biosynthesis process were optimized as follows: concentration of Mg(NO3)2·6H2O precursor (3 [...] Read more.
Magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO-NPs) were synthesized using the fungal strain Aspergillus terreus S1 to overcome the disadvantages of chemical and physical methods. The factors affecting the biosynthesis process were optimized as follows: concentration of Mg(NO3)2·6H2O precursor (3 mM), contact time (36 min), pH (8), and incubation temperature (35 °C). The characterization of biosynthesized MgO-NPs was accomplished using UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy—energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Data confirmed the successful formation of crystallographic, spherical, well-dispersed MgO-NPs with a size range of 8.0–38.0 nm at a maximum surface plasmon resonance of 280 nm. The biological activities of biosynthesized MgO-NPs including antimicrobial activity, biotreatment of tanning effluent, and chromium ion removal were investigated. The highest growth inhibition of pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans was achieved at 200 μg mL–1 of MgO-NPs. The biosynthesized MgO-NPs exhibited high efficacy to decolorize the tanning effluent (96.8 ± 1.7% after 150 min at 1.0 µg mL–1) and greatly decrease chemical parameters including total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and conductivity with percentages of 98.04, 98.3, 89.1, 97.2, and 97.7%, respectively. Further, the biosynthesized MgO-NPs showed a strong potential to remove chromium ions from the tanning effluent, from 835.3 mg L–1 to 21.0 mg L–1, with a removal percentage of 97.5%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances on Nano-Catalysts for Biological Processes)
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Article
Bio-Catalytic Activity of Novel Mentha arvensis Intervened Biocompatible Magnesium Oxide Nanomaterials
Catalysts 2021, 11(7), 780; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11070780 - 27 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1236
Abstract
In the present study Mentha arvensis medaited Magnesium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by novel green route followed by advanced characterization via XRD, FTIR, UV, SEM, TEM, DLS and TGA. The mean grain size of 32.4 nm and crystallite fcc morphology were confirmed by [...] Read more.
In the present study Mentha arvensis medaited Magnesium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by novel green route followed by advanced characterization via XRD, FTIR, UV, SEM, TEM, DLS and TGA. The mean grain size of 32.4 nm and crystallite fcc morphology were confirmed by X-ray diffractive analysis. Scanning and Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed the spherical and elliptical morphologies of the biosynthesized nanoparticles. Particle surface charge of −16.1 mV were determined by zeta potential and zeta size of 30–120 nm via dynamic light scattering method. Fourier transform spectroscopic analysis revealed the possible involvement of functional groups in the plant extract in reduction of Mg2+ ions to Mg0. Furthermore, the antioxidant, anti-Alzheimer, anti-cancer, and anti-H. pylori activities were performed. The results revealed that MgO-NPs has significant anti-H. pyloric potential by giving ZOI of 17.19 ± 0.83 mm against Helicobacter felis followed by Helicobacter suis. MgO-NPs inhibited protein kinase enzyme up to 12.44 ± 0.72% at 5 mg/mL and thus showed eminent anticancer activity. Significant free radicals scavenging and hemocompatability was also shown by MgO-NPs. MgO-NPs also displayed good inhibition potential against Hela cell lines with maximum inhibition of 49.49 ± 1.18 at 400 µg/mL. Owing to ecofriendly synthesis, non-toxic and biocompatible nature, Mentha arvensis synthesized MgO-NPs can be used as potent antimicrobial agent in therapeutic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances on Nano-Catalysts for Biological Processes)
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Review

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Review
A Review on Green Synthesis of Nanoparticles and Their Diverse Biomedical and Environmental Applications
Catalysts 2022, 12(5), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12050459 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 873
Abstract
In recent times, metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have been regarded as having important commercial utility. However, the potential toxicity of these nanomaterials has also been a crucial research concern. In this regard, an important solution for ensuring lower toxicity levels and thereby facilitating [...] Read more.
In recent times, metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have been regarded as having important commercial utility. However, the potential toxicity of these nanomaterials has also been a crucial research concern. In this regard, an important solution for ensuring lower toxicity levels and thereby facilitating an unhindered application in human consumer products is the green synthesis of these particles. Although a naïve approach, the biological synthesis of metal oxide NPs using microorganisms and plant extracts opens up immense prospects for the production of biocompatible and cost-effective particles with potential applications in the healthcare sector. An important area that calls for attention is cancer therapy and the intervention of nanotechnology to improve existing therapeutic practices. Metal oxide NPs have been identified as therapeutic agents with an extended half-life and therapeutic index and have also been reported to have lesser immunogenic properties. Currently, biosynthesized metal oxide NPs are the subject of considerable research and analysis for the early detection and treatment of tumors, but their performance in clinical experiments is yet to be determined. The present review provides a comprehensive account of recent research on the biosynthesis of metal oxide NPs, including mechanistic insights into biological production machinery, the latest reports on biogenesis, the properties of biosynthesized NPs, and directions for further improvement. In particular, scientific reports on the properties and applications of nanoparticles of the oxides of titanium, cerium, selenium, zinc, iron, and copper have been highlighted. This review discusses the significance of the green synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles, with respect to therapeutically based pharmaceutical applications as well as energy and environmental applications, using various novel approaches including one-minute sonochemical synthesis that are capable of responding to various stimuli such as radiation, heat, and pH. This study will provide new insight into novel methods that are cost-effective and pollution free, assisted by the biodegradation of biomass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances on Nano-Catalysts for Biological Processes)
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Review
Nano-Biochar as a Sustainable Catalyst for Anaerobic Digestion: A Synergetic Closed-Loop Approach
Catalysts 2022, 12(2), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12020186 - 01 Feb 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1091
Abstract
Nowadays, the valorization of organic wastes using various carbon-capturing technologies is a prime research area. The anaerobic digestion (AD) technology is gaining much consideration in this regard that simultaneously deals with waste valorization and bioenergy production sustainably. Biochar, a well-recognized carbonaceous pyrogenic material [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the valorization of organic wastes using various carbon-capturing technologies is a prime research area. The anaerobic digestion (AD) technology is gaining much consideration in this regard that simultaneously deals with waste valorization and bioenergy production sustainably. Biochar, a well-recognized carbonaceous pyrogenic material and possessing a broad range of inherent physical and chemical properties, has diverse applications in the fields of agriculture, health-care, sensing, catalysis, carbon capture, the environment and energy. The nano-biochar-amended anaerobic digestion approach has intensively been explored for the past few years. However, an inclusive study of multi-functional roles of biochar and the mechanism involved for enhancing the biogas production via the AD process still need to be evaluated. The present review inspects the significant role of biochar addition and the kinetics involved, further focusing on the limitations, perspectives, and challenges of the technology. Additionally, the techno-economic analysis and life-cycle assessment of biochar-aided AD process for the closed-loop integration of biochar and AD and possible improvement practices are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances on Nano-Catalysts for Biological Processes)
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Review
Biological Synthesis of Nanocatalysts and Their Applications
Catalysts 2021, 11(12), 1494; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11121494 - 08 Dec 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1145
Abstract
Over the past few decades, the synthesis and potential applications of nanocatalysts have received great attention from the scientific community. Many well-established methods are extensively utilized for the synthesis of nanocatalysts. However, most conventional physical and chemical methods have some drawbacks, such as [...] Read more.
Over the past few decades, the synthesis and potential applications of nanocatalysts have received great attention from the scientific community. Many well-established methods are extensively utilized for the synthesis of nanocatalysts. However, most conventional physical and chemical methods have some drawbacks, such as the toxicity of precursor materials, the requirement of high-temperature environments, and the high cost of synthesis, which ultimately hinder their fruitful applications in various fields. Bioinspired synthesis is eco-friendly, cost-effective, and requires a low energy/temperature ambient. Various microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, and algae are used as nano-factories and can provide a novel method for the synthesis of different types of nanocatalysts. The synthesized nanocatalysts can be further utilized in various applications such as the removal of heavy metals, treatment of industrial effluents, fabrication of materials with unique properties, biomedical, and biosensors. This review focuses on the biogenic synthesis of nanocatalysts from various green sources that have been adopted in the past two decades, and their potential applications in different areas. This review is expected to provide a valuable guideline for the biogenic synthesis of nanocatalysts and their concomitant applications in various fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances on Nano-Catalysts for Biological Processes)
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Review
Current Trends and Future Prospects of Nanotechnology in Biofuel Production
Catalysts 2021, 11(11), 1308; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11111308 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1482
Abstract
Biofuel is one of the best alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels globally especially in the current scenario, where fossil fuels are continuously depleting. Fossil-based fuels cause severe threats to the environment and human health by releasing greenhouse gases on their burning. With the several [...] Read more.
Biofuel is one of the best alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels globally especially in the current scenario, where fossil fuels are continuously depleting. Fossil-based fuels cause severe threats to the environment and human health by releasing greenhouse gases on their burning. With the several limitations in currently available technologies and associated higher expenses, producing biofuels on an industrial scale is a time-consuming operation. Moreover, processes adopted for the conversion of various feedstock to the desired product are different depending upon the various techniques and materials utilized. Nanoparticles (NPs) are one of the best solutions to the current challenges on utilization of biomass in terms of their selectivity, energy efficiency, and time management, with reduced cost involvement. Many of these methods have recently been adopted, and several NPs such as metal, magnetic, and metal oxide are now being used in enhancement of biofuel production. The unique properties of NPs, such as their design, stability, greater surface area to volume ratio, catalytic activity, and reusability, make them effective biofuel additives. In addition, nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and nanosheets have been found to be cost effective as well as stable catalysts for enzyme immobilization, thus improving biofuel synthesis. The current study gives a comprehensive overview of the use of various nanomaterials in biofuel production, as well as the major challenges and future opportunities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances on Nano-Catalysts for Biological Processes)
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Review
Green Synthesis of Metallic Nanoparticles: Applications and Limitations
Catalysts 2021, 11(8), 902; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11080902 - 26 Jul 2021
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 4460
Abstract
The past decade has witnessed a phenomenal rise in nanotechnology research due to its broad range of applications in diverse fields including food safety, transportation, sustainable energy, environmental science, catalysis, and medicine. The distinctive properties of nanomaterials (nano-sized particles in the range of [...] Read more.
The past decade has witnessed a phenomenal rise in nanotechnology research due to its broad range of applications in diverse fields including food safety, transportation, sustainable energy, environmental science, catalysis, and medicine. The distinctive properties of nanomaterials (nano-sized particles in the range of 1 to 100 nm) make them uniquely suitable for such wide range of functions. The nanoparticles when manufactured using green synthesis methods are especially desirable being devoid of harsh operating conditions (high temperature and pressure), hazardous chemicals, or addition of external stabilizing or capping agents. Numerous plants and microorganisms are being experimented upon for an eco–friendly, cost–effective, and biologically safe process optimization. This review provides a comprehensive overview on the green synthesis of metallic NPs using plants and microorganisms, factors affecting the synthesis, and characterization of synthesized NPs. The potential applications of metal NPs in various sectors have also been highlighted along with the major challenges involved with respect to toxicity and translational research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances on Nano-Catalysts for Biological Processes)
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