Special Issue "Brain Disorders: Affecting Brain Function, Structure and Neurochemistry"

A special issue of Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425). This special issue belongs to the section "Clinical Neuroscience".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Trevor Archer
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Guest Editor
Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, S-40020 Gothenburg, Sweden
Interests: Neurotoxicity; Neuropsychiatry; Movement disorders; Epigenetics; Interventions
Prof. Dr. Richard Kostrzewa
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Quillen Coll Med, East Tennessee State University, POB 70577, Johnson City, TN 37614, USA
Interests: Dopamine; ADHD; Parkinson Disease; Tardive Dyskinesia; Highly selective neurotoxins

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Several aspects of brain disorders have been defined, described, elucidated and achieved a semblance of explanation and intervention. This Special issue on “Brain Disorders: Affecting Brain Function, Structure and Neurochemistry” focusses upon reawakening and bridging a plethora of those issues pertaining to Dopamine Disease States, Neurotransmitters, Neurodegeneration and Regeneration in brain disorders, Assets and Liabilities underlying Disorder Susceptibility, Epigenetic pressures involving brain disease etiopathophysiology, Co-morbidity in neuropsychiatric and neurologic disease states, the status and utility of chemotherapeutic and other interventional strategies, the role of neurodevelopmental processes in brain disorders, Electrochemical processes arising from neuronal-endocrinal-trophic factor interactions and the status of neuronal-glial interaction in determining signaling and the fate of impulse generation.

Prof. Trevor Archer
Prof. Richard Kostrzewa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Brain Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Brain Disorders
  • Dopamine Disease States
  • Neurotransmitters
  • Neurodegeneration
  • Neurodevelopmental
  • Epigenetic Pressures
  • Neuropsychiatry

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Changes in Serotonin Modulation of Glutamate Currents in Pyramidal Offspring Cells of Rats Treated With 5-MT during Gestation
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(4), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10040221 - 08 Apr 2020
Abstract
Changes in stimuli and feeding in pregnant mothers alter the behavior of offspring. Since behavior is mediated by brain activity, it is expected that postnatal changes occur at the level of currents, receptors or soma and dendrites structure and modulation. In this work, [...] Read more.
Changes in stimuli and feeding in pregnant mothers alter the behavior of offspring. Since behavior is mediated by brain activity, it is expected that postnatal changes occur at the level of currents, receptors or soma and dendrites structure and modulation. In this work, we explore at the mechanism level the effects on Sprague–Dawley rat offspring following the administration of serotonin (5-HT) agonist 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT). We analyzed whether 5-HT affects the glutamate-activated (IGlut) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-activated currents (IGlut, INMDA) in dissociated pyramidal neurons from the prefrontal cortex (PFC). For this purpose, we performed voltage-clamp experiments on pyramidal neurons from layers V-VI of the PFC of 40-day-old offspring born from 5-MT-treated mothers at the gestational days (GD) 11 to 21. We found that the pyramidal-neurons from the PFC of offspring of mothers treated with 5-MT exhibit a significant increased reduction in both the IGlut and INMDA when 5-HT was administered. Our results suggest that the concentration increase of a neuromodulator during the gestation induces changes in its modulatory action over the offspring ionic currents during the adulthood thus contributing to possible psychiatric disorders. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Towards the Development of an Integrative, Evidence-Based Suite of Indicators for the Prediction of Outcome Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Results from a Pilot Study
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10010023 - 02 Jan 2020
Abstract
Background: Persisting post-concussion symptoms (PPCS) is a complex, multifaceted condition in which individuals continue to experience the symptoms of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI; concussion) beyond the timeframe that it typically takes to recover. Currently, there is no way of knowing which individuals [...] Read more.
Background: Persisting post-concussion symptoms (PPCS) is a complex, multifaceted condition in which individuals continue to experience the symptoms of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI; concussion) beyond the timeframe that it typically takes to recover. Currently, there is no way of knowing which individuals may develop this condition. Method: Patients presenting to a hospital emergency department (ED) within 48 h of sustaining a mTBI underwent neuropsychological assessment and demographic, injury-related information and blood samples were collected. Concentrations of blood-based biomarkers neuron specific enolase, neurofilament protein-light, and glial fibrillary acidic protein were assessed, and a subset of patients also underwent diffusion tensor–magnetic resonance imaging; both relative to healthy controls. Individuals were classified as having PPCS if they reported a score of 25 or higher on the Rivermead Postconcussion Symptoms Questionnaire at ~28 days post-injury. Univariate exact logistic regression was performed to identify measures that may be predictive of PPCS. Neuroimaging data were examined for differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity in regions of interest. Results: Of n = 36 individuals, three (8.33%) were classified as having PPCS. Increased performance on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status Update Total Score (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.61–0.95, p = 0.004), Immediate Memory (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.56–0.94, p = 0.001), and Attention (OR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.71–0.97, p = 0.007) indices, as well as faster completion of the Trails Making Test B (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.00–1.12, p = 0.032) at ED presentation were associated with a statistically significant decreased odds of an individual being classified as having PPCS. There was no significant association between blood-based biomarkers and PPCS in this small sample, although glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was significantly increased in individuals with mTBI relative to healthy controls. Furthermore, relative to healthy age and sex-matched controls (n = 8), individuals with mTBI (n = 14) had higher levels of FA within the left inferior frontal occipital fasciculus (t (18.06) = −3.01, p = 0.008). Conclusion: Performance on neuropsychological measures may be useful for predicting PPCS, but further investigation is required to elucidate the utility of this and other potential predictors. Full article
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