Special Issue "Field-Effect Transistor Biosensors"

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2016).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Mark A. Reed
Website
Guest Editor
School of Engineering & Applied Science, Yale University, 15 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
Interests: electronic transport in nanoscale and mesoscopic systems; artificially structured materials and devices; molecular scale electronic transport; chem/bio nanosensors; and nanoionic transport
Dr. Mathias Wipf
Website
Guest Editor
School of Engineering & Applied Science, Yale University, 15 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
Interests: biosensors; silicon nanowires; affinity sensors; label-free and enzymatic detection; surface chemistry; microfluidics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will be devoted to recent developments in the field of silicon field-effect transistor (FET) biosensors. We would like to invite you to participate by submitting your original articles or reviews on your research with FET sensors. Different modes of operation, such as amperometric or potentiometric, can be addressed. A special focus on devices with the capability of being integrated for biosensing applications or contaminant monitoring devices is highly appreciated. All types of detection methods, such as label-free or enzymatic based systems for the detection of various analytes including pH, ions, proteins, and DNA, are acceptable.

Prof. Dr. Mark A. Reed
Dr. Mathias Wipf
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • silicon
  • field-effect transistor
  • biosensor and chemical sensor
  • potentiometric, amperometric
  • ion detection
  • DNA sensor
  • protein sensor
  • chemical and biochemical monitoring
  • chemical imaging
  • sensor integration, lab-on-a-chip

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Implementing Silicon Nanoribbon Field-Effect Transistors as Arrays for Multiple Ion Detection
Biosensors 2016, 6(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios6020021 - 06 May 2016
Cited by 9
Abstract
Ionic gradients play a crucial role in the physiology of the human body, ranging from metabolism in cells to muscle contractions or brain activities. To monitor these ions, inexpensive, label-free chemical sensing devices are needed. Field-effect transistors (FETs) based on silicon (Si) nanowires [...] Read more.
Ionic gradients play a crucial role in the physiology of the human body, ranging from metabolism in cells to muscle contractions or brain activities. To monitor these ions, inexpensive, label-free chemical sensing devices are needed. Field-effect transistors (FETs) based on silicon (Si) nanowires or nanoribbons (NRs) have a great potential as future biochemical sensors as they allow for the integration in microscopic devices at low production costs. Integrating NRs in dense arrays on a single chip expands the field of applications to implantable electrodes or multifunctional chemical sensing platforms. Ideally, such a platform is capable of detecting numerous species in a complex analyte. Here, we demonstrate the basis for simultaneous sodium and fluoride ion detection with a single sensor chip consisting of arrays of gold-coated SiNR FETs. A microfluidic system with individual channels allows modifying the NR surfaces with self-assembled monolayers of two types of ion receptors sensitive to sodium and fluoride ions. The functionalization procedure results in a differential setup having active fluoride- and sodium-sensitive NRs together with bare gold control NRs on the same chip. Comparing functionalized NRs with control NRs allows the compensation of non-specific contributions from changes in the background electrolyte concentration and reveals the response to the targeted species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Field-Effect Transistor Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Electronic Biosensing with Functionalized rGO FETs
Biosensors 2016, 6(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios6020017 - 22 Apr 2016
Cited by 22
Abstract
In the following we give a short summary of examples for biosensor concepts in areas in which reduced graphene oxide-based electronic devices can be developed into new classes of biosensors, which are highly sensitive, label-free, disposable and cheap, with electronic signals that are [...] Read more.
In the following we give a short summary of examples for biosensor concepts in areas in which reduced graphene oxide-based electronic devices can be developed into new classes of biosensors, which are highly sensitive, label-free, disposable and cheap, with electronic signals that are easy to analyze and interpret, suitable for multiplexed operation and for remote control, compatible with NFC technology, etc., and in many cases a clear and promising alternative to optical sensors. The presented areas concern sensing challenges in medical diagnostics with an example for detecting general antibody-antigen interactions, for the monitoring of toxins and pathogens in food and feed stuff, exemplified by the detection of aflatoxins, and the area of smell sensors, which are certainly the most exciting development as there are very few existing examples in which the typically small and hydrophobic odorant molecules can be detected by other means. The example given here concerns the recording of a honey flavor (and a cancer marker for neuroblastoma), homovanillic acid, by the odorant binding protein OBP 14 from the honey bee, immobilized on the reduced graphene oxide gate of an FET sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Field-Effect Transistor Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Measurement of Rapid Amiloride-Dependent pH Changes at the Cell Surface Using a Proton-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor
Biosensors 2016, 6(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios6020011 - 30 Mar 2016
Cited by 11
Abstract
We present a novel method for the rapid measurement of pH fluxes at close proximity to the surface of the plasma membrane in mammalian cells using an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET). In conjuction with an efficient continuous superfusion system, the ISFET sensor was [...] Read more.
We present a novel method for the rapid measurement of pH fluxes at close proximity to the surface of the plasma membrane in mammalian cells using an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET). In conjuction with an efficient continuous superfusion system, the ISFET sensor was capable of recording rapid changes in pH at the cells’ surface induced by intervals of ammonia loading and unloading, even when using highly buffered solutions. Furthermore, the system was able to isolate physiologically relevant signals by not only detecting the transients caused by ammonia loading and unloading, but display steady-state signals as would be expected by a proton transport-mediated influence on the extracellular proton-gradient. Proof of concept was demonstrated through the use of 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA), a small molecule inhibitor of sodium/hydrogen exchangers (NHE). As the primary transporter responsible for proton balance during cellular regulation of pH, non-electrogenic NHE transport is notoriously difficult to detect with traditional methods. Using the NHE positive cell lines, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and NHE3-reconstituted mouse skin fibroblasts (MSF), the sensor exhibited a significant response to EIPA inhibition, whereas NHE-deficient MSF cells were unaffected by application of the inhibitor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Field-Effect Transistor Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Wire Tri-Gate Silicon Nanowires Reaching Milli-pH Unit Resolution in One Micron Square Footprint
Biosensors 2016, 6(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios6010009 - 15 Mar 2016
Cited by 16
Abstract
The signal-to-noise ratio of planar ISFET pH sensors deteriorates when reducing the area occupied by the device, thus hampering the scalability of on-chip analytical systems which detect the DNA polymerase through pH measurements. Top-down nano-sized tri-gate transistors, such as silicon nanowires, are designed [...] Read more.
The signal-to-noise ratio of planar ISFET pH sensors deteriorates when reducing the area occupied by the device, thus hampering the scalability of on-chip analytical systems which detect the DNA polymerase through pH measurements. Top-down nano-sized tri-gate transistors, such as silicon nanowires, are designed for high performance solid-state circuits thanks to their superior properties of voltage-to-current transduction, which can be advantageously exploited for pH sensing. A systematic study is carried out on rectangular-shaped nanowires developed in a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible technology, showing that reducing the width of the devices below a few hundreds of nanometers leads to higher charge sensitivity. Moreover, devices composed of several wires in parallel further increase the exposed surface per unit footprint area, thus maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio. This technology allows a sub milli-pH unit resolution with a sensor footprint of about 1 µm2, exceeding the performance of previously reported studies on silicon nanowires by two orders of magnitude. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Field-Effect Transistor Biosensors)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Current-Induced Transistor Sensorics with Electrogenic Cells
Biosensors 2016, 6(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios6020018 - 25 Apr 2016
Cited by 6
Abstract
The concepts of transistor recording of electroactive cells are considered, when the response is determined by a current-induced voltage in the electrolyte due to cellular activity. The relationship to traditional transistor recording, with an interface-induced response due to interactions with the open gate [...] Read more.
The concepts of transistor recording of electroactive cells are considered, when the response is determined by a current-induced voltage in the electrolyte due to cellular activity. The relationship to traditional transistor recording, with an interface-induced response due to interactions with the open gate oxide, is addressed. For the geometry of a cell-substrate junction, the theory of a planar core-coat conductor is described with a one-compartment approximation. The fast electrical relaxation of the junction and the slow change of ion concentrations are pointed out. On that basis, various recording situations are considered and documented by experiments. For voltage-gated ion channels under voltage clamp, the effects of a changing extracellular ion concentration and the enhancement/depletion of ion conductances in the adherent membrane are addressed. Inhomogeneous ion conductances are crucial for transistor recording of neuronal action potentials. For a propagating action potential, the effects of an axon-substrate junction and the surrounding volume conductor are distinguished. Finally, a receptor-transistor-sensor is described, where the inhomogeneity of a ligand–activated ion conductance is achieved by diffusion of the agonist and inactivation of the conductance. Problems with regard to a development of reliable biosensors are mentioned. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Field-Effect Transistor Biosensors)
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Open AccessReview
Droplet-based Biosensing for Lab-on-a-Chip, Open Microfluidics Platforms
Biosensors 2016, 6(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios6020014 - 14 Apr 2016
Cited by 23
Abstract
Low cost, portable sensors can transform health care by bringing easily available diagnostic devices to low and middle income population, particularly in developing countries. Sample preparation, analyte handling and labeling are primary cost concerns for traditional lab-based diagnostic systems. Lab-on-a-chip (LoC) platforms based [...] Read more.
Low cost, portable sensors can transform health care by bringing easily available diagnostic devices to low and middle income population, particularly in developing countries. Sample preparation, analyte handling and labeling are primary cost concerns for traditional lab-based diagnostic systems. Lab-on-a-chip (LoC) platforms based on droplet-based microfluidics promise to integrate and automate these complex and expensive laboratory procedures onto a single chip; the cost will be further reduced if label-free biosensors could be integrated onto the LoC platforms. Here, we review some recent developments of label-free, droplet-based biosensors, compatible with “open” digital microfluidic systems. These low-cost droplet-based biosensors overcome some of the fundamental limitations of the classical sensors, enabling timely diagnosis. We identify the key challenges that must be addressed to make these sensors commercially viable and summarize a number of promising research directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Field-Effect Transistor Biosensors)
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