Special Issue "Surface Plasmon Resonance for Biosensing"

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensor and Bioelectronic Devices".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Alessandro Fantoni
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
1. Centre of Technology and Systems (UNINOVA-CTS) FCT Campus, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
2. Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa (ISEL), R. Conselheiro Emídio Navarro 1, 1959-007 Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: photonic devices; semiconductor science; biomedical sensors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Point-of-care (POC) methods for medical screening and timely disease diagnosis, allowing a continuous general health state assessment, are central for the future development of health systems. From this point of view, biosensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effects can play a major role because of their high sensitivity, reduced fabrication process complexity, and high level of integration. They offer the potential to move proteomic biology into the clinical setting as a routine diagnostic procedure and surpass the technical challenge of conventional methods. The light-generated SPR phenomena depend on the fine-tuning of the wavelength against the geometry of the resonant structures and the optical properties of the materials that are used. Targeting the optimization of this key point, a large panorama of different structure configurations can be proposed, based on different schemes for plasmon generation and sensor interrogation methods, ranging from local nanoparticle response (LSPR), optical waveguides, optical fibers, and interferometers, to advanced structures where the SPR is enhanced by the mutual influence of different nanostructures with 2D materials. The overall performance of the resulting biosensor depends on the ability to immobilize specific antibodies while maintaining their biological activity, as well as providing antibodies accessibility to the analyte.

Surface Plasmon Resonance for Biosensing is a very interdisciplinary research playground and this Special Issue will serve as a vehicle for the dissemination of recent research in this exciting area. It is my pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript, research paper, or review, welcoming multiple perspectives related to this topic, widening from material science to biochemistry, nanotechnology, and low-power electronic systems.

Prof. Alessandro Fantoni
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)
  • Plasmonic waveguides and interferometers
  • Semiconductors and metals for plasmonic biosensors
  • 2D materials for plasmonic biosensors
  • Antibody functionalization of SPR sensors
  • Electronic acquisition system for SPR biosensors
  • Case studies and applications of SPR sensors

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Communication
Surface Plasmon Resonance for Protease Detection by Integration of Homogeneous Reaction
Biosensors 2021, 11(10), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11100362 - 29 Sep 2021
Viewed by 417
Abstract
The heterogeneous assays of proteases usually require the immobilization of peptide substrates on the solid surface for enzymatic hydrolysis reactions. However, immobilization of peptides on the solid surface may cause a steric hindrance to prevent the interaction between the substrate and the active [...] Read more.
The heterogeneous assays of proteases usually require the immobilization of peptide substrates on the solid surface for enzymatic hydrolysis reactions. However, immobilization of peptides on the solid surface may cause a steric hindrance to prevent the interaction between the substrate and the active center of protease, thus limiting the enzymatic cleavage of the peptide. In this work, we reported a heterogeneous surface plasmon resonance (SPR) method for protease detection by integration of homogeneous reaction. The sensitivity was enhanced by the signal amplification of streptavidin (SA)-conjugated immunoglobulin G (SA-IgG). Caspase-3 (Cas-3) was determined as the model. A peptide labeled with two biotin tags at the N- and C-terminals (bio-GDEVDGK-bio) was used as the substrate. In the absence of Cas-3, the substrate peptide was captured by neutravidin (NA)-covered SPR chip to facilitate the attachment of SA-IgG by the avidin-biotin interaction. However, once the peptide substrate was digested by Cas-3 in the aqueous phase, the products of bio-GDEVD and GK-bio would compete with the substrate to bond NA on the chip surface, thus limiting the attachment of SA-IgG. The method integrated the advantages of both heterogeneous and homogeneous assays and has been used to determine Cas-3 inhibitor and evaluate cell apoptosis with satisfactory results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Plasmon Resonance for Biosensing)
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Article
SPR-Based Kinetic Analysis of the Early Stages of Infection in Cells Infected with Human Coronavirus and Treated with Hydroxychloroquine
Biosensors 2021, 11(8), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11080251 - 26 Jul 2021
Viewed by 569
Abstract
Cell-based assays are a valuable tool for examination of virus–host cell interactions and drug discovery processes, allowing for a more physiological setting compared to biochemical assays. Despite the fact that cell-based SPR assays are label-free and thus provide all the associated benefits, they [...] Read more.
Cell-based assays are a valuable tool for examination of virus–host cell interactions and drug discovery processes, allowing for a more physiological setting compared to biochemical assays. Despite the fact that cell-based SPR assays are label-free and thus provide all the associated benefits, they have never been used to study viral growth kinetics and to predict drug antiviral response in cells. In this study, we prove the concept that the cell-based SPR assay can be applied in the kinetic analysis of the early stages of viral infection of cells and the antiviral drug activity in the infected cells. For this purpose, cells immobilized on the SPR slides were infected with human coronavirus HCov-229E and treated with hydroxychloroquine. The SPR response was measured at different time intervals within the early stages of infection. Methyl Thiazolyl Tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to provide the reference data. We found that the results of the SPR and MTT assays were consistent, and SPR is a reliable tool in investigating virus–host cell interaction and the mechanism of action of viral inhibitors. SPR assay was more sensitive and accurate in the first hours of infection within the first replication cycle, whereas the MTT assay was not so effective. After the second replication cycle, noise was generated by the destruction of the cell layer and by the remnants of dead cells, and masks useful SPR signals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Plasmon Resonance for Biosensing)
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Article
Plasmonic Interferometers as TREM2 Sensors for Alzheimer’s Disease
Biosensors 2021, 11(7), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11070217 - 01 Jul 2021
Viewed by 743
Abstract
We report an effective surface immobilization protocol for capture of Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells 2 (TREM2), a receptor whose elevated concentration in cerebrospinal fluid has recently been associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We employ the proposed surface functionalization scheme to design, [...] Read more.
We report an effective surface immobilization protocol for capture of Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells 2 (TREM2), a receptor whose elevated concentration in cerebrospinal fluid has recently been associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We employ the proposed surface functionalization scheme to design, fabricate, and assess a biochemical sensing platform based on plasmonic interferometry that is able to detect physiological concentrations of TREM2 in solution. These findings open up opportunities for label-free biosensing of TREM2 in its soluble form in various bodily fluids as an early indicator of the onset of clinical dementia in AD. We also show that plasmonic interferometry can be a powerful tool to monitor and optimize surface immobilization schemes, which could be applied to develop other relevant antibody tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Plasmon Resonance for Biosensing)
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Article
Optimization of High-Density Fe-Au Nano-Arrays for Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Biological Samples
Biosensors 2021, 11(6), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11060181 - 05 Jun 2021
Viewed by 766
Abstract
The method of realizing nanostructures using porous alumina templates has attracted interest due to the precise geometry and cheap cost of nanofabrication. In this work, nanoporous alumina membranes were utilized to realize a forest of nanowires, providing a bottom-up nanofabrication method suitable for [...] Read more.
The method of realizing nanostructures using porous alumina templates has attracted interest due to the precise geometry and cheap cost of nanofabrication. In this work, nanoporous alumina membranes were utilized to realize a forest of nanowires, providing a bottom-up nanofabrication method suitable for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Gold and iron were electroplated through the straight channels of the membrane. The resulting nanowires are, indeed, made of an active element for plasmonic resonance and SERS as the hexagonal distribution of the nanowires and the extreme high density of the nanowires allows to excite the plasmon and detect the Raman signal. The method to reduce the distance between pores and, consequently, the distance of the nanowires after electrodeposition is optimized here. Indeed, it has been predicted that the light intensity enhancement factor is up to 1012 when the gap is small than 10 nm. Measurements of Raman signal of thiol groups drying on the gold nanowires show that the performance of the device is improved. As the thiol group can be linked to proteins, the device has the potential of a biosensor for the detection of a few biomolecules. To assess the performance of the device and demonstrate its ability to analyze biological solutions, we used it as SERS substrates to examine solutions of IgG in low abundance ranges. The results of the test indicate that the sensor can convincingly detect biomolecules in physiologically relevant ranges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Plasmon Resonance for Biosensing)
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Article
A Novel Enzyme-Based SPR Strategy for Detection of the Antimicrobial Agent Chlorophene
Biosensors 2021, 11(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11020043 - 09 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 749
Abstract
Chlorophene is an important antimicrobial agent present in disinfectant products which has been related to health and environmental effects, and its detection has been limited to chromatographic techniques. Thus, there is a lack of research that attempts to develop new analytical tools, such [...] Read more.
Chlorophene is an important antimicrobial agent present in disinfectant products which has been related to health and environmental effects, and its detection has been limited to chromatographic techniques. Thus, there is a lack of research that attempts to develop new analytical tools, such as biosensors, that address the detection of this emerging pollutant. Therefore, a new biosensor for the direct detection of chlorophene in real water is presented, based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and using a laccase enzyme as a recognition element. The biosensor chip was obtained by covalent immobilization of the laccase on a gold-coated surface through carbodiimide esters. The analytical parameters accomplished resulted in a limit of detection and quantification of 0.33 mg/L and 1.10 mg/L, respectively, fulfilling the concentrations that have already been detected in environmental samples. During the natural river’s measurements, no significant matrix effects were observed, obtaining a recovery percentage of 109.21% ± 7.08, which suggested that the method was suitable for the fast and straightforward analysis of this contaminant. Finally, the SPR measurements were validated with an HPLC method, which demonstrated no significant difference in terms of precision and accuracy, leading to the conclusion that the biosensor reflects its potential as an alternative analytical tool for the monitoring of chlorophene in aquatic environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Plasmon Resonance for Biosensing)
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Review

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Review
An Overview of Artificial Olfaction Systems with a Focus on Surface Plasmon Resonance for the Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds
Biosensors 2021, 11(8), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11080244 - 23 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 898
Abstract
The last three decades have witnessed an increasing demand for novel analytical tools for the analysis of gases including odorants and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in various domains. Traditional techniques such as gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, although very efficient, present several [...] Read more.
The last three decades have witnessed an increasing demand for novel analytical tools for the analysis of gases including odorants and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in various domains. Traditional techniques such as gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, although very efficient, present several drawbacks. Such a context has incited the research and industrial communities to work on the development of alternative technologies such as artificial olfaction systems, including gas sensors, olfactory biosensors and electronic noses (eNs). A wide variety of these systems have been designed using chemiresistive, electrochemical, acoustic or optical transducers. Among optical transduction systems, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has been extensively studied thanks to its attractive features (high sensitivity, label free, real-time measurements). In this paper, we present an overview of the advances in the development of artificial olfaction systems with a focus on their development based on propagating SPR with different coupling configurations, including prism coupler, wave guide, and grating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Plasmon Resonance for Biosensing)
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Review
Gold Nanorods for LSPR Biosensing: Synthesis, Coating by Silica, and Bioanalytical Applications
Biosensors 2020, 10(10), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10100146 - 17 Oct 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2271
Abstract
Nanoparticles made of coinage metals are well known to display unique optical properties stemming from the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) phenomenon, allowing their use as transducers in various biosensing configurations. While most of the reports initially dealt with spherical gold nanoparticles owing [...] Read more.
Nanoparticles made of coinage metals are well known to display unique optical properties stemming from the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) phenomenon, allowing their use as transducers in various biosensing configurations. While most of the reports initially dealt with spherical gold nanoparticles owing to their ease of synthesis, the interest in gold nanorods (AuNR) as plasmonic biosensors is rising steadily. These anisotropic nanoparticles exhibit, on top of the LSPR band in the blue range common with spherical nanoparticles, a longitudinal LSPR band, in all respects superior, and in particular in terms of sensitivity to the surrounding media and LSPR-biosensing. However, AuNRs synthesis and their further functionalization are less straightforward and require thorough processing. In this paper, we intend to give an up-to-date overview of gold nanorods in LSPR biosensing, starting from a critical review of the recent findings on AuNR synthesis and the main challenges related to it. We further highlight the various strategies set up to coat AuNR with a silica shell of controlled thickness and porosity compatible with LSPR-biosensing. Then, we provide a survey of the methods employed to attach various bioreceptors to AuNR. Finally, the most representative examples of AuNR-based LSPR biosensors are reviewed with a focus put on their analytical performances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Plasmon Resonance for Biosensing)
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