Special Issue "Biomaterials and Biosensors: Current Advancements"

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Hafiz M. N. Iqbal
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Guest Editor
School of Engineering and Sciences, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Av. Eugenio Garza Sada 2501 Sur, Monterrey N.L. CP 64849, Mexico
Interests: bioengineering; biomedical engineering; environmental engineering; biosensors; biomaterials; drug delivery systems; bio-catalysis; enzymes; enzyme-based pollutant degradation; immobilization; toxic heavy elements; liquid and solid waste management; valorization of agro-industrial wastes and by-products
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, a great deal of focus has been shifted to engineer biomaterial-based cues, both at the micro- and nano levels, and biosensors with applied perspectives for target applications in different bio- and non-bio sectors of the modern world. The key scientific advancements in biotechnology at large and environmental and biomedical arena, in particular, have presented next generation concepts related to biomaterials. The utilization of properly designed and structured materials, thus, allows for the creation of well-defined sensing prototype that supports a series of directed events. For these reasons, we are pleased to launch this new special issue with two subsections.

The Part A of this Special Issue will glance at the state-of-the-art of recent trends and advances in biomaterials and biosensors that aim to greenify 21st-century environmental sciences. The increasing environmental pollution, with particular reference to emerging contaminants, toxic heavy elements, and other hazardous agents, is a serious concern worldwide. Considering this global issue, there is an urgent need to design and develop strategic measuring techniques with higher efficacy and precision to detect or remove a broader spectrum of numerous contaminants. Breakthrough research and review papers dealing with the removal or sensing of different contaminants types using biomaterials or biosensors, respectively, are welcome.

The Part B of this Special Issue will glance at the state-of-the-art of recent trends and advances in the use of biomaterials and biosensors to greenify 21st-century therapeutic regimens to combat health-related problems. This part of the Special Issue is thus intended to present and discuss recent breakthroughs in engineering therapeutic regimens using different types of biomaterials and biosensors. Spanning across all aspects, encompassing the fields of regenerative medicine, drug/gene delivery, and biomedical/medical imaging, are of supreme interests. Emphasis will be given to novel applications of biomaterials in pharmaceutical and biomedical areas that include, but are not limited to, nanotechnology, drug delivery, scaffolds, and so on.

The articles should address all important aspects encompassing the thematic aspects of this Special Issue. Research and reviews are welcome in this issue.

Dr. Hafiz M. N. Iqbal
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Bioengineering
  • Biomedical engineering
  • Environmental engineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Biosensors
  • Environmental
  • Biomedical
  • Environmental pollution
  • Monitoring/sensing
  • Point-of-care
  • Electrodes
  • Bio-imaging

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Use of an Insulation Layer on the Connection Tracks of a Biosensor with Coplanar Electrodes to Increase the Normalized Impedance Variation
Biosensors 2019, 9(3), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9030108 - 16 Sep 2019
Abstract
New technologies, such as biosensors and lab-on-a-chip, are reducing time consumption and costs for the detection and characterization of biological cells. One challenge is to detect and characterize cells and bacteria one by one or at a very low concentration. In this case, [...] Read more.
New technologies, such as biosensors and lab-on-a-chip, are reducing time consumption and costs for the detection and characterization of biological cells. One challenge is to detect and characterize cells and bacteria one by one or at a very low concentration. In this case, measurements have very low variations that can be difficult to detect. In this article, the use of an insulation layer on the connection tracks of a biosensor with coplanar electrodes is proposed to improve a biosensor previously developed. The impedance spectroscopy technique was used to analyze the influence of the insulation layer on the cutoff frequencies and on the normalized impedance variation. This solution does not induce changes in the cutoff frequencies, though it permits improving the normalized impedance variations, compared to the same biosensor without the insulation layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Biosensors: Current Advancements)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Toolkit for Characterizing the Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Engineered Neural Tissues
Biosensors 2019, 9(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9020051 - 01 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
We have designed and validated a set of robust and non-toxic protocols for directly evaluating the properties of engineered neural tissue. These protocols characterize the mechanical properties of engineered neural tissues and measure their electrophysical activity. The protocols obtain elastic moduli of very [...] Read more.
We have designed and validated a set of robust and non-toxic protocols for directly evaluating the properties of engineered neural tissue. These protocols characterize the mechanical properties of engineered neural tissues and measure their electrophysical activity. The protocols obtain elastic moduli of very soft fibrin hydrogel scaffolds and voltage readings from motor neuron cultures. Neurons require soft substrates to differentiate and mature, however measuring the elastic moduli of soft substrates remains difficult to accurately measure using standard protocols such as atomic force microscopy or shear rheology. Here we validate a direct method for acquiring elastic modulus of fibrin using a modified Hertz model for thin films. In this method, spherical indenters are positioned on top of the fibrin samples, generating an indentation depth that is then correlated with elastic modulus. Neurons function by transmitting electrical signals to one another and being able to assess the development of electrical signaling serves is an important verification step when engineering neural tissues. We then validated a protocol wherein the electrical activity of motor neural cultures is measured directly by a voltage sensitive dye and a microplate reader without causing damage to the cells. These protocols provide a non-destructive method for characterizing the mechanical and electrical properties of living spinal cord tissues using novel biosensing methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Biosensors: Current Advancements)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Suppressing Non-Specific Binding of Proteins onto Electrode Surfaces in the Development of Electrochemical Immunosensors
Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010015 - 18 Jan 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
Electrochemical immunosensors, EIs, are systems that combine the analytical power of electrochemical techniques and the high selectivity and specificity of antibodies in a solid phase immunoassay for target analyte. In EIs, the most used transducer platforms are screen printed electrodes, SPEs. Some characteristics [...] Read more.
Electrochemical immunosensors, EIs, are systems that combine the analytical power of electrochemical techniques and the high selectivity and specificity of antibodies in a solid phase immunoassay for target analyte. In EIs, the most used transducer platforms are screen printed electrodes, SPEs. Some characteristics of EIs are their low cost, portability for point of care testing (POCT) applications, high specificity and selectivity to the target molecule, low sample and reagent consumption and easy to use. Despite all these attractive features, still exist one to cover and it is the enhancement of the sensitivity of the EIs. In this review, an approach to understand how this can be achieved is presented. First, it is necessary to comprise thoroughly all the complex phenomena that happen simultaneously in the protein-surface interface when adsorption of the protein occurs. Physicochemical properties of the protein and the surface as well as the adsorption phenomena influence the sensitivity of the EIs. From this point, some strategies to suppress non-specific binding, NSB, of proteins onto electrode surfaces in order to improve the sensitivity of EIs are mentioned. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Biosensors: Current Advancements)
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Open AccessReview
Emerging Applications of Porphyrins and Metalloporphyrins in Biomedicine and Diagnostic Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Biosensors 2018, 8(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8040095 - 19 Oct 2018
Cited by 26
Abstract
In recent years, scientific advancements have constantly increased at a significant rate in the field of biomedical science. Keeping this in view, the application of porphyrins and metalloporphyrins in the field of biomedical science is gaining substantial importance. Porphyrins are the most widely [...] Read more.
In recent years, scientific advancements have constantly increased at a significant rate in the field of biomedical science. Keeping this in view, the application of porphyrins and metalloporphyrins in the field of biomedical science is gaining substantial importance. Porphyrins are the most widely studied tetrapyrrole-based compounds because of their important roles in vital biological processes. The cavity of porphyrins containing four pyrrolic nitrogens is well suited for the binding majority of metal ions to form metalloporphyrins. Porphyrins and metalloporphyrins possess peculiar photochemical, photophysical, and photoredox properties which are tunable through structural modifications. Their beneficial photophysical properties, such as the long wavelength of emission and absorption, high singlet oxygen quantum yield, and low in vivo toxicity, have drawn scientists’ interest to discover new dimensions in the biomedical field. Applications of porphyrins and metalloporphyrins have been pursued in the perspective of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer, bio-imaging, and other biomedical applications. This review discusses photophysics and the photochemistry of porphyrins and their metal complexes. Secondly, it explains the current developments and mode of action for contrast agents for MRI. Moreover, the application of porphyrin and metalloporphyrin-based molecules as a photosensitizer in PDT of cancer, the mechanism of the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), factors that determine the efficiency of PDT, and the developments to improve this technology are delineated. The last part explores the most recent research and developments on metalloporphyrin-based materials in bio-imaging, drug delivery, and the determination of ferrochelatase in bone marrow indicating their prospective clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Biosensors: Current Advancements)
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