Allergic Diseases and Asthma: Molecular Diagnosis and Precision Medicine

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Immunology and Immunotherapy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2024 | Viewed by 4652

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Pius Brinzeu Emergency Clinical County Hospital Timisoara, Timisoara, Romania
Interests: allergy; precision medicine; molecular diagnosis; biological therapies

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the rapidly evolving field of biomedicine, the intersection of allergic diseases and asthma with molecular diagnostics and precision medicine presents a frontier of transformative potential. This Special Issue aims to shed light on cutting-edge advancements and novel discoveries in this realm. We invite contributions that delve into the molecular mechanisms underpinning allergic reactions and asthma, as well as the latest diagnostic tools enabling more accurate disease stratification. Furthermore, this issue emphasizes the importance of elucidating the molecular and cellular processes of allergic and asthmatic reactions, in order to provide state-of-the-art diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Emphasizing a holistic approach, this issue seeks to address a wide range of topics from basic molecular insights to advanced therapeutic strategies, ensuring a comprehensive coverage of the field. We encourage submissions that span from basic research to clinical applications, hoping to foster an interdisciplinary dialogue that pushes the boundaries of our current knowledge and paves the way for next-generation care in allergy and asthma.

Dr. Carmen Panaitescu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • allergic diseases
  • molecular diagnostics
  • precision medicine
  • biomarkers
  • diagnostic tools
  • personalized medicine
  • omics integration

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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20 pages, 5648 KiB  
Article
Experimental Insights on the Use of Secukinumab and Magnolol in Acute Respiratory Diseases in Mice
by Andrei Gheorghe Vicovan, Diana Cezarina Petrescu, Daniela Constantinescu, Elena Iftimi, Irina Teodora Cernescu, Codrina Mihaela Ancuta, Cezar-Cătălin Caratașu, Laurențiu Șorodoc, Alexandr Ceasovschih, Carmen Solcan and Cristina Mihaela Ghiciuc
Biomedicines 2024, 12(7), 1538; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines12071538 - 11 Jul 2024
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Abstract
This study investigates the combined treatment of secukinumab (SECU) and magnolol (MAGN) in a mouse model of LPS-induced ALI overlapped with allergic pulmonary inflammation, aiming to better understand the mechanism behind this pathology and to assess the therapeutic potential of this novel approach [...] Read more.
This study investigates the combined treatment of secukinumab (SECU) and magnolol (MAGN) in a mouse model of LPS-induced ALI overlapped with allergic pulmonary inflammation, aiming to better understand the mechanism behind this pathology and to assess the therapeutic potential of this novel approach in addressing the severity of ALI. The combined treatment reveals intricate immunomodulatory effects. Both treatments inhibit IL-17 and promote M2 macrophage polarization, which enhances anti-inflammatory cytokine production such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13, crucial for lung repair and inflammation resolution. However, the combination treatment exacerbates allergic responses and increases OVA-specific IgE, potentially worsening ALI outcomes. MAGN pretreatment alone demonstrates higher potency in reducing neutrophils and enhancing IFN-γ, suggesting its potential in mitigating severe asthma symptoms and modulating immune responses. The study highlights the need for careful consideration in therapeutic applications due to the combination treatment’s inability to reduce IL-6 and its potential to exacerbate allergic inflammation. Elevated IL-6 levels correlate with worsened oxygenation and increased mortality in ALI patients, underscoring its critical role in disease severity. These findings offer valuable insights for the advancement of precision medicine within the realm of respiratory illnesses, emphasizing the importance of tailored therapeutic strategies. Full article
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9 pages, 1828 KiB  
Article
Limited Clinical Impact of Genetic Associations between Celiac Disease and Type 2 Inflammatory Diseases: Insights from Mendelian Randomization
by Mahmud Omar, Mohammad Omar, Salih Nassar, Adi Lahat and Kassem Sharif
Biomedicines 2024, 12(7), 1429; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines12071429 - 27 Jun 2024
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Abstract
Background: Celiac disease, a gluten-triggered autoimmune disorder, is known for its systemic inflammatory effects. Its genetic associations with type 2 inflammatory diseases like asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis remain unclear, prompting this study to explore their potential genetic interplay. Methods: Utilizing two-sample [...] Read more.
Background: Celiac disease, a gluten-triggered autoimmune disorder, is known for its systemic inflammatory effects. Its genetic associations with type 2 inflammatory diseases like asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis remain unclear, prompting this study to explore their potential genetic interplay. Methods: Utilizing two-sample Mendelian randomization (TSMR), we examined the genetic associations using 15 genetic instruments from GWAS datasets. Our analysis focused on celiac disease and its relation to asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and IgE-mediated food allergies. A power analysis was conducted to determine the study’s detection capabilities, and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using various MR methods. Results: Our Mendelian randomization analysis identified statistically significant genetic associations between celiac disease and several type 2 inflammatory diseases, although these were practically insignificant. Specifically, celiac disease was associated with a slight increase in the risk of atopic dermatitis (OR = 1.037) and a minor protective effect against asthma (OR = 0.97). The link with allergic rhinitis was statistically detectable (OR = 1.002) but practically negligible. Despite robust statistical confirmation through various sensitivity analyses, all observed effects remained within the range of practical equivalence (ROPE). Conclusions: Our study identifies potential genetic associations between celiac disease and certain type 2 inflammatory diseases. However, these associations, predominantly within the ROPE range, suggest only limited clinical implications. These findings highlight the need for cautious interpretation and indicate that further exploration for clinical applications may not be warranted at this stage. Full article
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11 pages, 1391 KiB  
Article
Dupilumab Efficacy on Asthma Functional, Inflammatory, and Patient-Reported Outcomes across Different Disease Phenotypes and Severity: A Real-Life Perspective
by Marco Caminati, Matteo Maule, Roberto Benoni, Diego Bagnasco, Bianca Beghè, Fulvio Braido, Luisa Brussino, Paolo Cameli, Maria Giulia Candeliere, Giovanna Elisiana Carpagnano, Giulia Costanzo, Claudia Crimi, Mariella D’Amato, Stefano Del Giacco, Gabriella Guarnieri, Mona-Rita Yacoub, Claudio Micheletto, Stefania Nicola, Bianca Olivieri, Laura Pini, Michele Schiappoli, Rachele Vaia, Andrea Vianello, Dina Visca, Antonio Spanevello and Gianenrico Sennaadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Biomedicines 2024, 12(2), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines12020390 - 8 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1748
Abstract
Dupilumab is currently approved for the treatment of Type 2 severe asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Few studies have specifically reported on dupilumab efficacy on asthma outcomes as a primary objective in a real-life setting, in patients with and without [...] Read more.
Dupilumab is currently approved for the treatment of Type 2 severe asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Few studies have specifically reported on dupilumab efficacy on asthma outcomes as a primary objective in a real-life setting, in patients with and without CRSwNP. Our study aimed to explore the efficacy of dupilumab on functional, inflammatory, and patient-reported outcomes in asthma patients across different disease phenotypes and severity, including mild-to-moderate asthma coexisting with CRSwNP. Data from 3, 6, and 12 months follow-up were analyzed. Asthma (FEV1%, Tiffeneau%, ACT, FeNO, oral steroid use, exacerbation rate, and blood eosinophilia) and polyposis (SNOT22, VAS, NPS) outcomes showed a rapid (3 months) and sustained (6 and 12 months) significant change from baseline, despite most of the patients achieving oral steroid withdrawal. According to the sensitivity analysis, the improvement was not conditioned by either the presence of polyposis or severity of asthma at baseline. Of note, even in the case of milder asthma forms, a significant further improvement was recorded during dupilumab treatment course. Our report provides short-, medium-, and long-term follow-up data on asthma outcomes across different diseases phenotypes and severity, contributing to the real-world evidence related to dupilumab efficacy on upper and lower airways T2 inflammation. Full article
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Review

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26 pages, 2162 KiB  
Review
Insight into IL-5 as a Potential Target for the Treatment of Allergic Diseases
by Katarzyna Antosz, Joanna Batko, Marta Błażejewska, Antoni Gawor, Jakub Sleziak and Krzysztof Gomułka
Biomedicines 2024, 12(7), 1531; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines12071531 - 10 Jul 2024
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Abstract
Interleukin-5 functions as a B-cell differentiation factor, but more importantly, in the context of this review, it plays a variety of roles in eosinophil biology, including eosinophil differentiation and maturation in the bone marrow, and facilitates eosinophil migration to tissue sites, usually in [...] Read more.
Interleukin-5 functions as a B-cell differentiation factor, but more importantly, in the context of this review, it plays a variety of roles in eosinophil biology, including eosinophil differentiation and maturation in the bone marrow, and facilitates eosinophil migration to tissue sites, usually in the context of an allergic reaction. Given the availability of selective anti-IL-5 drugs such as mepolizumab and reslizumab, as well as the IL-5 receptor antagonist benralizumab, it is worth investigating whether they could be used in some cases of allergic disease. Asthma has a well-documented involvement of IL-5 in its pathophysiology and has clear benefits in the case of anti-IL-5 therapy; therefore, current knowledge is presented to provide a reference point for the study of less-described diseases such as atopic dermatitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, chronic spontaneous urticaria, and its association with both IL-5 and anti-IL-5 treatment options. We then review the current literature on these diseases, explain where appropriate potential reasons why anti-IL-5 treatments are ineffective, and then point out possible future directions for further research. Full article
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18 pages, 714 KiB  
Review
Unraveling the Link between Ιnsulin Resistance and Bronchial Asthma
by Konstantinos Bartziokas, Andriana I. Papaioannou, Fotios Drakopanagiotakis, Evanthia Gouveri, Nikolaos Papanas and Paschalis Steiropoulos
Biomedicines 2024, 12(2), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines12020437 - 16 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1585
Abstract
Evidence from large epidemiological studies has shown that obesity may predispose to increased Th2 inflammation and increase the odds of developing asthma. On the other hand, there is growing evidence suggesting that metabolic dysregulation that occurs with obesity, and more specifically hyperglycemia and [...] Read more.
Evidence from large epidemiological studies has shown that obesity may predispose to increased Th2 inflammation and increase the odds of developing asthma. On the other hand, there is growing evidence suggesting that metabolic dysregulation that occurs with obesity, and more specifically hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, may modify immune cell function and in some degree systemic inflammation. Insulin resistance seldom occurs on its own, and in most cases constitutes a clinical component of metabolic syndrome, along with central obesity and dyslipidemia. Despite that, in some cases, hyperinsulinemia associated with insulin resistance has proven to be a stronger risk factor than body mass in developing asthma. This finding has been supported by recent experimental studies showing that insulin resistance may contribute to airway remodeling, promotion of airway smooth muscle (ASM) contractility and proliferation, increase of airway hyper-responsiveness and release of pro-inflammatory mediators from adipose tissue. All these effects indicate the potential impact of hyperinsulinemia on airway structure and function, suggesting the presence of a specific asthma phenotype with insulin resistance. Epidemiologic studies have found that individuals with severe and uncontrolled asthma have a higher prevalence of glycemic dysfunction, whereas longitudinal studies have linked glycemic dysfunction to an increased risk of asthma exacerbations. Since the components of metabolic syndrome interact with one another so much, it is challenging to identify each one’s specific role in asthma. This is why, over the last decade, additional studies have been conducted to determine whether treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus affects comorbid asthma as shown by the incidence of asthma, asthma control and asthma-related exacerbations. The purpose of this review is to present the mechanism of action, and existing preclinical and clinical data, regarding the effect of insulin resistance in asthma. Full article
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