Special Issue "Advanced Tissue Engineering Scaffolds"

A special issue of Bioengineering (ISSN 2306-5354).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Julian F. Dye

Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: bio-intelligent scaffolds; structure-function relationships; wound healing; angiogenesis; clinical development; regulation of tissue engineered manufacture
Guest Editor
Dr. Naresh Kasoju

Division of Tissue Culture, Biomedical Technology Wing Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology Thiruvananthapuram - 695012, Kerala, India
Website | E-Mail
Interests: structure-function relationships; surface functionalization; cell encapsulation; gene expression; mesenchymal stem cells; vascularisation; immunomodulation; decellularisation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The concept of tissue engineering scaffolds has different meanings for different subdisciplines, ranging from essentially inert to essentially functional. Undoubtedly, there are important cell biology cues that scaffolds can orchestrate and which could, for example, spawn a generation of scaffolds with ancillary medical actions. There are also structures and functional requirements that are now increasingly recognized. Arguably, the recent diversification of clinical scaffold products reflects the understanding of the need for hierarchical structure and porosity tuned to specific clinical applications. This is reflected by the current array of different types of the scaffold and correspondingly diverse manufacturing methods. Advances in scaffold technologies can be usefully viewed through the lens of effective clinical therapy. It is incumbent on the community as a whole to bring effective, expedient, and affordable tissue-engineering-inspired approaches through the translational pathway to clinical and commercial reality, to address the massive global need for affordable treatments. This view involves major challenges, and this means that there are opportunities for achieving these goals. These exist throughout the R&D pathway, from concept mining and invention, and effective proof-of-concept studies to clinical manufacturing translation, including process efficiencies and regulatory strategy; and, not least of all, effective and robust trial design to support clinical translation.

This Special Issue is open to any contribution which addresses the theme of advanced scaffolds, especially those that impact on the need to bring effective technologies to produce the widest public benefit. Topics include, but are not limited to the following:

Keywords:

  • Scaffold biomaterials including proteins, polysaccharides, polymers, metals, ceramics and composites

  • Scaffold fabrication techniques, including electrospinning, phase separation and 3D printing

  • Structure-function relationship studies in tissue engineering

  • Reconstructive and therapeutic tissue engineering, cell encapsulation, and disease biology models

  • Decellularisation and recellularization technologies in tissue engineering

  • Specialized topics including organ-on-chip models, modular tissue engineering, interfacial/junctional tissue engineering.

The first round submission deadline: 31 October 2017

Dr. Julian F. Dye
Dr. Naresh Kasoju
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Bioengineering is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Core-Shell Nanofibrous Scaffold Based on Polycaprolactone-Silk Fibroin Emulsion Electrospinning for Tissue Engineering Applications
Bioengineering 2018, 5(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5030068
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
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Abstract
The vast domain of regenerative medicine comprises complex interactions between specific cells’ extracellular matrix (ECM) towards intracellular matrix formation, its secretion, and modulation of tissue as a whole. In this domain, engineering scaffold utilizing biomaterials along with cells towards formation of living tissues
[...] Read more.
The vast domain of regenerative medicine comprises complex interactions between specific cells’ extracellular matrix (ECM) towards intracellular matrix formation, its secretion, and modulation of tissue as a whole. In this domain, engineering scaffold utilizing biomaterials along with cells towards formation of living tissues is of immense importance especially for bridging the existing gap of late; nanostructures are offering promising capability of mechano-biological response needed for tissue regeneration. Materials are selected for scaffold fabrication by considering both the mechanical integrity and bioactivity cues they offer. Herein, polycaprolactone (PCL) (biodegradable polyester) and ‘nature’s wonder’ biopolymer silk fibroin (SF) are explored in judicious combinations of emulsion electrospinning rather than conventional electrospinning of polymer blends. The water in oil (W/O) emulsions’ stability is found to be dependent upon the concentration of SF (aqueous phase) dispersed in the PCL solution (organic continuous phase). The spinnability of the emulsions is more dependent upon the viscosity of the solution, dominated by the molecular weight of PCL and its concentration than the conductivity. The nanofibers exhibited distinct core-shell structure with better cytocompatibility and cellular growth with the incorporation of the silk fibroin biopolymer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Tissue Engineering Scaffolds)
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Open AccessArticle A Precisely Flow-Controlled Microfluidic System for Enhanced Pre-Osteoblastic Cell Response for Bone Tissue Engineering
Bioengineering 2018, 5(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5030066
Received: 3 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 12 August 2018
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Abstract
Bone tissue engineering provides advanced solutions to overcome the limitations of currently used therapies for bone reconstruction. Dynamic culturing of cell-biomaterial constructs positively affects the cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we present a precisely flow-controlled microfluidic system employed for the investigation
[...] Read more.
Bone tissue engineering provides advanced solutions to overcome the limitations of currently used therapies for bone reconstruction. Dynamic culturing of cell-biomaterial constructs positively affects the cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we present a precisely flow-controlled microfluidic system employed for the investigation of bone-forming cell responses cultured on fibrous collagen matrices by applying two flow rates, 30 and 50 μL/min. We characterized the collagen substrates morphologically by means of scanning electron microscopy, investigated their viscoelastic properties, and evaluated the orientation, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation capacity of pre-osteoblastic cells cultured on them. The cells are oriented along the direction of the flow at both rates, in contrast to a random orientation observed under static culture conditions. The proliferation of cells after 7 days in culture was increased at both flow rates, with the flow rate of 50 μL/min indicating a significant increase compared to the static culture. The alkaline phosphatase activity after 7 days increased at both flow rates, with the rate of 30 μL/min indicating a significant enhancement compared to static conditions. Our results demonstrate that precisely flow-controlled microfluidic cell culture provides tunable control of the cell microenvironment that directs cellular activities involved in bone regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Tissue Engineering Scaffolds)
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Open AccessArticle Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Healthy and Diseased Human Gingiva Support Osteogenesis on Electrospun Polycaprolactone Scaffolds
Bioengineering 2018, 5(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5010008
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 17 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 23 January 2018
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Abstract
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting almost half of the adult US population. Gingiva is an integral part of the periodontium and has recently been identified as a source of adult gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs). Given the prevalence of periodontitis, the
[...] Read more.
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting almost half of the adult US population. Gingiva is an integral part of the periodontium and has recently been identified as a source of adult gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs). Given the prevalence of periodontitis, the purpose of this study is to evaluate differences between GMSCs derived from healthy and diseased gingival tissues and explore their potential in bone engineering. Primary clonal cell lines were established from harvested healthy and diseased gingival and characterized for expression of known stem-cell markers and multi-lineage differentiation potential. Finally, they were cultured on electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds and evaluated for attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. Flow cytometry demonstrated cells isolated from healthy and diseased gingiva met the criteria defining mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, GMSCs from diseased tissue showed decreased colony-forming unit efficiency, decreased alkaline phosphatase activity, weaker osteoblast mineralization, and greater propensity to differentiate into adipocytes than their healthy counterparts. When cultured on electrospun PCL scaffolds, GMSCs from both sources showed robust attachment and proliferation over a 7-day period; they exhibited high mineralization as well as strong expression of alkaline phosphatase. Our results show preservation of ‘stemness’ and osteogenic potential of GMSC even in the presence of disease, opening up the possibility of using routinely discarded, diseased gingival tissue as an alternate source of adult MSCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Tissue Engineering Scaffolds)
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Open AccessArticle Design of Three-Dimensional Scaffolds with Tunable Matrix Stiffness for Directing Stem Cell Lineage Specification: An In Silico Study
Bioengineering 2017, 4(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering4030066
Received: 26 June 2017 / Revised: 24 July 2017 / Accepted: 25 July 2017 / Published: 27 July 2017
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (3028 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tissue engineering is a multi-disciplinary area of research bringing together the fields of engineering and life sciences with the aim of fabricating tissue constructs aiding in the regeneration of damaged tissues and organs. Scaffolds play a key role in tissue engineering, acting as
[...] Read more.
Tissue engineering is a multi-disciplinary area of research bringing together the fields of engineering and life sciences with the aim of fabricating tissue constructs aiding in the regeneration of damaged tissues and organs. Scaffolds play a key role in tissue engineering, acting as the templates for tissue regeneration and guiding the growth of new tissue. The use of stem cells in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine becomes indispensable, especially for applications involving successful long-term restoration of continuously self-renewing tissues, such as skin. The differentiation of stem cells is controlled by a number of cues, of which the nature of the substrate and its innate stiffness plays a vital role in stem cell fate determination. By tuning the substrate stiffness, the differentiation of stem cells can be directed to the desired lineage. Many studies on the effect of substrate stiffness on stem cell differentiation has been reported, but most of those studies are conducted with two-dimensional (2D) substrates. However, the native in vivo tissue microenvironment is three-dimensional (3D) and life science researchers are moving towards 3D cell cultures. Porous 3D scaffolds are widely used by the researchers for 3D cell culture and the properties of such scaffolds affects the cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. To this end, the design of porous scaffolds directly influences the stem cell fate determination. There exists a need to have 3D scaffolds with tunable stiffness for directing the differentiation of stem cells into the desired lineage. Given the limited number of biomaterials with all the desired properties, the design of the scaffolds themselves could be used to tune the matrix stiffness. This paper is an in silico study, investigating the effect of various scaffold parameter, namely fiber width, porosity, number of unit cells per layer, number of layers, and material selection, on the matrix stiffness, thereby offering a guideline for design of porous tissue engineering scaffolds with tunable matrix stiffness for directing stem cell lineage specification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Tissue Engineering Scaffolds)
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Growth of Human Keratinocytes and Oral Cancer Cells into Microtissues: An Aerosol-Based Microencapsulation Technique
Bioengineering 2017, 4(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering4020043
Received: 10 April 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 14 May 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (10036 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cells encapsulation is a micro-technology widely applied in cell and tissue research, tissue transplantation, and regenerative medicine. In this paper, we proposed a growth of microtissue model for the human keratinocytes (HaCaT) cell line and an oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell line
[...] Read more.
Cells encapsulation is a micro-technology widely applied in cell and tissue research, tissue transplantation, and regenerative medicine. In this paper, we proposed a growth of microtissue model for the human keratinocytes (HaCaT) cell line and an oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell line (ORL-48) based on a simple aerosol microencapsulation technique. At an extrusion rate of 20 μL/min and air flow rate of 0.3 L/min programmed in the aerosol system, HaCaT and ORL-48 cells in alginate microcapsules were encapsulated in microcapsules with a diameter ranging from 200 to 300 μm. Both cell lines were successfully grown into microtissues in the microcapsules of alginate within 16 days of culture. The microtissues were characterized by using a live/dead cell viability assay, field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), fluorescence staining, and cell re-plating experiments. The microtissues of both cell types were viable after being extracted from the alginate membrane using alginate lyase. However, the microtissues of HaCaT and ORL-48 demonstrated differences in both nucleus size and morphology. The microtissues with re-associated cells in spheroids are potentially useful as a cell model for pharmacological studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Tissue Engineering Scaffolds)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Honey-Based Templates in Wound Healing and Tissue Engineering
Bioengineering 2018, 5(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5020046
Received: 14 March 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
Over the past few decades, there has been a resurgence in the clinical use of honey as a topical wound treatment. A plethora of in vitro and in vivo evidence supports this resurgence, demonstrating that honey debrides wounds, kills bacteria, penetrates biofilm, lowers
[...] Read more.
Over the past few decades, there has been a resurgence in the clinical use of honey as a topical wound treatment. A plethora of in vitro and in vivo evidence supports this resurgence, demonstrating that honey debrides wounds, kills bacteria, penetrates biofilm, lowers wound pH, reduces chronic inflammation, and promotes fibroblast infiltration, among other beneficial qualities. Given these results, it is clear that honey has a potential role in the field of tissue engineering and regeneration. Researchers have incorporated honey into tissue engineering templates, including electrospun meshes, cryogels, and hydrogels, with varying degrees of success. This review details the current state of the field, including challenges which have yet to be overcome, and makes recommendations for the direction of future research in order to develop effective tissue regeneration therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Tissue Engineering Scaffolds)
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