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Open AccessArticle

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Healthy and Diseased Human Gingiva Support Osteogenesis on Electrospun Polycaprolactone Scaffolds

1
Philips Institute, School of Dentistry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
2
Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284, USA
3
Department of General Practice, School of Dentistry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Currently affiliation: Department of Oral Biology, Dental College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.
Bioengineering 2018, 5(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5010008
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 17 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 23 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Tissue Engineering Scaffolds)
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting almost half of the adult US population. Gingiva is an integral part of the periodontium and has recently been identified as a source of adult gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs). Given the prevalence of periodontitis, the purpose of this study is to evaluate differences between GMSCs derived from healthy and diseased gingival tissues and explore their potential in bone engineering. Primary clonal cell lines were established from harvested healthy and diseased gingival and characterized for expression of known stem-cell markers and multi-lineage differentiation potential. Finally, they were cultured on electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds and evaluated for attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. Flow cytometry demonstrated cells isolated from healthy and diseased gingiva met the criteria defining mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, GMSCs from diseased tissue showed decreased colony-forming unit efficiency, decreased alkaline phosphatase activity, weaker osteoblast mineralization, and greater propensity to differentiate into adipocytes than their healthy counterparts. When cultured on electrospun PCL scaffolds, GMSCs from both sources showed robust attachment and proliferation over a 7-day period; they exhibited high mineralization as well as strong expression of alkaline phosphatase. Our results show preservation of ‘stemness’ and osteogenic potential of GMSC even in the presence of disease, opening up the possibility of using routinely discarded, diseased gingival tissue as an alternate source of adult MSCs. View Full-Text
Keywords: gingiva; mesenchymal stem cells; electrospinning; scaffolds; bone tissue engineering; osteogenesis; alkaline phosphatase; alizarin red gingiva; mesenchymal stem cells; electrospinning; scaffolds; bone tissue engineering; osteogenesis; alkaline phosphatase; alizarin red
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jauregui, C.; Yoganarasimha, S.; Madurantakam, P. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Healthy and Diseased Human Gingiva Support Osteogenesis on Electrospun Polycaprolactone Scaffolds. Bioengineering 2018, 5, 8.

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