Special Issue "Rural and Remote Aerosol"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Aerosols".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Timothy D. Gordon

Handix Scientific, Boulder, CO, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: aerosol optical properties; optical instruments; secondary organic aerosol; combustion emissions

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

For this Special Issue we seek the best contemporary research on rural and remote continental aerosol. We encourage colleagues to think creatively and broadly about how their work may relate to these geographic regions so we may represent a diverse segment of the current state-of-the-art. We are interested in understanding both how sparsely populated regions are affected by exogenous aerosol sources and how particles produced and/or transformed in these regions affect other areas, both near and far. Regular papers, negative results, short papers and discussion/position papers are welcomed. If in doubt about the suitability of the research for the SI, potential authors are invited to discuss the idea with the Guest Editor before preparing the paper.

The following is a non-exhaustive list of paper topics of interest:

-Role of oil and gas drilling/production in aerosol generation

-Validation/Verification of aerosol predictions from models

-Recent developments to improve satellite retrievals of aerosols in remote continental regions

-Aerosol impacts (e.g., visibility) in national parks or other public lands

-Aerosol transport to/from rural/remote areas

-Trends in aerosol composition in rural/remote areas

-Biomass burning (e.g., wildfires, prescribed burns, agricultural fires)

-Optical properties of aerosol

-Radiative forcing

-Impacts of on- and off-road combustion emissions in rural/remote locations

-Instrumental biases

-Spatial variability of aerosol at any scales

-Campaign results

-New observational techniques/tools

-Small/networked autonomous sensors for remote deployment

-Applications (insurance, agriculture, hazards, etc.)

-Temporal variability of aerosol

-Longitudinal studies tracking changing patterns of urban/rural pollution

-Secondary organic aerosol formation/impacts

-Biological aerosols (e.g., pollen, dust)

-Health effects

-Geoengineering

-Quantitative air quality policy analysis

-Environmental justice

Dr. Timothy D. Gordon
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Intercomparison of Multiple Satellite Aerosol Products against AERONET over the North China Plain
Atmosphere 2019, 10(9), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10090480
Received: 12 July 2019 / Revised: 14 August 2019 / Accepted: 20 August 2019 / Published: 21 August 2019
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Abstract
In this study, using Aerosol Robotic Network aerosol optical depth (AOD) products at three stations in the North China Plain (NCP)—a heavily polluted region in China—the AOD products from six satellite-borne radiometers: the Moderate Resolution Imagining Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), [...] Read more.
In this study, using Aerosol Robotic Network aerosol optical depth (AOD) products at three stations in the North China Plain (NCP)—a heavily polluted region in China—the AOD products from six satellite-borne radiometers: the Moderate Resolution Imagining Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), Ozone Mapping Imaging (OMI), the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer (VIIRS), the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), and Polarization and Directionality of the Earth’s Reflectances (POLDER), were thoroughly validated, shedding new light on their advantages and disadvantages. The MODIS Deep Blue (DB) products provide more accurate retrievals than the MODIS Dark Target (DT) and other satellite products at the Beijing site (BJ,a megacity), with higher correlations with AERONET (R > 0.93), lower mean absolute bias (MB < 0.012), and higher percentages (>68%) falling within the expected error (EE). All MODIS DT and DB products perform better than the other satellite products at the Xianghe site (XH, a suburb). The MODIS/Aqua DT products at both 3-km and 10-km resolutions performed better than the other space-borne AOD products at the Xinglong site (XL, a rural area at the top of a mountain). MISR, VIIRS, and SeaWiFS tend to underestimate high AOD values and overestimate AOD values under very low AOD conditions in the NCP. Both OMI and POLDER significantly underestimate the AOD. In terms of data volume, MISR with the limited swath width of 380 km has less data volume than the other satellite sensors. MODIS products have the highest sampling rate, especially the MODIS DT and DB merged products, and can be used for various climate study and air-quality monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rural and Remote Aerosol)
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Aqua-MODIS C6 and C6.1 Aerosol Optical Depth Products in the Yellow River Basin, China
Atmosphere 2019, 10(8), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10080426
Received: 19 May 2019 / Revised: 19 July 2019 / Accepted: 20 July 2019 / Published: 24 July 2019
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Abstract
In this study, Aqua-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection (C6) and C6.1 Dark Target aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals at 3 km (DT3K) and 10 km (DT10K), Deep Blue AOD retrievals at 10 km (DB10K), and combined DT and DB (DTB) AOD retrievals [...] Read more.
In this study, Aqua-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection (C6) and C6.1 Dark Target aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals at 3 km (DT3K) and 10 km (DT10K), Deep Blue AOD retrievals at 10 km (DB10K), and combined DT and DB (DTB) AOD retrievals at 10 km resolutions were validated from 2002 to 2014 against ground-based sunphotometer AOD measurements obtained from the Chinese aerosol remote sensing network (CARSNET). The CARSNET AOD data were obtained for sites at Mt. Waliguan (MW), Lanzhou (LZ), Ulate (UL), and Zhengzhou (ZZ) located in the Yellow River basin (YERB) region, China. Errors and agreement between satellite and ground data were reported using Pearson’s correlation (R) and relative mean bias (RMB). Results showed that the DT3K C6.1 highest quality flag (QF = 3) AOD retrievals were well correlated with the sunphotometer AOD data, with an R of 0.82 and an RMB of 1.01. Overestimation and underestimation in DT AOD retrievals were observed for AOD > 1.1 and AOD < 1.1, respectively. A significant underestimation of 37% in DB10K AOD retrievals was observed across all the sites except ZZ, which was indicated by a low-value RMB (0.63). Spatial distribution maps showed high AOD values (>0.8) over the lower part of the YERB and low AOD values (<0.4) across the upstream part of the YERB. This might be due to a large number of aerosol emissions over the lower developed areas and a scarcity of aerosols over the upstream mountain areas. Overall, this study supports the use of DT10K C6.1 AOD retrievals over the western semi-arid and arid regions of the YERB and DTB10K AOD retrievals over the north-central water system and eastern plain regions of the YERB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rural and Remote Aerosol)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Straw Open Burning Prohibition Effect on Provincial Air Quality during October and November 2018 in Jilin Province
Atmosphere 2019, 10(7), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10070375
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 30 June 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
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Abstract
Generally, the period (i.e., October and November) was seriously affected by frequent atmospheric pollution under concentrative seasonal crop residue burning and coal burning in Jilin Province, Northeast China. A strict straw open burning ban policy was implemented in Jilin Province during October and [...] Read more.
Generally, the period (i.e., October and November) was seriously affected by frequent atmospheric pollution under concentrative seasonal crop residue burning and coal burning in Jilin Province, Northeast China. A strict straw open burning ban policy was implemented in Jilin Province during October and November 2018. However, the quantitative effect of straw fire control and its effect on air quality are still unclear. In this study, using multisource data, we evaluated the status of straw-burning control and its contribution to air quality improvement in late autumn and early winter (i.e., October and November) of 2018 at a provincial level. The results showed that the open burning of straw was effectively controlled in October and November 2018 by comparing farmland fire point data to those collected in 2015–2017. There were significant positive correlations among the fire points, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and ground-monitored air quality index (AQI) on a spatial scale. The concentration values of AQI, PM2.5, and PM10 were significantly lower than for the other three years of 2015, 2016, and 2017. Based on meteorological analysis, similar conditions were found in 2018 and 2017, which were worse than that in 2016. Combined with emissions, meteorological conditions, and source apportionment information, if the straw-burning control of 2018 had been performed in 2016 and 2017, the PM2.5 concentrations could have been reduced by at least 30.6%. These results suggest the necessity of straw burning control in the improvement of air quality during the period of late autumn and early winter. Nevertheless, the comprehensive impact of straw-burning control on air quality should be further evaluated for the whole post-harvest period (i.e., October to April of the following year) as the straw-burning period can be postponed in some cities. Furthermore, the establishment of a scientific and reasonable planned burning of straw is also crucial in gradually reducing atmospheric pollution and the actual operation of local governments in those areas where straw can be burned under certain conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rural and Remote Aerosol)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Air Quality and Potential Health Risk Impacts of Exposure to Bacterial Aerosol in a Waste Sorting Plant Located in the Mountain Region of Southern Poland, Around Which There Are Numerous Rural Areas
Atmosphere 2019, 10(7), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10070360
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 20 June 2019 / Accepted: 28 June 2019 / Published: 29 June 2019
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Abstract
Many studies have shown an association between working in waste sorting plants (SP) and occupational health problems, such as skin irritation or pulmonary diseases. These symptoms have been related to biological aerosol exposure. The main goal of this work was to assess the [...] Read more.
Many studies have shown an association between working in waste sorting plants (SP) and occupational health problems, such as skin irritation or pulmonary diseases. These symptoms have been related to biological aerosol exposure. The main goal of this work was to assess the levels of concentration and the characteristics of bacterial aerosols in waste sorting plants, based on measurements taken in a plant located in the mountain region of Southern Poland, around which there are numerous rural areas. The average concentrations of culturable bacterial aerosol (CCBA) collected in the unloading hall of the waste sorting plant (UHSP) and the outdoor air of the sorting plant (OSP) were 2687 CFU/m3 and 1138 CFU/m3, respectively. Sampling was undertaken in the plant using an Andersen six-stage impactor (with aerodynamic cut-off diameters of 7.0, 4.7, 3.3, 2.1, 1.1, and 0.65 μm), during the spring of 2019. Size distributions were unimodal, with a peak in particle bacterial aerodynamic diameters at less than 3.3 µm, increasing the potentially adverse health effects of their inhalation. An analysis was conducted to determine the antibiotic resistance of isolated strains of bacteria. During the study, it was found that isolates belonging to the genus Bacillus were most frequently detected in the waste sorting plant. Isolates with the highest resistance to antibiotics belonged to the genus Neisseria. This test indicates that the use of personal protective equipment is necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rural and Remote Aerosol)
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