Special Issue "Detection and Monitoring of Bioaerosols"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Aerosols".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Zaheer Ahmad Nasar

School of Water, Energy and Environment, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: aerosols emissions; bioaerosols; air quality; air health in built environments; airborne disease transmission; biosecurity; environmental sensors; emission control technologies

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bioaerosols are ubiquitous both indoors and outdoors and play a critical role in environmental processes and human health. However, the nature and magnitude of their emissions may have major implications for public health, biosecurity, agriculture, hydrological cycles, climate change, and economy. Detection and monitoring of bioaerosols is a prerequisite to comprehending their role and impact and subsequent development of any warning and/or control strategies. Of late, there has been a growing scientific interest to understand bioaerosols emissions in different environments due to various anthropogenic and natural drivers shifting their sources and the resultant concerns on their wide-ranging societal impact. To date, a large number of studies have been carried out to investigate their abundance and composition in a range of environments from a local to a global scale. However, recent technological developments in detection and characterization of bioaerosols can advance our knowledge on physicochemical properties, diversity, and distribution of bioaerosols across different temporal and spatial scales in complex real-world environments.

This Special Issue is intended to not only review the existing state of knowledge on bioaerosols emissions in different environments (indoors and outdoors) across local, regional, and global scales but also to provide insight into ongoing developments in the field of bioaerosols detection and monitoring. Both chamber and real-world studies characterizing bioaerosols are welcome. Studies focusing on bioaerosols instrumentations and detection and monitoring focusing on non-culture-based methods are particularly encouraged.

Dr. Zaheer Ahmad Nasar
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • instrumentation and techniques for bioaerosols sampling and detection
  • physical and biological properties of bioaerosols
  • indoor bioaerosols
  • occupational bioaerosols
  • infectious bioaerosols
  • airborne disease transmission
  • agricultural bioaerosols
  • fate, transport, and transformation of bioaerosols
  • atmospheric bioaerosols
  • biosecurity and biosafety

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Aerosol Microbiome over the Mediterranean Sea Diversity and Abundance
Atmosphere 2019, 10(8), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10080440
Received: 18 June 2019 / Revised: 20 July 2019 / Accepted: 24 July 2019 / Published: 1 August 2019
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Abstract
Prokaryotic microbes can become aerosolized and deposited into new environments located thousands of kilometers away from their place of origin. The Mediterranean Sea is an oligotrophic to ultra-oligotrophic marginal sea, which neighbors northern Africa (a major source of natural aerosols) and Europe (a [...] Read more.
Prokaryotic microbes can become aerosolized and deposited into new environments located thousands of kilometers away from their place of origin. The Mediterranean Sea is an oligotrophic to ultra-oligotrophic marginal sea, which neighbors northern Africa (a major source of natural aerosols) and Europe (a source of mostly anthropogenic aerosols). Previous studies demonstrated that airborne bacteria deposited during dust events over the Mediterranean Sea may significantly alter the ecology and function of the surface seawater layer, yet little is known about their abundance and diversity during ‘background’ non-storm conditions. Here, we describe the abundance and genetic diversity of airborne bacteria in 16 air samples collected over an East-West transect of the entire Mediterranean Sea during non-storm conditions in April 2011. The results show that airborne bacteria represent diverse groups with the most abundant bacteria from the Firmicutes (Bacilli and Clostridia) and Proteobacteria (Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria) phyla. Most of the bacteria in our samples have previously been observed in the air at other open ocean locations, in the air over the Mediterranean Sea during dust storms, and in the Mediterranean seawater. Airborne bacterial abundance ranged from 0.7 × 104 to 2.5 × 104 cells m−3 air, similar to abundances at other oceanic regimes. Our results demonstrate that airborne bacterial diversity is positively correlated with the mineral dust content in the aerosols and was spatially separated between major basins of the Mediterranean Sea. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive biogeographical dataset to assess the diversity and abundance of airborne microbes over the Mediterranean Sea. Our results shed light on the spatiotemporal distribution of airborne microbes and may have implications for dispersal and distribution of microbes (biogeography) in the ocean. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detection and Monitoring of Bioaerosols)
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Open AccessArticle
Dust-Associated Airborne Microbes Affect Primary and Bacterial Production Rates, and Eukaryotes Diversity, in the Northern Red Sea: A Mesocosm Approach
Atmosphere 2019, 10(7), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10070358
Received: 17 June 2019 / Revised: 25 June 2019 / Accepted: 26 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
PDF Full-text (5227 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The northern Red Sea (NRS) is a low-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (LNLC) ecosystem with high rates of atmospheric deposition due to its proximity to arid regions. Impacts of atmospheric deposition on LNLC ecosystems have been attributed to the chemical constituents of dust, while overlooking bioaerosols. [...] Read more.
The northern Red Sea (NRS) is a low-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (LNLC) ecosystem with high rates of atmospheric deposition due to its proximity to arid regions. Impacts of atmospheric deposition on LNLC ecosystems have been attributed to the chemical constituents of dust, while overlooking bioaerosols. Understanding how these vast areas of the ocean will respond to future climate and anthropogenic change hinges on the response of microbial communities to these changes. We tested the impacts of bioaerosols on the surface water microbial diversity and the primary and bacterial production rates in the NRS, a system representative of other LNLC oceanic regions, using a mesocosm bioassay experiment. By treating NRS surface seawater with dust, which contained nutrients, metals, and viable organisms, and “UV-treated dust” (which contained only nutrients and metals), we were able to assess the impacts of bioaerosols on local natural microbial populations. Following amendments (20 and 44 h) the incubations treated with “live dust” showed different responses than those with UV-treated dust. After 44 h, primary production was suppressed (as much as 50%), and bacterial production increased (as much as 55%) in the live dust treatments relative to incubations amended with UV-treated dust or the control. The diversity of eukaryotes was lower in treatments with airborne microbes. These results suggest that the airborne microorganisms and viruses alter the surface microbial ecology of the NRS. These results may have implications for the carbon cycle in LNLC ecosystems, which are expanding and are especially important since dust storms are predicted to increase in the future due to desertification and expansion of arid regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detection and Monitoring of Bioaerosols)
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Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between Air-Mass Trajectories and the Abundance of Dust-Borne Prokaryotes at the SE Mediterranean Sea
Atmosphere 2019, 10(5), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10050280
Received: 1 May 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 18 May 2019 / Published: 20 May 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2240 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Airborne prokaryotes are transported along with dust/aerosols, yet very little attention is given to their temporal variability above the oceans and the factors that govern their abundance. We analyzed the abundance of autotrophic (cyanobacteria) and heterotopic airborne microbes in 34 sampling events between [...] Read more.
Airborne prokaryotes are transported along with dust/aerosols, yet very little attention is given to their temporal variability above the oceans and the factors that govern their abundance. We analyzed the abundance of autotrophic (cyanobacteria) and heterotopic airborne microbes in 34 sampling events between 2015–2018 at a coastal site in the SE Mediterranean Sea. We show that airborne autotrophic (0.2–7.6 cells × 103 m−3) and heterotrophic (0.2–30.6 cells × 103 m−3) abundances were affected by the origin and air mass trajectory, and the concentration of dust/aerosols in the air, while seasonality was not coherent. The averaged ratio between heterotrophic and autotrophic prokaryotes in marine-dominated trajectories was ~1.7 ± 0.6, significantly lower than for terrestrial routes (6.8 ± 6.1). Airborne prokaryotic abundances were linearly and positively correlated to the concentrations of total aerosol, while negatively correlated with the aerosol’s anthropogenic fraction (using Pb/Al or Cu/Al ratios as proxies). While aerosols may play a major role in dispersing terrestrial and marine airborne microbes in the SE Mediterranean Sea, the mechanisms involved in the dispersal and diversity of airborne microorganisms remain to be studied and should include standardization in collection and analysis protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detection and Monitoring of Bioaerosols)
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