Special Issue "The Impacts of Climate Change on Atmospheric Circulations"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Climatology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (24 July 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Paul W. Staten
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405-1405, USA
Interests: climate dynamics; atmospheric dynamics; climate change; remote sensing; tropical widening
Dr. Muyin Wang
Website
Guest Editor
Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and the Ocean, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105, USA
Interests: Arctic climate change; sea-ice prediction; Arctic-mid-latitude linkage
Dr. Yutian Wu
Website
Guest Editor
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY, 10964, USA
Interests: climate dynamics; climate change; Arctic-mid-latitude linkage; stratosphere–troposphere coupling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Twenty-nine years after the publication of the IPCC First Assessment Report, efforts are ramping up to coordinate Assessment Report Six. With each successive report, the connectedness of climate change is brought into ever sharper relief. The connection between society’s choices and the environmental outcomes is increasingly clear; atmosphere–ocean coupling is appreciated at an ever deeper level, and the connections between changes in atmospheric chemistry, thermodynamics, and dynamics are treated more explicitly in treatments of the atmosphere. Even the connection between climate science and society is manifest in the reports’ evolving structures, as the reports begin to discuss how adaptation and preventative measures could be implemented.

Studies of the local impacts of climate change on specific sectors of society demand that observations and simulations be connected to inform regional change, which itself results from interactions across scales. Statistical downscaling, dynamical downscaling, and machine learning all leverage these connections in complementary ways. Attribution studies connect individual events to the new climate we have found ourselves in, and mechanistic studies of circulation change increasingly connect multiple circulation regimes—from the nearly barotropic tropics to the quasi-geostrophic midlatitudes, boundary layer turbulence, and the laminar free atmosphere above.

This Special Issue of Atmosphere aims to (1) capture the current state of our understanding of the interconnected atmospheric circulation response to global warming using models and observations, and to (2) highlight key areas where the horizon of our understanding is currently being advanced. Topics specifically encouraged include:

  • Arctic–mid-latitude interactions;
  • Tropical–extratropical interactions;
  • Troposphere–stratosphere interactions, including the interplay between chemistry and dynamics;
  • Atmosphere–ocean–cryosphere coupled variability and change;
  • Land–atmosphere coupling, including biosphere–atmosphere coupling;
  • Interactions between scales.

Dr. Paul W. Staten
Dr. Muyin Wang
Dr. Yutian Wu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • climate variability
  • climate change
  • global warming
  • climate dynamics
  • atmospheric dynamics
  • atmospheric chemistry
  • tropical-extratropical interactions
  • arctic-midlatitude interactions
  • troposphere-stratosphere coupling
  • coupled variability
  • general circulation models
  • atmospheric, oceanic, and cryospheric observation
  • land-atmosphere coupling
  • biosphere-atmosphere coupling

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Editorial “The Impacts of Climate Change on Atmospheric Circulations”
Atmosphere 2020, 11(11), 1163; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11111163 - 27 Oct 2020
Viewed by 507
Abstract
Understanding the atmospheric general circulation is, in a way, analogous to cleaning a large home [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impacts of Climate Change on Atmospheric Circulations)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Quasi-Biennial Oscillation and Sudden Stratospheric Warmings during the Last Glacial Maximum
Atmosphere 2020, 11(9), 943; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11090943 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 656
Abstract
The quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are investigated in simulations using the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model version 6 (WACCM6). We find that the period of QBO, which is 27 months in the preindustrial [...] Read more.
The quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are investigated in simulations using the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model version 6 (WACCM6). We find that the period of QBO, which is 27 months in the preindustrial and modern climate simulations, was 33 months in the LGM simulation using the proxy sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and 41 months using the model-based LGM SSTs. We show that the longer QBO period in the LGM is due to weaker wave forcing. The WACCM6 simulations of the LGM, preindustrial, and modern climates do not support previous modeling work that suggests that the QBO amplitude is smaller (larger) in a warmer (colder) climate. We find that SSWs in the LGM occurred later in the year, as compared to the preindustrial and modern climate, but that time of the final warming was similar. The difference in SSW frequency is inconclusive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impacts of Climate Change on Atmospheric Circulations)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
The Polar Vortex and Extreme Weather: The Beast from the East in Winter 2018
Atmosphere 2020, 11(6), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11060664 - 22 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1067
Abstract
Public attention has recently focused on high-impact extreme weather events in midlatitudes that originate in the sub-Arctic. We investigate movements of the stratospheric polar vortex (SPV) and related changes in lower atmospheric circulation during the February-March 2018 “Beast from the East” cold winter [...] Read more.
Public attention has recently focused on high-impact extreme weather events in midlatitudes that originate in the sub-Arctic. We investigate movements of the stratospheric polar vortex (SPV) and related changes in lower atmospheric circulation during the February-March 2018 “Beast from the East” cold winter event that dramatically affected much of Europe and north-central North America. This study demonstrates that the movement of the SPV is a key linkage in late winter subarctic and northern midlatitude extreme weather events. February–March 2018 saw two types of subarctic-midlatitude weather connections. In the first type, the SPV was displaced from the pole to lower latitudes over North America in February and then was found over northern Siberia in March. Mid-February and mid-March are examples of persistent near vertically aligned geopotential height structures of the atmospheric circulation. These structures over North America and Eurasia advected cold Arctic air southward. The second type of cold surface event was associated with a weak regional SPV and a sudden stratospheric warming event over Europe during the second half of February. These late winter linkage events that arise through dynamic instabilities of the SPV are more common in the last decade, but the potential role of enhanced Arctic amplification is uncertain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impacts of Climate Change on Atmospheric Circulations)
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Open AccessArticle
Horizontal Temperature Fluxes in the Arctic in CMIP5 Model Results Analyzed with Self-Organizing Maps
Atmosphere 2020, 11(3), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11030251 - 02 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 737
Abstract
The meridional temperature gradient between mid and high latitudes decreases by Arctic amplification. Following this decrease, the circulation in the mid latitudes may change and, therefore, the meridional flux of heat and moisture increases. This might increase the Arctic temperatures even further. A [...] Read more.
The meridional temperature gradient between mid and high latitudes decreases by Arctic amplification. Following this decrease, the circulation in the mid latitudes may change and, therefore, the meridional flux of heat and moisture increases. This might increase the Arctic temperatures even further. A proxy for the vertically integrated atmospheric horizontal energy flux was analyzed using the self-organizing-map (SOM) method. Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) model data of the historical and Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) experiments were analyzed to extract horizontal flux patterns. These patterns were analyzed for changes between and within the respective experiments. It was found that the general horizontal flux patterns are reproduced by all models and in all experiments in comparison with reanalyses. By comparing the reanalysis time frame with the respective historical experiments, we found that the general occurrence frequencies of the patterns differ substantially. The results show that the general structure of the flux patterns is not changed when comparing the historical and RCP8.5 results. However, the amplitudes of the fluxes are decreasing. It is suggested that the amplitudes are smaller in the RCP8.5 results compared to the historical results, following a greater meandering of the jet stream, which yields smaller flux amplitudes of the cluster mean. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impacts of Climate Change on Atmospheric Circulations)
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Open AccessArticle
North American Winter Dipole: Observed and Simulated Changes in Circulations
Atmosphere 2019, 10(12), 793; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10120793 - 07 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1211
Abstract
In recent years, a pair of large-scale circulation patterns consisting of an anomalous ridge over northwestern North America and trough over northeastern North America was found to accompany extreme winter weather events such as the 2013–2015 California drought and eastern U.S. cold outbreaks. [...] Read more.
In recent years, a pair of large-scale circulation patterns consisting of an anomalous ridge over northwestern North America and trough over northeastern North America was found to accompany extreme winter weather events such as the 2013–2015 California drought and eastern U.S. cold outbreaks. Referred to as the North American winter dipole (NAWD), previous studies have found both a marked natural variability and a warming-induced amplification trend in the NAWD. In this study, we utilized multiple global reanalysis datasets and existing climate model simulations to examine the variability of the winter planetary wave patterns over North America and to better understand how it is likely to change in the future. We compared between pre- and post-1980 periods to identify changes to the circulation variations based on empirical analysis. It was found that the leading pattern of the winter planetary waves has changed, from the Pacific–North America (PNA) mode to a spatially shifted mode such as NAWD. Further, the potential influence of global warming on NAWD was examined using multiple climate model simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impacts of Climate Change on Atmospheric Circulations)
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Open AccessArticle
Modified Three-Dimensional Jet Indices and Their Application to East Asia
Atmosphere 2019, 10(12), 776; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10120776 - 04 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 594
Abstract
A set of three-dimensional jet indices (jet speed index, jet pressure index, jet latitude index) has been proposed in previous literature to describe the variation of jet streams in both the horizontal and vertical direction. We refer to these indices at the ‘AC’ [...] Read more.
A set of three-dimensional jet indices (jet speed index, jet pressure index, jet latitude index) has been proposed in previous literature to describe the variation of jet streams in both the horizontal and vertical direction. We refer to these indices at the ‘AC’ indices, after the names of the researchers involved. However, the physical meaning of the AC indices and the relationship between AC indices and climate systems are not fully understood. Further study is still needed for applying the indices in East Asia (70°–140° E). In this study, based on the understanding of the physical meaning of the AC indices, latitudinal ranges of East Asian jet streams are determined, and a set of modified AC indices is proposed. Based on the modified AC indices, the linear trends in East Asian jet streams are studied, and the relationship between East Asian jet streams and the climate is researched. The results show that the jet speed index corresponds to the meridional temperature gradient (MTG) of the middle to upper troposphere (500–200 hPa); the jet pressure index corresponds to the pressure level at which the MTG equals zero; and the jet latitude reflects the meridional MTG distribution. The latitudinal ranges of jet streams are determined based on the meridional profiles of climatological zonal-mean zonal winds. Within such a latitudinal range, the climatological zonal-mean zonal winds between 400 and 100 hPa are only westerly, and the maximum wind speed in the vertical direction at every latitude appears between 400 and 100 hPa. The jet streams can be further classified according to the features of the profiles. For East Asia (70°–140° E), jet streams can be classified into winter subtropical jet streams (15°–47.5° N), summer subtropical jet streams (27.5°–60° N), and summer polar front jet streams (60°–87.5° N). The classification of jet streams can be supported by their correspondence to the distribution of tropospheric baroclinicity. A set of modified AC indices can be acquired by using the new ranges of East Asian jet streams in the definition of the original AC indices. Descriptions of jet streams using the modified AC indices are more in accordance with the distributional features of the climatological zonal winds over East Asia, and the physical meanings of the modified AC indices are more definite than the original indices. Using the modified AC indices, we find a significant weakening trend in the strength of the summer subtropical jet stream (−0.13 m/s/10 yr) and a significant northward shift of the winter subtropical jet stream (0.22°/10 yr), and the possible reasons for these trends are studied. Finally, the relationships of East Asian jet streams in winter and summer with atmospheric circulation, temperature, and precipitation are also investigated in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impacts of Climate Change on Atmospheric Circulations)
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