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Open AccessArticle

North American Winter Dipole: Observed and Simulated Changes in Circulations

1
Department of Plants, Soils and Climate/Utah Climate Center, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322, USA
2
School of Earth Sciences and Environmental Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 61005, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current affiliation: National Science and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction, New Taipei City 23143, Taiwan.
Current affiliation: Department of Environmental and Forest Biology, SUNY-ESF, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(12), 793; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10120793
Received: 17 October 2019 / Revised: 26 November 2019 / Accepted: 30 November 2019 / Published: 7 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impacts of Climate Change on Atmospheric Circulations)
In recent years, a pair of large-scale circulation patterns consisting of an anomalous ridge over northwestern North America and trough over northeastern North America was found to accompany extreme winter weather events such as the 2013–2015 California drought and eastern U.S. cold outbreaks. Referred to as the North American winter dipole (NAWD), previous studies have found both a marked natural variability and a warming-induced amplification trend in the NAWD. In this study, we utilized multiple global reanalysis datasets and existing climate model simulations to examine the variability of the winter planetary wave patterns over North America and to better understand how it is likely to change in the future. We compared between pre- and post-1980 periods to identify changes to the circulation variations based on empirical analysis. It was found that the leading pattern of the winter planetary waves has changed, from the Pacific–North America (PNA) mode to a spatially shifted mode such as NAWD. Further, the potential influence of global warming on NAWD was examined using multiple climate model simulations. View Full-Text
Keywords: North American winter dipole; climate variability; PNA North American winter dipole; climate variability; PNA
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Chien, Y.-T.; Wang, S.-Y.S.; Chikamoto, Y.; Voelker, S.L.; Meyer, J.D.D.; Yoon, J.-H. North American Winter Dipole: Observed and Simulated Changes in Circulations. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 793.

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