Next Article in Journal
Implicit Definition of Flow Patterns in Street Canyons—Recirculation Zone—Using Exploratory Quantitative and Qualitative Methods
Next Article in Special Issue
Horizontal Temperature Fluxes in the Arctic in CMIP5 Model Results Analyzed with Self-Organizing Maps
Previous Article in Journal
The Impact of Green Roofs on the Parameters of the Environment in Urban Areas—Review
Previous Article in Special Issue
Modified Three-Dimensional Jet Indices and Their Application to East Asia

North American Winter Dipole: Observed and Simulated Changes in Circulations

Department of Plants, Soils and Climate/Utah Climate Center, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322, USA
School of Earth Sciences and Environmental Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 61005, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current affiliation: National Science and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction, New Taipei City 23143, Taiwan.
Current affiliation: Department of Environmental and Forest Biology, SUNY-ESF, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(12), 793;
Received: 17 October 2019 / Revised: 26 November 2019 / Accepted: 30 November 2019 / Published: 7 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impacts of Climate Change on Atmospheric Circulations)
In recent years, a pair of large-scale circulation patterns consisting of an anomalous ridge over northwestern North America and trough over northeastern North America was found to accompany extreme winter weather events such as the 2013–2015 California drought and eastern U.S. cold outbreaks. Referred to as the North American winter dipole (NAWD), previous studies have found both a marked natural variability and a warming-induced amplification trend in the NAWD. In this study, we utilized multiple global reanalysis datasets and existing climate model simulations to examine the variability of the winter planetary wave patterns over North America and to better understand how it is likely to change in the future. We compared between pre- and post-1980 periods to identify changes to the circulation variations based on empirical analysis. It was found that the leading pattern of the winter planetary waves has changed, from the Pacific–North America (PNA) mode to a spatially shifted mode such as NAWD. Further, the potential influence of global warming on NAWD was examined using multiple climate model simulations. View Full-Text
Keywords: North American winter dipole; climate variability; PNA North American winter dipole; climate variability; PNA
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Chien, Y.-T.; Wang, S.-Y.S.; Chikamoto, Y.; Voelker, S.L.; Meyer, J.D.D.; Yoon, J.-H. North American Winter Dipole: Observed and Simulated Changes in Circulations. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 793.

AMA Style

Chien Y-T, Wang S-YS, Chikamoto Y, Voelker SL, Meyer JDD, Yoon J-H. North American Winter Dipole: Observed and Simulated Changes in Circulations. Atmosphere. 2019; 10(12):793.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chien, Yu-Tang, S.-Y. Simon Wang, Yoshimitsu Chikamoto, Steve L. Voelker, Jonathan D. D. Meyer, and Jin-Ho Yoon. 2019. "North American Winter Dipole: Observed and Simulated Changes in Circulations" Atmosphere 10, no. 12: 793.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop