Special Issue "Climate Change and Air Pollution in Portugal"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Air Quality".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2021) | Viewed by 6053

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Alexandra Monteiro
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) & Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: air quality; atmospheric emissions; air quality modeling; climate change; air quality integrated assessment
Dr. David Carvalho
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) & Department of Physics, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: numerical weather prediction;atmospheric modelling; renewable energies;climate simulation and modelling;climate variability and change;data assimilation;atmospheric motion vectors;observation system simulation experiments (OSSEs)
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Carla Gama
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) & Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: air quality; air quality modelling; long-range transport of desert dust; photochemical pollution; impact of weather events on air quality

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Air pollution and climate change are two of the greatest environmental health stressors of our time. Over the last decade, awareness that air quality and climate change are related in many ways has substantially increased. A current concern is the need to mitigate climate change impacts while improving air quality. The interactions between these two environmental concerns are nonlinear and continue to be a matter of intense study.

This Special Issue aims to present new contributions on both air pollution and climate change, with a focus over the Portugal area. Studies that focus over the Iberian Peninsula are also welcome. We encourage submissions that address the multiple links between air quality and climate change and that characterize the impacts of these environmental stressors, either alone or jointly. This can include all kinds of studies such as statistical studies based on analysis of pollutant concentrations and weather and climate indicators; impact studies focused on human health and ecosystem effects; studies that investigate the tradeoffs and co-benefits that may be gained from reducing anthropogenic emissions, including short- and long-lived greenhouse gases; or studies regarding vegetation/nature-based solution (NBS) impacts on atmosphere. We are also particularly interested in contributions that integrate policies and practices that may help to mitigate or adapt to climate change, as well as improving air quality.

Dr. Alexandra Monteiro
Dr. David Carvalho
Dr. Carla Gama
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Air quality
  • Climate change
  • Emissions
  • Human health
  • Vegetation
  • Nature-based solutions
  • Air quality and climate change plans
  • Air quality and climate change co-benefits
  • Environmental policies

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Article
Assessing Heatwaves and Their Association with North African Dust Intrusions in the Algarve (Portugal)
Atmosphere 2021, 12(9), 1090; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12091090 - 24 Aug 2021
Viewed by 716
Abstract
Heatwaves are an extreme meteorological event in which affected populations may also be exposed to deteriorated air quality conditions due to the increase in air pollutant concentrations, such as PM10 (particulate matter < 10 µg/m3). In order to identify heatwaves [...] Read more.
Heatwaves are an extreme meteorological event in which affected populations may also be exposed to deteriorated air quality conditions due to the increase in air pollutant concentrations, such as PM10 (particulate matter < 10 µg/m3). In order to identify heatwaves (1973–2019) in the region of Faro (Algarve) during the hot season (April–September), the Excess Heat Factor (EHF) index was applied. The Mann–Kendall test revealed an upward trend in three heatwave metrics in Faro, and the trend of accumulated heat load (EHF load) was also positive as would be expected, but its signal was not statistically significant. An inventory of North African dust events (2006–2019) was made, and their simultaneous occurrence with heatwaves was assessed, pointing to only 20% of dust events of the Sahara occurring simultaneously with heatwave days. A cluster analysis was conducted on daily geopotential height fields at 850 hPa level over the 2006–2019 period, and four distinct patterns were identified as the most prominent synoptic circulations promoting both heatwave conditions and North African dust over the Algarve. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Air Pollution in Portugal)
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Article
Heating and Cooling Degree-Days Climate Change Projections for Portugal
Atmosphere 2021, 12(6), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12060715 - 01 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1187
Abstract
Climate change is expected to influence cooling and heating energy demand of residential buildings and affect overall thermal comfort. Towards this end, the heating (HDD) and cooling (CDD) degree-days along with HDD + CDD were computed from an ensemble of seven high-resolution bias-corrected [...] Read more.
Climate change is expected to influence cooling and heating energy demand of residential buildings and affect overall thermal comfort. Towards this end, the heating (HDD) and cooling (CDD) degree-days along with HDD + CDD were computed from an ensemble of seven high-resolution bias-corrected simulations attained from EURO-CORDEX under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). These three indicators were analyzed for 1971–2000 (from E-OBS) and 2011–2040, and 2041–2070, under both RCPs. Results predict a decrease in HDDs most significant under RCP8.5. Conversely, it is projected an increase of CDD values for both scenarios. The decrease in HDDs is projected to be higher than the increase in CDDs hinting to an increase in the energy demand to cool internal environments in Portugal. Statistically significant linear CDD trends were only found for 2041–2070 under RCP4.5. Towards 2070, higher(lower) CDD (HDD and HDD + CDD) anomaly amplitudes are depicted, mainly under RCP8.5. Within the five NUTS II regions projections revealed for 2041–2070 a decrease in heating requirements for Algarve and Lisbon Area higher in Faro, Lisboa and Setúbal whereas for North and Center regions results predicts an increase in cooling energy demand mainly in Bragança, Vila Real, Braga, Viana do Castelo, Porto and Guarda, higher under RCP8.5. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Air Pollution in Portugal)
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Article
Carbon Neutrality Pathways Effects on Air Pollutant Emissions: The Portuguese Case
Atmosphere 2021, 12(3), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12030324 - 02 Mar 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1350
Abstract
Air pollution and climate change are closely interlinked, once both share common emission sources, which mainly arise from fuel combustion and industrial processes. Climate mitigation actions bring co-benefits on air quality and human health. However, specific solutions can provide negative trade-offs for one [...] Read more.
Air pollution and climate change are closely interlinked, once both share common emission sources, which mainly arise from fuel combustion and industrial processes. Climate mitigation actions bring co-benefits on air quality and human health. However, specific solutions can provide negative trade-offs for one side. The Portuguese Carbon Neutrality Roadmap was developed to assess conceivable cost-effective pathways to achieve zero net carbon emissions by 2050. Assessing its impacts, on air pollutant emissions, is the main focus of the present work. The bottom-up linear optimization energy system the integrated MARKAL-EFOM system (TIMES) model was selected as a modeling tool for the decarbonization scenarios assessment. The estimation of air pollutant emissions was performed exogenously to the TIMES model. Results show that reaching net zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is possible, and technologically feasible, in Portugal, by 2050. The crucial and most cost-effective vector for decarbonizing the national economy is the end-use energy consumption electrification, renewable based, across all end-use sectors. Decarbonization efforts were found to have strong co-benefits for reducing air pollutant emissions in Portugal. Transport and power generation are the sectors with the greatest potential to reduce GHG emissions, providing likewise the most significant reductions of air pollutant emissions. Despite the overall positive effects, there are antagonistic effects, such as the use of biomass, mainly in industry and residential sectors, which translates into increases in particulate matter emissions. This is relevant for medium term projections, since results show that, by 2030, PM2.5 emissions are unlikely to meet the emission reduction commitments set at the European level, if no additional control measures are considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Air Pollution in Portugal)
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Article
High-Resolution Analysis of Wind Flow Behavior on Ship Stacks Configuration: A Portuguese Case Study
Atmosphere 2021, 12(3), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12030303 - 26 Feb 2021
Viewed by 600
Abstract
Atmospheric emissions related to harbor-related activities can significantly contribute to air pollution of coastal urban areas and so, could have implications to the citizens’ health that live in those areas. Of great concern is the local impact of the emissions that are generated [...] Read more.
Atmospheric emissions related to harbor-related activities can significantly contribute to air pollution of coastal urban areas and so, could have implications to the citizens’ health that live in those areas. Of great concern is the local impact of the emissions that are generated while ships are at berth, since not all types of ships switch off the main engines. This paper intends to investigate the influence of the stack configuration for generic cargo ships on the exhaust smoke dispersion, using the Port of Leixões as a case study and a series of wind tunnel experiments with support of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. For that, different configurations of the stack of a cargo ship (in terms of height, geometry and diameter) were simulated under the typical wind conditions of the study area. The PIV results indicate negligible differences between the medium and long stack height, with the short stack height presenting a strong impact on the flow field around the stack. For the short stack height, the flow field is not only disturbed by the stack, but also by the cargo ship bridge, with both obstacles promoting disturbances on the flow field and creating a large wake turbulence effect, which is important for the downwash phenomena. Regarding the effects linked with two distinct geometries (straight or curved), the results show that the straight chimney led to higher perturbation of wind field when compared with the curved geometry. The curved stack presents an increase of vorticity, indicating the generation of more turbulent structures. The PIV results also confirmed that higher wind velocity at the inlet conducts to higher vorticity levels, as well as a higher number of Kelvin–Helmholtz structures. For distinct wind conditions the PIV measurements point out different patterns, indicating the northern wind direction as the most favorable condition for the exposure of dock workers to pollutants. Overall, the results showed that a ship stack with a curved end, medium length and smaller diameter has the capability to promote the behaviors in the flow that are coherent with increased pollutant dispersion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Air Pollution in Portugal)
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Article
The Role of the Atmospheric Aerosol in Weather Forecasts for the Iberian Peninsula: Investigating the Direct Effects Using the WRF-Chem Model
Atmosphere 2021, 12(2), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12020288 - 23 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1129
Abstract
In the atmosphere, aerosols play an important role in climate change, the Earth’s environment and human health. The purpose of this study is to investigate the direct and semi-direct aerosol effects on weather forecasting, focusing on the Iberian Peninsula (IP). To that end, [...] Read more.
In the atmosphere, aerosols play an important role in climate change, the Earth’s environment and human health. The purpose of this study is to investigate the direct and semi-direct aerosol effects on weather forecasting, focusing on the Iberian Peninsula (IP). To that end, two Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Chem simulations (with and without aerosol feedback) for an entire year (2015) were performed. The model setup includes two nested domains run in two-way mode, allowing the downscaling for the IP domain at a 5 × 5 km2 high-horizontal resolution. The results were explored through agreement of pairs of time series and their spatial variability in order to analyse the importance of including the online-coupled aerosol radiative effect on the meteorological variables: shortwave (solar) radiation, air temperature and precipitation. Significant variations of agreement were found when capturing both temporal and spatial patterns of the analysed meteorological variables. While the spatial distribution of temperature and precipitation is similar throughout the IP domain, with agreement values ranging from 0.87 up to 1.00, the solar radiation presents a distinct spatial pattern with lower agreement values (0.68–0.75) over ocean and higher agreement (0.75–0.98) over land regions. With regard to the spatial differences between simulations, the aerosol contributed to a considerable decrease in annual mean and maximum radiation (up to 20 and 40 Wm−2, respectively), slightly impacting the temperature variation (up to 0.5 °C). These results suggest that the aerosol feedback effects should be accounted when performing weather forecasts, and not only for purposes of air quality assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Air Pollution in Portugal)
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