Special Issue "Toxicology of Atmospheric Particulate Matter"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Air Quality".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021) | Viewed by 4506

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Célia Alves
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Environment and Planning, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: air quality; aerosols; emissions; human exposure; organic / inorganic tracers; residential combustion
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Helena Oliveira
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biology, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: carbon nanomaterials in precision agriculture, inhalation toxicity of carbon-based nanomaterials; assessment of functional parameters in plant and animal cells through flow cytometry; toxicity of metals and metal nanoparticles in in vitro models
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Nilmara Oliveira Alves Brito
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Medicine, Sao Paulo University, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Interests: oxidative stress; oxidative potential; DNA damage; PM mechanisms; neurotoxicology; carcinogenesis; health risk assessment; prenatal exposure; PM and COVID-19

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In 2013, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified atmospheric particulate matter (PM) as carcinogenic to human beings. The health burden due to PM air pollution is one of the biggest environmental health concerns around the world. Although it is feasible for epidemiologists to inspect large populations to observe health outcomes, toxicologists usually use exposure levels that are far higher than those experienced by the population to induce measurable effects. Therefore, there might be uncertainty as to the relevance of biological findings in model systems. Planning and implementing new studies on the effects of long-term exposure and improving the relevance of toxicological approaches are important challenges that we face. Although, over recent years, there has been an increasing understanding into the underlying biological mechanisms of toxicity of particles, many aspects remain unclear. A special vexing research challenge has been categorizing the physical and chemical characteristics of PM to assess toxicity. This is critical for establishing links back to the sources of the most harmful particles, thereby contributing to the design of the most effective risk mitigation strategies.

Submissions of reviews, original research articles, and case studies targeting any of these or other novel research questions are welcome. 

Dr. Célia Alves
Dr. Helena Oliveira
Dr. Nilmara Oliveira Alves Brito
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Toxic components from different sources
  • Particle size dependent toxicity
  • Nanotoxicology
  • in vivo and in vitro studies
  • Oxidative damage, inflammatory processes, carcinogenic mechanisms, cytotoxic activity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity
  • Ecotoxic effects on aquatic and terrestrial organisms
  • Exposure assessment and risk evaluation
  • Epidemiological studies
  • Dosimetry and biodistribution
  • Pathogenesis and mechanism of injury
  • Extrapolation of animal data to humans
  • Effects of inhaled substances on the human respiratory tract
  • Innovative models for predicting human disease

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) Composition and Human Health Risk Assessment of PM10 on the Roadways of Industrial Complexes in South Korea
Atmosphere 2021, 12(10), 1307; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12101307 - 07 Oct 2021
Viewed by 573
Abstract
Road and industrial origin particulate matters (PM) are a significant source of potentially toxic elements (PTEs), with health risks to the surrounding residents. In Korea for 60 years, although industries, roads and automobiles have increased aggressively, there are still few PTEs data in [...] Read more.
Road and industrial origin particulate matters (PM) are a significant source of potentially toxic elements (PTEs), with health risks to the surrounding residents. In Korea for 60 years, although industries, roads and automobiles have increased aggressively, there are still few PTEs data in PM in road-deposited sediment (RDS) of industrial complexes (ICs). Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the PTE composition of on-road PM10 from nine major ICs and its pollution degree in Korea and evaluate its human health risks. The geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and pollution load index (PLI) elucidated that on-road PM10 were severely polluted by Sb, Zn, Ag and Pb. A combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and chemical tracers was used to define the PTEs sources. The results showed that non-exhaust emission from vehicles’ activity is the primary source of PTEs in on-road PM10, and industrial emissions are the secondary source. The riskiest pathway on carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic by on-road PM10 with PTEs was in-gestion. Traffic origin PTEs including Pb, As, Sb and Cd had a more significant impact on carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health than those of industrial origins. These results could help mitigate public health risks arising from on-road PM10 and improve air quality in ICs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicology of Atmospheric Particulate Matter)
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Article
Characterization of PAHs Trapped in the Soot from the Combustion of Various Mediterranean Species
Atmosphere 2021, 12(8), 965; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12080965 - 27 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 807
Abstract
Climate change causes more frequent and destructive wildfires even transforming them into megafire. Moreover, all biomass fires produce emissions of carbon compounds in the form of soot to the atmosphere with a significant impact on the environment and human health. Indeed, the soot [...] Read more.
Climate change causes more frequent and destructive wildfires even transforming them into megafire. Moreover, all biomass fires produce emissions of carbon compounds in the form of soot to the atmosphere with a significant impact on the environment and human health. Indeed, the soot is causing the formation of PAHs from (a) the high temperature thermal alteration of natural product precursors in the source organic matter and (b) the recombination of molecular fragments in the smoke. However, these molecules are known to have carcinogenic effects on human health. It is therefore interesting to quantify the 16 PAHs concentration extracted from soot emitted in open diffusion flame of biomass combustion. To achieve this objective, an analytical method developed for the study of kerosene combustion has been adapted for soot from biomass. This new method allowed to quantify the 16 PAHs defined as priority pollutants by the US EPA for their carcinogenic mutagenic effect and on human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicology of Atmospheric Particulate Matter)
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Article
Source Apportionment and Toxicity of PM in Urban, Sub-Urban, and Rural Air Quality Network Stations in Catalonia
Atmosphere 2021, 12(6), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12060744 - 09 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1224
Abstract
Air quality indicators, i.e., PM10, NO2, O3, benzo[a]pyrene, and several organic tracer compounds were evaluated in an urban traffic station, a sub-urban background station, and a rural background station of the air quality network in Catalonia (Spain) [...] Read more.
Air quality indicators, i.e., PM10, NO2, O3, benzo[a]pyrene, and several organic tracer compounds were evaluated in an urban traffic station, a sub-urban background station, and a rural background station of the air quality network in Catalonia (Spain) from summer to winter 2019. The main sources that contribute to the organic aerosol and PM toxicity were determined. Traffic-related air pollution dominated the air quality in the urban traffic station, while biomass burning in winter and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in summer impact the air quality in the sub-urban and rural background stations. Health risk assessment for chronic exposure over the past decade, using WHO air quality standards, showed that NO2, PM10 and benzo[a]pyrene from traffic emissions pose an unacceptable risk to the human population in the urban traffic station. PM10 and benzo[a]pyrene from biomass burning were unacceptably high in the sub-urban and rural background stations. Toxicity tests of the PM extracts with epithelial lung cells showed higher toxicity in wintertime samples in the sub-urban and rural stations, compared to the urban traffic station. These results require different mitigation strategies for urban and rural sites in order to improve the air quality. In urban areas, traffic emissions are still dominating the air quality, despite improvements in the last years, and may directly be responsible for part of the SOA and O3 levels in sub-urban and rural areas. In these later areas, air pollution from local biomass burning emissions are dominating the air quality, essentially in the colder period of the year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicology of Atmospheric Particulate Matter)
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Article
Loading Rates of Dust and Bioburden in Dwellings in an Inland City of Southern Europe
Atmosphere 2021, 12(3), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12030378 - 13 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 760
Abstract
Sampling campaigns indoors have shown that occupants exposed to contaminated air generally exhibit diverse health outcomes. This study intends to assess the deposition rates of total settleable dust and bioburden in the indoor air of dwellings onto quartz fiber filters and electrostatic dust [...] Read more.
Sampling campaigns indoors have shown that occupants exposed to contaminated air generally exhibit diverse health outcomes. This study intends to assess the deposition rates of total settleable dust and bioburden in the indoor air of dwellings onto quartz fiber filters and electrostatic dust collectors (EDCs), respectively. EDC extracts were inoculated onto malt extract agar (MEA) and dichloran glycerol (DG18) agar-based media used for fungal contamination characterization, while tryptic soy agar (TSA) was applied for total bacteria assessment, and violet red bile agar (VRBA) for Gram-negative bacteria. Azole-resistance screening and molecular detection by qPCR was also performed. Dust loading rates ranged from 0.111 to 3.52, averaging 0.675 μg cm−2 day−1. Bacterial counts ranged from undetectable to 16.3 colony-forming units (CFU) m−2 day−1 and to 2.95 CFU m−2 day−1 in TSA and VRBA, respectively. Fungal contamination ranged from 1.97 to 35.4 CFU m−2 day−1 in MEA, and from undetectable to 48.8 CFU m−2 day−1 in DG18. Penicillium sp. presented the highest prevalence in MEA media (36.2%) and Cladosporium sp. in DG18 (39.2%). It was possible to observe: (a) settleable dust loadings and fungal contamination higher in dwellings with pets; (b) fungal species considered indicators of harmful fungal contamination; (c) Aspergillus section Candidi identified in supplemented media with voriconazole and posaconazole; (d) specific housing typologies and (e) specific housing characteristics influencing the microbial contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicology of Atmospheric Particulate Matter)
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