Resilience and Sustainability in Architecture and Urban Planning: Policies, Practices, Strategies and Visions

A special issue of Architecture (ISSN 2673-8945).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 April 2022) | Viewed by 54590

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Architecture and Built Environment, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
Interests: disaster risk reduction and resilience; post-disaster housing; climate change adaptation; sustainable development; urbanization in the Asia-Pacific; community-based approaches

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, The University of Melbourne, 757 Swanston Street, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia
Interests: ZEMCH Network; zero energy mass customized housing design engineering; environmental experience design analysis; mass personalization; machine learning; value analysis; vertical subdivision plug-in housing system
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Guest Editor
Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
Interests: cultural sustainability; resilient communities; post-disaster housing; indigenous design

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Guest Editor
School of Architecture and Built Environment, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
Interests: urban vague; sustainable streets; town camps; architecture in relationship with country

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Guest Editor
Sustainability and Urban Planning Discipline, School of Global Urban and Social Studies, College of Design and Social Context, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3001, Australia
Interests: design-thinking; housing reconstruciton; disaster and climate change resilience; nature-based solutions; community-led approaches in Australiasia-Pacific

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The production and development of the built environment relates strongly to the disciplines of architecture and urban planning. The built environment experiences severe impacts by disasters that have become more frequent, intense and widespread around the world due to climate change and other human actions, requiring research on architectural design and urban planning that contribute to long-term resilience. On the other hand, the built environment itself causes environmental impacts through the consumption of energy, land use change and pressure on ecosystems, among a variety of other factors. Two key frameworks of the United Nations—the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction and the Sustainable Development Goals—have targets concerned with the resilience and sustainability of the built environment, and to meet these targets, research-informed policies, practices and strategies are necessary, requiring innovative and forward-thinking visions for a resilient and sustainable future. The built environment is multifold, with its manifestation determined by economic levels, political systems, demography and natural resources. Thus, contextual approaches and solutions in architecture and urban planning are essential, which can be expected to produce a diverse range of research findings. This Special Issue aims to serve as a platform to assemble such recent and innovative research findings relating to resilience and sustainability in the architecture and urban planning fields and, through an open access mode, disseminate this knowledge widely at a time when the world is facing critical challenges posed by disasters and environmental transformation. The discussions in this Special Issue will focus on (but are not limited to) the following thematic areas:

  • Hazard-resistant design and construction;
  • Sustainable design and building materials;
  • Building codes and regulations for disaster resilience and sustainability;
  • Sustainable urban planning and development;
  • Disaster-resilient and strategic land use planning;
  • Infrastructure planning for disaster resilience;
  • Post-disaster planning of resettlement and reconstruction;
  • Post-disaster housing with ‘building back better’ strategies;
  • Design and planning for marginal and vulnerable populations;
  • Housing and infrastructure in informal settlements;
  • Social, cultural and political factors in architecture and urban planning for resilience and sustainability;
  • Public, private and not-for-profit investments and partnerships for disaster-resilient and sustainable architecture and urban planning.

Dr. Iftekhar Ahmed
Dr. Masa Noguchi
Dr. David O’Brien
Dr. Chris Tucker
Dr. Mittul Vahanvati
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Architecture is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • hazard-resistant construction
  • post-disaster reconstruction
  • sustainable design and planning
  • urban planning for disaster resilience
  • building codes
  • planning regulations
  • infrastructure planning
  • housing design

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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36 pages, 29154 KiB  
Article
Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Extreme Precipitation under Climate Change over Gandaki Province, Nepal
by Sudip Pandey and Binaya Kumar Mishra
Architecture 2022, 2(4), 724-759; https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture2040039 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3101
Abstract
This paper presents a research study of expected precipitation extremes across the Gandaki Province, Nepal. The study used five indices to assess extreme precipitation under climate change. Precipitation output of two Global Climate Models (GCMs) of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase Six (CMIP6) [...] Read more.
This paper presents a research study of expected precipitation extremes across the Gandaki Province, Nepal. The study used five indices to assess extreme precipitation under climate change. Precipitation output of two Global Climate Models (GCMs) of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase Six (CMIP6) were used to characterize the future precipitation extremes during the rainfall season from June to September (JJAS) and overall days of the year. To characterize extreme precipitation events, we used daily precipitation under the SSP2–4.5 and SSP5–8.5 scenarios from the Beijing Climate Center and China Meteorological Administration, China; and Meteorological Research Institute (MRI), Japan. Considering large uncertainties with GCM outputs and different downscaling (including bias correction) methods, direct use of GCM outputs were made to find change in precipitation pattern for future climate. For 5-, 10-, 20-, 50-, and 100-year return periods, observed and projected 24 h and 72 h annual maximum time series were used to calculate the return level. The result showed an increase in simple daily intensity index (SDII) in the near future (2021–2040) and far future (2081–2100), with respect to the base-year (1995–2014). Similarly, heavy precipitation days (R50 mm), very heavy precipitation days (R100 mm), annual daily maximum precipitation (RX1day), and annual three-day maximum precipitation (RX3day) indices demonstrated an increase in extreme precipitation toward the end of the 21st century. A comparison of R50 mm and R100 mm values showed an extensive (22.6% and 63.8%) increase in extreme precipitation days in the near future and far future. Excessive precipitation was forecasted over Kaski, Nawalparasi East, Syangja, and the western half of the Tanahun region. The expected increase in extreme precipitation may pose a severe threat to the long-term viability of social infrastructure, as well as environmental health. The findings of these studies will provide an opportunity to better understand the origins of severe events and the ability of CMIP6 model outputs to estimate anticipated changes. More research into the underlying physical factors that modulate the occurrence of extreme incidences expected for relevant policies is suggested. Full article
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21 pages, 2437 KiB  
Article
Three Strategies of Urban Renewal for One National Outline Plan TAMA38: The Impact of Multiparametric Decision-Making on Neighborhood Regeneration
by Dalit Shach-Pinsly
Architecture 2022, 2(4), 616-636; https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture2040033 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 7432
Abstract
The urban renewal of deteriorated areas is a challenge for many city decision-makers. In this study, we aimed to understand the role and impact of the Israeli national outline plan, TAMA38, on urban renewal areas by examining three urban renewal strategies. This plan [...] Read more.
The urban renewal of deteriorated areas is a challenge for many city decision-makers. In this study, we aimed to understand the role and impact of the Israeli national outline plan, TAMA38, on urban renewal areas by examining three urban renewal strategies. This plan was developed to strengthen individual buildings against earthquakes, but it also serves as a catalyst for the renewal of deteriorated individual residential buildings in old neighborhoods, particularly in high-demand districts. TAMA38 focuses on the renovation of individual buildings, primarily residential, but neglects the comprehensive vision of the public and private needs of the neighborhood/site complex, of which the individual building is only one component. To understand which planning strategy will achieve better spatial results under TAMA38, a broader examination is required. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of three urban sites developed under the TAMA38 program in the city of Haifa using three main strategies: (1) one comprehensive plan led by one developer with a change in building locations (2) one comprehensive plan but led by diverse developers, while building locations remain unchanged and (3) individual building renewals with no comprehensive plan. The methodology for this analysis was based on the evaluation of various quantitative and quality parameters that influence the performance of the built environment. The results of the research emphasize the need to choose an urban renewal strategy tailored to a specific location, as well as the need for the authority to take responsibility for planning open public spaces throughout the process. Full article
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18 pages, 7365 KiB  
Article
Incremental Pathways of Post-Disaster Housing Self-Recovery in Villa Verde, Chile
by Sandra Carrasco and David O’Brien
Architecture 2022, 2(3), 544-561; https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture2030030 - 29 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 6101
Abstract
Housing reconstruction is considered the backbone of disaster recovery. The increasing losses in housing due to disasters challenge conventional top-down schemes and call for people-centred approaches to acknowledge their agency and self-recovery resources. This paper examines the pathways for housing self-recovery through resident-controlled [...] Read more.
Housing reconstruction is considered the backbone of disaster recovery. The increasing losses in housing due to disasters challenge conventional top-down schemes and call for people-centred approaches to acknowledge their agency and self-recovery resources. This paper examines the pathways for housing self-recovery through resident-controlled incremental housing development. This paper focuses on the Villa Verde settlement built in the Chilean city of Constitución, which was severely impacted by the 2010 Chile Earthquake. Villa Verde, designed by the Chilean architecture studio Elemental, is one of the most notable incremental housing projects worldwide that encourage residents to extend their houses within a provided structural framework. This research aims to provide clarity in the much-needed understanding of disaster-affected people’s agency to self-recover, noted by researchers as one of the crucial elements for improving the humanitarian response in the aftermath of disasters. Through capturing the evolution of incremental housing construction, this paper presents multiple complexities resulting from the variety of households’ characteristics and needs in their process of post-disaster housing self-recovery. The resident-controlled process studied evidence that the people’s capacities and dedication to self-recover challenged the established housing framework with extensions beyond the designers’ parameters requiring further evaluation of the long-term implications of self-help constructions. Full article
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19 pages, 2233 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Early Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Construction Industry in New York State
by Esther Ilatova, Yewande S. Abraham and Bilge Gokhan Celik
Architecture 2022, 2(3), 457-475; https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture2030026 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3537
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic severely impacted many industries on a global scale. Expectedly, the construction industry was not left out as non-essential construction was halted, strict health and safety protocols were introduced, and businesses were disrupted. New York City was the epicenter of the [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic severely impacted many industries on a global scale. Expectedly, the construction industry was not left out as non-essential construction was halted, strict health and safety protocols were introduced, and businesses were disrupted. New York City was the epicenter of the pandemic at its onset in the United States, and the pandemic had different impacts on workers based on their work location and role. This study utilized a survey including twenty-five statements to explore the initial impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the construction industry in New York State, analyzing its effects on sixty-one construction industry professionals, their projects, and firms, also considering their work location and role in the construction process. The most severe impacts were on construction schedules and in-person meetings. Those who worked in New York City had more difficulty complying with the increased health and safety regulations than those who worked outside the city. Those categorized as builders indicated significantly more contract performance issues. Furthermore, a set of recommendations were highlighted to strengthen the industry’s response to future similar disruptions. This study is significant in helping researchers and businesses build more resilient operations to address current and future pandemic-related challenges facing the construction industry. Full article
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11 pages, 5460 KiB  
Article
Mapping Resilience in the Town Camps of Mparntwe
by Chris Tucker, Michael Klerck and Anna Flouris
Architecture 2022, 2(3), 446-456; https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture2030025 - 22 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4585
Abstract
From the perspective of urban planning, the history of the Town Camps of Mparntwe (Alice Springs) has made them a unique form of urban development within Australia; they embody at once a First Nation form of urbanism and Country, colonial policies of inequity [...] Read more.
From the perspective of urban planning, the history of the Town Camps of Mparntwe (Alice Springs) has made them a unique form of urban development within Australia; they embody at once a First Nation form of urbanism and Country, colonial policies of inequity and dispossession, and a disparate public and community infrastructure that reflects the inadequate and ever-changing funding landscape it has been open to. While these issues continue, this paper discusses the resilience of these communities through the Local Decision Making agreement, signed in 2019 between the Northern Territory Government and Tangentyere Council. One thing that has been critical to translating and communicating local decisions for government funding has been the establishment of an inclusive and robust process of participatory mapping—Mapping Local Decisions—where both the deficiencies and potential of community infrastructure within each Town Camp is being identified. As local community knowledge is embedded within these practices, so too are issues of health, accessibility, safety and a changing climate similarly embedded within the architectural and infrastructure projects developed for government funding. Being conceived and supported by local communities, projects are finding better ways to secure this funding, building on a resilience these communities have for the places they live. Full article
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12 pages, 1450 KiB  
Article
Shelter Self-Recovery: The Experience of Vanuatu
by Iftekhar Ahmed and Charles Parrack
Architecture 2022, 2(2), 434-445; https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture2020024 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2893
Abstract
This paper draws from a research project that explored the lived reality of communities in Vanuatu recovering from major disasters to understand the impacts of shelter interventions by humanitarian organizations. It focuses on “shelter self-recovery”, anapproach followed by organizations after recent disasters. A [...] Read more.
This paper draws from a research project that explored the lived reality of communities in Vanuatu recovering from major disasters to understand the impacts of shelter interventions by humanitarian organizations. It focuses on “shelter self-recovery”, anapproach followed by organizations after recent disasters. A global overview of self-recovery highlights the potential of this approach to support recovery pathways and indicates the reliance on local context. The overview shows the need for more evidence on the impact of self-recovery programs. In Vanuatu, the study was undertaken in three island sites—Tanna, Maewo and Pentecost—affected by different disasters, particularly cyclones. It examined three main issues: (a) understanding and interpretation of self-recovery; (b) how the approach has evolved over time; and (c) what is being done by communities to support self-recovery to reduce future disaster risk. Key findings from the field indicated that devastation by disasters such as cyclones can cause a serious scarcity of natural building materials, which impedes the self-recovery process. The other significant issue is that of traditional versus modern building materials, where many people aspire for modern houses. However, poorly constructed modern houses pose a risk in disasters, and there are examples of shelters made of traditional materials that provide safety. Drawing from the field investigations, a set of recommendations were developed for more effective shelter self-recovery by humanitarian agencies in partnership with communities and other stakeholders. These recommendations place importance on contextual factors, community consultation and engagement, and addressing the supply of natural building materials. Full article
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10 pages, 809 KiB  
Article
Significance of Occupant Behaviour on the Energy Performance Gap in Residential Buildings
by Claire Far, Iftekhar Ahmed and Jamie Mackee
Architecture 2022, 2(2), 424-433; https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture2020023 - 2 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3032
Abstract
Buildings are an important part of worldwide efforts to reduce energy consumption and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. Despite recent technological developments in the area of energy consumption reduction, energy use is on the rise, highlighting the significance of [...] Read more.
Buildings are an important part of worldwide efforts to reduce energy consumption and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. Despite recent technological developments in the area of energy consumption reduction, energy use is on the rise, highlighting the significance of considering occupant behavior with regard to controlling energy consumption and supporting climate resilience. Energy performance of residential buildings is a function of various aspects such as properties of the building envelope, climatic location characteristics, HVAC system, and, more importantly, occupant behavior and activities towards energy utilization. This study carries out a comprehensive review of the impact of occupant behavior on reducing the energy performance gap in residential buildings since residential buildings account for 70% of building floor area around the globe. Findings have revealed that a dearth of literature on occupants’ behavior scholarship leads to inaccurate simplifications in building modeling and design. Thus, there is a strong need to obtain appropriate occupant behavioral data to develop strategies to close the energy performance gap as much as possible to achieve better energy efficiency in residential buildings to contribute to resilience and sustainability. Findings have also revealed a lack of objective and subjective data on occupants’ behavior towards energy efficiency in residential buildings. In response to these gaps, the current paper has proposed a conceptual framework for occupant behavior toward a modification of thermal comfort to reduce energy use. Based on the findings of this paper, understanding the variety of factors influencing occupants’ behavior should be considered a major influential factor in the design and retrofit of residential buildings with a view toward long-term resilience and sustainability. Full article
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15 pages, 2679 KiB  
Article
Design and Disaster Resilience: Toward a Role for Design in Disaster Mitigation and Recovery
by Esther Charlesworth and John Fien
Architecture 2022, 2(2), 292-306; https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture2020017 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 12863
Abstract
This paper examines how the discourses and practices of design can be applied to both mitigate the damaging impacts of (un-)natural disasters and guide resilient post-disaster recovery. Integrated with systems analysis, design can provide both an innovative window for understanding the complexities of [...] Read more.
This paper examines how the discourses and practices of design can be applied to both mitigate the damaging impacts of (un-)natural disasters and guide resilient post-disaster recovery. Integrated with systems analysis, design can provide both an innovative window for understanding the complexities of disaster-risk reduction and recovery, as well as a conceptual bridge to new ways of building socio-economic and physical resilience in disaster-affected communities. However, the skills of key systems and design thinkers, such as architects, urban planners, and landscape architects, are seldom employed, despite their demonstrated capacity to work with disaster-prone or -impacted communities to develop integrated spatial responses to guide both disaster-risk reduction and long-term rebuilding after a disaster. Indeed, there has been little focused investigation of the potential contributions of design per se in developing strategies for disaster-risk reduction and recovery. Similarly, there has been little attention in design education to complementing the creative problem-solving skills of the designer with the contextual and systemic understandings of disaster management and disaster-resilient design. This paper addresses these omissions in both disaster management and design education though a review of research on design contributions to disaster issues and provides a case study of the curriculum and pedagogical approaches appropriate to build capacity for enhancing this contribution. Full article
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Review

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31 pages, 5438 KiB  
Review
A Study of Urban Planning in Tsunami-Prone Areas of Sri Lanka
by U. T. G. Perera, Chandula De Zoysa, A. A. S. E. Abeysinghe, Richard Haigh, Dilanthi Amaratunga and Ranjith Dissanayake
Architecture 2022, 2(3), 562-592; https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture2030031 - 23 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3772
Abstract
Tsunamis pose significant challenges for disaster reduction efforts due to the multi-hazard, cascading nature of these events, including a range of different potential triggering and consequential hazards. Although infrequent, they have the potential to cause devastating human and economic losses. Effective urban planning [...] Read more.
Tsunamis pose significant challenges for disaster reduction efforts due to the multi-hazard, cascading nature of these events, including a range of different potential triggering and consequential hazards. Although infrequent, they have the potential to cause devastating human and economic losses. Effective urban planning has been recognised as an important strategy for reducing disaster risk in cities. However, there have been limited studies on urban planning for tsunami-prone areas, and there have been wide ranging strategies adopted globally. This is an international study aimed at exploring the status of urban planning in tsunami areas and better understanding potential urban planning strategies to reduce disaster risk in coastal regions. Drawing upon the work of an international collaborative research team, in this article, we present the findings of a systematic review of the urban planning literature. Using the PRISMA guidelines, 56 papers were selected, and three guiding questions informed the review. Further empirical investigations were carried out in Sri Lanka by a local research team, including twelve semi-structured interviews with representatives from agencies in urban planning, construction, and disaster management, and a focus group representing town and country planning, architecture, structural engineering, disaster management, landscape and geospatial planning, building services, green buildings and infrastructure and environmental management fields. The combined analysis reveals insights into the characteristics of the literature, as well as the nature of existing strategies for urban planning in tsunami-prone areas, grouped into six broad themes: community participation, spatial planning, soft and hard engineering;,evacuation planning, and resilience thinking. The findings also reveal limitations in existing strategies, including their failure to address multi-hazard threats and systemic risk, as well as inadequate community participation, and limited access to timely disaster risk information. The findings are used to inform an initial model of urban planning strategies in tsunami-prone areas that can be used before a hazard event occurs, during and in the immediate response to a hazard event, and during recovery and reconstruction following a disaster. Full article
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15 pages, 10492 KiB  
Review
Analysis of Renovation Works in Cappuccinelli Social Housing District in Trapani
by Rossella Corrao, Erica La Placa, Enrico Genova and Calogero Vinci
Architecture 2022, 2(2), 277-291; https://doi.org/10.3390/architecture2020016 - 12 Apr 2022
Viewed by 2340
Abstract
The refurbishment of public residential districts represents a current and complex problem. The Cappuccinelli Social Housing (SH) district in Trapani, designed in the late 1950s by Michele Valori and built during the 1960s, is emblematic of the architectural quality and technological innovation of [...] Read more.
The refurbishment of public residential districts represents a current and complex problem. The Cappuccinelli Social Housing (SH) district in Trapani, designed in the late 1950s by Michele Valori and built during the 1960s, is emblematic of the architectural quality and technological innovation of the time it was designed, but at the same time represents the physical and social decay that occurred just after its construction. The neighborhood was examined through a combination of inspections and documentary research. The inspections were conducted for the entire district in order to identify the recurrent external degradation of building components and the related causes, both physical and anthropogenic. This paper investigates the physical–mechanical degradation and problems connected to previous renovation work in this district. Furthermore, technological design solutions are discussed for deep renovation and energy efficiency improvement of one of the terraced buildings of the Cappuccinelli SH district. Full article
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