Special Issue "New Trends in Sport and Exercise Medicine"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Daniela Galli
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, 43125 Parma, Italy
Interests: sport medicine; physical activity; training; skeletal and cardiac muscle biology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last twenty years it has been shown that the practice of regular physical activity reduces the risks of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and depression, but it has been also demonstrated that it reduces the incidence of colon and breast cancer. Moreover, physical exercise is fundamental in weight control and energy expenditure to contrast the increase of obesity. For example, different training modalities (i.e., aerobic, resistance, concentric, and eccentric) have been shown to influence adipokines and atherosclerosis markers.

On the other side, sport and physical activity are determinants in several disciplines, from wellness and public health to physiotherapy. It also aims to prevent injuries. Thus, advances in sport and exercise medicine could be of high clinical relevance for general sport practitioners, physicians, and athletes. Sport nutrition may also have wider implications.

In this Special Issue, we look for original manuscripts and reviews to cover novel insights in sport and exercise medicine.

Dr. Daniela Galli
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Physical activity
  • Sport
  • Nutrition
  • Training
  • Chronic diseases
  • Molecular markers
  • Anti-oxidants
  • Medicine
  • Skeletal muscle
  • Cardiac muscle

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Cholinesterases in Post-Exercise HRV Recovery in University Volleyball Players
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 4188; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11094188 - 04 May 2021
Viewed by 374
Abstract
Some studies show interest in measuring heart rate variability (HRV) during post-exercise recovery. It is known that the parasympathetic system is relevant during this process, where one of the factors of this modulation is the interaction of acetylcholine and cholinesterases (ChE). However, the [...] Read more.
Some studies show interest in measuring heart rate variability (HRV) during post-exercise recovery. It is known that the parasympathetic system is relevant during this process, where one of the factors of this modulation is the interaction of acetylcholine and cholinesterases (ChE). However, the behavior of ChE and its relationship during recovery is little known; therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the behavior of ChE and its relationship with recovery evaluated in HRV indicators in volleyball players. An exercise protocol with long-term and intermittent high-intensity phases was applied in nine volleyball players. HRV measurements were made, and blood samples were drawn to evaluate the ChE before exercise and after 24 and 48 h post-exercise. The results show a modification of the variables after exercises with respect to the baseline values (ChE: 1818.4 ± 588.75 to 2218.78 ± 1101.58; RMSSD: 42.64 ± 12.86 to 17.72 ± 12.55 (p < 0.05); SS: 8.76 ± 1.93 to 21.93 ± 10.05 (p < 0.01); S/PS Ratio: 0.32 ± 0.14 to 3.26 ± 3.28 (p < 0.01)), as well as recovery after 24 and 48 h with respect to postexercise (ChE: 1608.81 ± 546.88 (p < 0.05) and 1454.54 ± 580.45 (p < 0.01); RMSSD: 43.83 ± 24.50 and 46.18 ± 33.22 (p < 0.01); SS; 10.93 ± 5.16 and 11.86 ± 4.32 (p < 0.01); S/PS Ratio: 0.46 ± 0.32 and 0.50 ± 0.28 (p < 0.01)). ChE correlations (p < 0.001) were found with moderate (SS: r = 0.465) and large (RMSSD: r = −0.654; S/PS Ratio: r = 0.666) HRV indexes. In conclusion, ChE modifications are related to changes in HRV showing a very similar behavior in the case of the study subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Augmentation Index Is Inversely Associated with Skeletal Muscle Mass, Muscle Strength, and Anaerobic Power in Young Male Adults: A Preliminary Study
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(7), 3146; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11073146 - 01 Apr 2021
Viewed by 332
Abstract
Arterial stiffness is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have shown that there is a negative correlation between arterial stiffness and variables such as skeletal muscle mass, muscular strength, and anaerobic power in older individuals. However, little research has [...] Read more.
Arterial stiffness is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have shown that there is a negative correlation between arterial stiffness and variables such as skeletal muscle mass, muscular strength, and anaerobic power in older individuals. However, little research has been undertaken on relationships in healthy young adults. This study presents a preliminary research that investigates the association between arterial stiffness and muscular factors in healthy male college students. Twenty-three healthy young males (23.9 ± 0.5 years) participated in the study. The participants visited the laboratory, and variables including body composition, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, blood parameters, grip strength, and anaerobic power were measured. Measurements of augmentation index (AIx) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) were performed to determine arterial stiffness. There were significant positive correlations among skeletal muscle mass, muscle strength, and anaerobic power in healthy young adult males. AIx was negatively associated with a skeletal muscle mass (r = −0.785, p < 0.01), muscular strength (r = −0.500, p < 0.05), and anaerobic power (r = −0.469, p < 0.05), respectively. Likewise, [email protected] corrected with a heart rate of 75 was negatively associated with skeletal muscle mass (r = −0.738, p < 0.01), muscular strength (r = −0.461, p < 0.05), and anaerobic power (r = −0.420, p < 0.05) respectively. However, the baPWV showed no correlation with all muscular factors. Our findings suggest that maintaining high levels of skeletal muscle mass, muscular strength, and anaerobic power from relatively young age may lower AIx. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of High-Impact Weight-Bearing Exercise on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Metabolism in Middle-Aged Premenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 846; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11020846 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 378
Abstract
This study examined the effects of high-impact weight-bearing exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolic markers in middle-aged premenopausal women. Forty middle-aged premenopausal women were initially enrolled, but thirty-one participants (40.34 ± 3.69 years) completed in the study. The subjects were [...] Read more.
This study examined the effects of high-impact weight-bearing exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolic markers in middle-aged premenopausal women. Forty middle-aged premenopausal women were initially enrolled, but thirty-one participants (40.34 ± 3.69 years) completed in the study. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups including the high-impact weight-bearing exercise group (HWE, n = 14) and control group (CON, n = 17). The HWE group participated in the exercise for 50 min a day, three days per week for four months, while the CON group maintained their regular lifestyle. The HWE program included 10 different high-impact weight-bearing exercises such as jumping and running. BMD was measured using DXA (Hologic, QDR 4500W, Marlborough, MA, USA). The bone metabolic markers including serum 25-(OH) D, intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteopontin (OPN), receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), osteocalcin (OC), C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX), and calcium were analyzed. The results showed that the BMDs of femur, lumbar, and forearm did not significantly change during the intervention period in both the HWE and CON groups. A significant decrease in bone formation markers such as OC (F = 10.514, p = 0.003, ηp2 = 0.266) and an increase in bone resorption marker including CTX (F = 8.768, p = 0.006, ηp2 = 0.232) were found only in the CON group, while these values did not change in the HWE group. There was a significant increase in serum 25-(OH) D (F = 4.451, p = 0.044, ηp2 = 0.133) in the HWE group. Our findings suggest that four months of HWE is not sufficient to improve BMD and bone metabolic markers, but this impact exercise program may prevent the age-associated changes in bone turnover markers in middle-aged premenopausal women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Exercise Training of Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (Sparc) KO Mice Suggests That Exercise-Induced Muscle Phenotype Changes Are SPARC-Dependent
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(24), 9108; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10249108 - 20 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 554
Abstract
We previously identified secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (Sparc) as an exercise-induced gene in young and elderly individuals. Via this animal experiment, we aim to identify selected implications of SPARC mainly within the muscle in the contexts of exercise. Mice [...] Read more.
We previously identified secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (Sparc) as an exercise-induced gene in young and elderly individuals. Via this animal experiment, we aim to identify selected implications of SPARC mainly within the muscle in the contexts of exercise. Mice were divided into eight groups based on three variables (age, genotype and exercise): Old (O) or young (Y) × Sparc knock-out (KO) or wild-type (WT) × sedentary (Sed) or exercise (Ex). The exercised groups were trained for 12 weeks at the lactate threshold (LT) speed (including 4 weeks of adaptation period) and all mice were sacrificed afterwards. Body and selected tissues were weighed, and lactate levels in different conditions measured. Expression of skeletal muscle (SM) collagen type I alpha 1 chain (COL1A1) and mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase I (MT-CO1) in addition to SM strength (grip power) were also measured. Ageing increased the body and white adipose tissue (WAT) weights but decreased SM weight percentage (to body weight) and MT-CO1 expression (in WT). Exercise increased SM COL1A1 in WT mice and MT-CO1 expression, as well as weight percentage of the tibialis anterior muscle, and decreased WAT weight (trend). Compared to WT mice, Sparc KO mice had lower body, muscle and WAT weights, with a decrease in SM MT-CO1 and COL1A1 expression with no genotype effect on lactate levels in all our blood lactate measures. Sparc KO effects on body composition, adiposity and metabolic patterns are toward a reduced WAT and body weight, but with a negative metabolic and functional phenotype of SM. Whereas such negative effects on SM are worsened with ageing, they are relatively improved by exercise. Importantly, our data suggest that the exercise-induced changes in the SM phenotype, in terms of increased performance (metabolic, strength and development), including lactate-induced changes, are SPARC-dependent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Needle Electrolysis and Rehab and Reconditioning Program for Rectus Femoris Muscle Injuries: A Cohort Study with Professional Soccer Players and a 20-Week Follow-Up
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7912; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217912 - 08 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 761
Abstract
Rectus femoris muscle strains are one of the most common injuries occurring in sports such as soccer. The purpose of this study was to describe the safety and feasibility of a combination of percutaneous needle electrolysis (PNE) and a specific rehab and reconditioning [...] Read more.
Rectus femoris muscle strains are one of the most common injuries occurring in sports such as soccer. The purpose of this study was to describe the safety and feasibility of a combination of percutaneous needle electrolysis (PNE) and a specific rehab and reconditioning program (RRP) following an injury to the rectus femoris in professional soccer players. Thirteen professional soccer players received PNE treatment 48 h after a grade II rectus femoris muscle injury, followed by a the RRP 24 h later. Assessment of recovery from injury was done by registering the days taken to return to train (RTT), return to play (RTP), and structural and functional progress of the injured muscle was registered through ultrasound imaging and match-GPS parameters. Also, adverse events and reinjuries were recorded in the follow up period of twenty weeks. The RTT registered was 15.62 ± 1.80 days and RTP was 20.15 ± 2.79 days. After fourteen days, the ultrasound image showed optimal repair. Match-GPS parameters were similar before and after injury. There were no relapses nor were any serious adverse effects reported during the 20-week follow-up after the RTP. A combination of PNE and a specific RRP facilitated a faster RTP in previously injured professional soccer players enabling them to sustain performance and avoid reinjuries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Immediate Effects of an Inverted Body Position on Energy Expenditure and Blood Lactate Removal after Intense Running
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(19), 6645; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10196645 - 23 Sep 2020
Viewed by 644
Abstract
We compared the immediate effects of a cool-down strategy including an inverted body position (IBP: continuous 30-s alternations of supine and IBP) after a short period of an intense treadmill run with active (walking) and passive (seated) methods. Fifteen healthy subjects (22 years, [...] Read more.
We compared the immediate effects of a cool-down strategy including an inverted body position (IBP: continuous 30-s alternations of supine and IBP) after a short period of an intense treadmill run with active (walking) and passive (seated) methods. Fifteen healthy subjects (22 years, 172 cm, 67 kg) completed three cool-down conditions (in a counterbalanced order) followed by a 5-min static stretch on three separate days. Heart rate, energy expenditure, blood lactate concentration, fatigue perception, and circumference of thighs and calves were recorded at pre- and post-run at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 min. At 5 min post-run, subjects performing the IBP condition showed (1) a 22% slower heart rate (p < 0.0001, ES = 2.52) and 14% lower energy expenditure (p = 0.01, ES = 0.48) than in the active condition, and (2) a 23% lower blood lactate than in the passive condition (p = 0.001, ES = 0.82). Fatigue perception and circumferences of thighs and calves did not differ between the conditions at any time point (F10,238 < 0.96, p < 0.99 for all tests). IBP appears to produce an effect similar to that of an active cool-down in blood lactate removal with less energy expenditure. This cool-down strategy is recommended for tournament sporting events with short breaks between matches, such as Taekwondo, Judo, and wrestling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Achilles Tendon Moment Arm Length on Insertional Achilles Tendinopathy
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(19), 6631; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10196631 - 23 Sep 2020
Viewed by 628
Abstract
Insertional Achilles tendinopathy (IAT) is caused by traction force of the tendon. The effectiveness of the suture bridge technique in correcting it is unknown. We examined the moment arm in patients with IAT before and after surgery using the suture bridge technique, in [...] Read more.
Insertional Achilles tendinopathy (IAT) is caused by traction force of the tendon. The effectiveness of the suture bridge technique in correcting it is unknown. We examined the moment arm in patients with IAT before and after surgery using the suture bridge technique, in comparison to that of healthy individuals. We hypothesized that the suture bridge method influences the moment arm length. An IAT group comprising 10 feet belonging to 8 patients requiring surgical treatment for IAT were followed up postoperatively and compared with a control group comprising 15 feet of 15 healthy individuals with no ankle complaints or history of trauma or surgery. The ratio of the moment arm (MA) length/foot length was found to be statistically significant between the control group, the IAT group preoperatively and the IAT group postoperatively (p < 0.01). Despite no significant difference in the force between the control and preoperative IAT groups, a significantly higher force to the Achilles tendon was observed in the IAT group postoperatively compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that a long moment arm may be one of the causes of IAT, and the suture bridge technique may reduce the Achilles tendon moment arm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Contributions of Anthropometric and Strength Determinants to Estimate 2000 m Ergometer Performance in Traditional Rowing
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6562; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186562 - 20 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 631
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to analyze the contribution of anthropometric and strength determinants of 2000 m ergometer performance in traditional rowing. Nineteen rowers competing at national level participated in this study. Anthropometric characteristics, vertical jumps and bench pull tests were assessed [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the contribution of anthropometric and strength determinants of 2000 m ergometer performance in traditional rowing. Nineteen rowers competing at national level participated in this study. Anthropometric characteristics, vertical jumps and bench pull tests were assessed to determine conditional factors, whereas the 2000 m test was used to set rowing performance. Pearson correlation coefficient, linear stepwise and allometric regression analyses were used to predict rowing performance (R2 > 50%). Height, body mass and body muscle correlated with rowing performance in male and female rowers. Similarly, power output for squat jump and countermovement jump power correlated with performance. Finally, mean propulsive velocity, mean power and maximum power in bench pull also correlated with the test. Stepwise multiple regression analysis identified body mass (R2 = 0.69, p < 0.001) and mean propulsive velocity in bench pull (R2 = 0.76, p < 0.001) for male rowers and body muscle (R2 = 0.89, p = 0.002) and maximum power in bench pull (R2 = 0.62, p = 0.036) for female rowers as the best predictors of rowing performance. These results determine the relevance of anthropometric characteristics and, in contrast to Olympic rowing, support the greatest importance of upper body power in traditional rowing training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Sport and Exercise Medicine)
Open AccessArticle
Explosive Strength Modeling in Children: Trends According to Growth and Prediction Equation
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6430; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186430 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 580
Abstract
Lower limb explosive strength has been widely used to evaluate physical fitness and general health in children. A plethora of studies have scoped the practicality of the standing broad jump (SBJ), though without accounting for body dimensions, which are tremendously affected by growth. [...] Read more.
Lower limb explosive strength has been widely used to evaluate physical fitness and general health in children. A plethora of studies have scoped the practicality of the standing broad jump (SBJ), though without accounting for body dimensions, which are tremendously affected by growth. This study aimed at modeling SBJ-specific allometric equations, underlying an objectively predictive approach while controlling for maturity offset (MO). A total of 7317 children (8–11 years) were tested for their SBJs; demographics and anthropometrics data were also collected. The multiplicative model with allometric body size components, MO, and categorial differences were implemented with SBJ performance. The log-multiplicative model suggested that the optimal body shape associated with SBJs is ectomorphic (H = −0.435; M = 1.152). Likewise, age, sex, and age–sex interactions were revealed to be significant (p < 0.001). Our results confirmed the efficacy of the allometric approach to identify the most appropriate body size and shape in children. Males, as they mature, did not significantly augment their performances, whereas females did, outperforming their peers. The model successfully fit the equation for SBJ performance, adjusted for age, sex, and MO. Predictive equations modeled on developmental factors are needed to interpret appropriately the performances that are used to evaluate physical fitness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Wild Ginseng Extract on Psychomotor and Neuromuscular Performance Recovery Following Acute Eccentric Exercise: A Preliminary Study
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(17), 5839; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10175839 - 23 Aug 2020
Viewed by 643
Abstract
To examine the efficacy of wild ginseng extract (WGE) on psychomotor and neuromuscular performance recovery following acute eccentric exercise. This study was a double-blind, crossover, and placebo-controlled design with a 14-day washout period. Ten male adults, aged 27.1 ± 4.33 years old, voluntarily [...] Read more.
To examine the efficacy of wild ginseng extract (WGE) on psychomotor and neuromuscular performance recovery following acute eccentric exercise. This study was a double-blind, crossover, and placebo-controlled design with a 14-day washout period. Ten male adults, aged 27.1 ± 4.33 years old, voluntarily participated in the study. Subjects were assigned to one of two parallel conditions (WGE or placebo) in a counterbalanced manner. Subjects consumed two packs of WGE (350 mg/package) or placebo drink immediately after acute eccentric exercise and the following four days. The eccentric exercise consisted of 20 min of downhill running at 60% of VO2peak and five sets (of 20) of drop jump exercise. Computer-based cognitive function test and neuromuscular performance tests, including straight leg raise, vertical jump, isometric leg strength, and anaerobic power test were administered four times, at baseline, 2 h, 48 h, and 96 h after acute exercise. The interleukin-6 (IL-6), myoglobin, cortisol, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and perceived muscle soreness were also assessed at each time point. A significance level was set at 0.05. No significant differences between the WGE and the placebo groups were observed in psychomotor and neuromuscular performance variables. Blood markers, including IL-6 (p = 0.013), myoglobin (p < 0.001), and cortisol level (p = 0.047) were changed significantly across the time. A post-hoc test revealed that a significant increase in IL-6 was observed only in the placebo group (p = 0.014), while no significant changes found in the WGE condition. The perceived muscle soreness was not different between the WGE and the placebo conditions. The administration of WGE immediately after acute eccentric exercise and the following four days have no benefits on psychomotor and neuromuscular performance recovery in healthy adults. However, the acute WGE supplementation may attenuate the eccentric exercise-induced inflammatory process, such as IL-6, but future study with a large sample size is required to clarify the anti-inflammation process in response to acute eccentric exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Sana: A Gamified Rehabilitation Management System for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Recovery
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(14), 4868; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10144868 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1011
Abstract
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) provides stabilization support for the back and forth motion of the knee joint. ACL ruptures account for 50% of all sports-related knee injuries with approximately 76.6% of them requiring reconstructive surgery, necessitating long-term patient rehabilitation. Compliance with rehabilitation [...] Read more.
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) provides stabilization support for the back and forth motion of the knee joint. ACL ruptures account for 50% of all sports-related knee injuries with approximately 76.6% of them requiring reconstructive surgery, necessitating long-term patient rehabilitation. Compliance with rehabilitation management programs, following ACL reconstruction, is fundamental for the successful restoration of the knee’s kinematics and reducing the risk of secondary osteoarthritis. Existing recovery programs are often paper-based and require patients to perform exercises at home, unsupervised, resulting in a low level of self-efficacy; by promoting self-efficacy in home-based settings, rehabilitation outcomes can improve. This paper reports the design development of the Sana system, a mobile and wearable application that adopts behavioral design principles and gamification theory to improve long-term post-operative outcomes for ACL reconstruction recovery. A feasibility study was conducted from 15 October 2019–13 May 2020, employing the double diamond framework and a human-centered design approach (BS EN ISO 9241-210: 2019). Eighteen participants were recruited, including eight domain experts (in fields such as user experience design, human factors, and physiotherapy), and ten representative users who had undergone long-term rehabilitation for musculoskeletal injuries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Pulmonary Effects Due to Physical Exercise in Polluted Air: Evidence from Studies Conducted on Healthy Humans
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(7), 2890; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11072890 - 24 Mar 2021
Viewed by 364
Abstract
Physical inactivity has caused serious effects on the health of the population, having an impact on the quality of life and the cost of healthcare for many countries. This has motivated government and private institutions to promote regular physical activity, which, paradoxically, can [...] Read more.
Physical inactivity has caused serious effects on the health of the population, having an impact on the quality of life and the cost of healthcare for many countries. This has motivated government and private institutions to promote regular physical activity, which, paradoxically, can involve health risks when it is carried out in areas with poor air quality. This review collects information from studies conducted on healthy humans related to the pulmonary effects caused by the practice of physical activity when there is poor air quality. In addition, several challenges related to the technological and educational areas, as well as to applied and basic research, have been identified to facilitate the rational practice of exercise in poor air quality conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Open AccessReview
Physical Activity and Redox Balance in the Elderly: Signal Transduction Mechanisms
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 2228; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11052228 - 03 Mar 2021
Viewed by 477
Abstract
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are molecules naturally produced by cells. If their levels are too high, the cellular antioxidant machinery intervenes to bring back their quantity to physiological conditions. Since aging often induces malfunctioning in this machinery, ROS are considered an effective cause [...] Read more.
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are molecules naturally produced by cells. If their levels are too high, the cellular antioxidant machinery intervenes to bring back their quantity to physiological conditions. Since aging often induces malfunctioning in this machinery, ROS are considered an effective cause of age-associated diseases. Exercise stimulates ROS production on one side, and the antioxidant systems on the other side. The effects of exercise on oxidative stress markers have been shown in blood, vascular tissue, brain, cardiac and skeletal muscle, both in young and aged people. However, the intensity and volume of exercise and the individual subject characteristics are important to envisage future strategies to adequately personalize the balance of the oxidant/antioxidant environment. Here, we reviewed the literature that deals with the effects of physical activity on redox balance in young and aged people, with insights into the molecular mechanisms involved. Although many molecular pathways are involved, we are still far from a comprehensive view of the mechanisms that stand behind the effects of physical activity during aging. Although we believe that future precision medicine will be able to transform exercise administration from wellness to targeted prevention, as yet we admit that the topic is still in its infancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Open AccessReview
Effectiveness of Training Prescription Guided by Heart Rate Variability Versus Predefined Training for Physiological and Aerobic Performance Improvements: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(23), 8532; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238532 - 29 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 589
Abstract
A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to determine if heart rate variability-guided training (HRV-g), compared to predefined training (PT), maximizes the further improvement of endurance physiological and performance markers in healthy individuals. This analysis included randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of [...] Read more.
A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to determine if heart rate variability-guided training (HRV-g), compared to predefined training (PT), maximizes the further improvement of endurance physiological and performance markers in healthy individuals. This analysis included randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of HRV-g vs. PT on endurance physiological and performance markers in untrained, physically active, and well-trained subjects. Eight articles qualified for inclusion. HRV-g training significantly improved maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) (MD = 2.84, CI: 1.41, 4.27; p < 0.0001), maximum aerobic power or speed (WMax) (SMD = 0.66, 95% CI 0.33, 0.98; p < 0.0001), aerobic performance (SMD = 0.71, CI 0.16, 1.25; p = 0.01) and power or speed at ventilatory thresholds (VT) VT1 (SMD = 0.62, CI 0.04, 1.20; p = 0.04) and VT2 (SMD = 0.81, CI 0.41, 1.22; p < 0.0001). However, HRV-g did not show significant differences in VO2max (MD = 0.96, CI −1.11, 3.03; p = 0.36), WMax (SMD = 0.06, CI −0.26, 0.38; p = 0.72), or aerobic performance (SMD = 0.14, CI −0.22, 0.51; p = 0.45) in power or speed at VT1 (SMD = 0.27, 95% CI −0.16, 0.70; p = 0.22) or VT2 (SMD = 0.18, 95% CI −0.20, 0.57; p = 0.35), when compared to PT. Although HRV-based training periodization improved both physiological variables and aerobic performance, this method did not provide significant benefit over PT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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Open AccessReview
Effect of Physical Exercise on the Release of Microparticles with Angiogenic Potential
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(14), 4871; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10144871 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 723
Abstract
Cellular communication has a fundamental role in both human physiological and pathological states and various mechanisms are involved in the crosstalk between organs. Among these, microparticles (MPs) have an important involvement. MPs are a subtype of extracellular vesicles produced by a variety of [...] Read more.
Cellular communication has a fundamental role in both human physiological and pathological states and various mechanisms are involved in the crosstalk between organs. Among these, microparticles (MPs) have an important involvement. MPs are a subtype of extracellular vesicles produced by a variety of cells following activation or apoptosis. They are normally present in physiological conditions, but their concentration varies in pathological states such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, or cancer. Acute and chronic physical exercise are able to modify MPs amounts as well. Among various actions, exercise-responsive MPs affect angiogenesis, the process through which new blood vessels grow from pre-existing vessels. Usually, the neo vascular growth has functional role; but an aberrant neovascularization accompanies several oncogenic, ischemic, or inflammatory diseases. In addition, angiogenesis is one of the key adaptations to physical exercise and training. In the present review, we report evidence regarding the effect of various typologies of exercise on circulating MPs that are able to affect angiogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Sport and Exercise Medicine)
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