The Contribution of Geology and Geomatics to Seismic Hazard and Earthquake Engineering

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Earth Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 18833

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Geology Department, Science Faculty, University of Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca, Spain
Interests: tectonic geomorphology; GIS modeling; earthquake geology; active tectonics

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Geology and Geochemistry Department, Science Faculty, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Cantoblanco, Spain
Interests: structural geology; tectonics and earthquake geology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent decades, a prominent body of knowledge related to the geology of the earthquakes has provided new insights into seismic phenomena. The study of geology of present earthquakes allows a better understanding of the whole set of natural processes involved. The study of events from the past allows providing more comprehensive data within the temporal range (recurrence periods) of the seismic cycle and therefore completing the seismic catalogues and incorporating long-term data into seismic hazard assessment. The introduction of geological analysis of earthquakes, mainly based on the application of the Environmental Seismic Intensity Scale (ESI-07), also allows the parameterization of environmental earthquake effects and the emergence of multiple modeling procedures to assess intensity, hazard, risk, emergency scenarios, etc., most of them based on the application of GIS technologies.

The objective of this Special Issue on “The Contribution of Geology and Geomatics to Seismic Hazard and Earthquake Engineering” is to provide the latest advances, uses, and case studies related to the multiple applications of geological analysis of earthquakes.

Dr. Javier Elez
Prof. Dr. Jorge L. Giner-Robles
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Earthquake effects
  • Tectonic geomorphology
  • Active tectonics
  • GIS modeling
  • Seismic hazard analysis
  • Monitoring
  • Historical earthquakes
  • Seismic scenarios

Published Papers (6 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

32 pages, 35210 KiB  
Article
The Contribution of Near-Surface Geophysics for the Site Characterization of Seismological Stations
by John D. Alexopoulos, Spyridon Dilalos, Nicholas Voulgaris, Vasileios Gkosios, Ioannis-Konstantinos Giannopoulos, Vasilis Kapetanidis and George Kaviris
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(8), 4932; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13084932 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1447
Abstract
The Athenet network is the network of the Seismological Laboratory of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. We present the geophysical investigation that has been carried out at six seismological stations of the Athenet network for their site characterization. More specifically, at [...] Read more.
The Athenet network is the network of the Seismological Laboratory of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. We present the geophysical investigation that has been carried out at six seismological stations of the Athenet network for their site characterization. More specifically, at the location of each seismological station, four geophysical methods have been carried out: Seismic Refraction Tomography (SRT), Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW), the Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) technique, and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT). The applied geophysical survey provided important information regarding the site characterization at the selected seismological stations, including key parameters such as the fundamental frequency fo, the shear-wave velocity VS, the average shear-wave velocity for the upper 30 m depth (VS30), the seismic bedrock depth, the soil type, and the subsurface geology. Moreover, selected elastic moduli (Poisson’s ratio, shear, bulk, and Young moduli) have been calculated. The site characterization information contributes to the determination of the amplification factors for each site that can lead to more accurate calculation of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) or Peak Ground Velocity (PGV) and, therefore, trustworthy Probabilistic and Stochastic Seismic Hazard Assessments. The derived fundamental frequency for the seismological stations of VILL, LOUT, THAL, and EPID have been determined to be equal to 10.4, 2.7, 1.4, and 7.1 Hz and their amplification factors to be 1.9, 3.1, 1.7, and 2.6, respectively. For stations MDRA and ATAL, these parameters could not be determined. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

29 pages, 11470 KiB  
Article
Archaeoseismological Evidence of Seismic Damage at Medina Azahara (Córdoba, Spain) from the Early 11th Century
by Miguel Ángel Rodríguez-Pascua, María Ángeles Perucha, Pablo G. Silva, Alberto Javier Montejo Córdoba, Jorge Luis Giner-Robles, Javier Élez, Teresa Bardají, Elvira Roquero and Yolanda Sánchez-Sánchez
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 1601; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13031601 - 26 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2183
Abstract
The “Caliphal City of Medina Azahara” was built in 936–937 CE or 940–941 CE (depending on the source) by the first Caliph of al-Andalus Abd al-Rahman III, being recently inscribed (2018) on the UNESCO World Heritage List. The abandonment and destruction of the [...] Read more.
The “Caliphal City of Medina Azahara” was built in 936–937 CE or 940–941 CE (depending on the source) by the first Caliph of al-Andalus Abd al-Rahman III, being recently inscribed (2018) on the UNESCO World Heritage List. The abandonment and destruction of the city have been traditionally related to the civil war (“fitna”) that started between 1009 and 1010 CE. However, we cannot rule out other causes for the rapid depopulation and plundering of the city just a few decades after its foundation. The archaeoseismological study provides the first clues on the possible role played by an earthquake in the sudden abandonment and ruin of the city. Eleven different types of Earthquake Archaeological Effects (EAEs) have been identified, such as dropped key stones in arches, tilted walls, conjugated fractures in brick-made walls, conjugated fractures and folds in regular pavements and dipping broken corners in columns, among others. Besides that, 163 structural measures on EAEs were surveyed resulting in a mean ground movement direction of N140°–160° E. This geological structural analysis clearly indicates a building-oriented damage, which can be reasonably attributed to an earthquake that devastated Medina Azahara during the 11st or 12th centuries CE. If this were the case, two strong earthquakes (≥VIII MSK/EMS) occurred in 1024–1025 CE and 1169–1170 CE could be the suspected causative events of the damage and destruction of the city. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

28 pages, 19023 KiB  
Article
Geodetic Upper Crust Deformation Based on Primary GNSS and INSAR Data in the Strymon Basin, Northern Greece—Correlation with Active Faults
by Ilias Lazos, Ioannis Papanikolaou, Sotirios Sboras, Michael Foumelis and Christos Pikridas
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(18), 9391; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12189391 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2418
Abstract
The Strymon basin (Northern Greece) belongs to the geodynamically active regime of the Aegean and, as expected, it hosts active faults. Nevertheless, the study area exhibits a low instrumentally and historically recorded seismicity. In order to comprehend the crustal deformation, we implemented GNSS- [...] Read more.
The Strymon basin (Northern Greece) belongs to the geodynamically active regime of the Aegean and, as expected, it hosts active faults. Nevertheless, the study area exhibits a low instrumentally and historically recorded seismicity. In order to comprehend the crustal deformation, we implemented GNSS- and InSAR-based techniques. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) primary geodetic data recorded by 32 permanent stations over 7 years were analyzed and input in the triangulation methodology so as to calculate a series of deformational parameters. Moreover, a geostatistical methodology indicated the spatial distribution of each parameter, showing strain delimited up to 2750 × 109. These results are in broad agreement with palaeoseismological surveys and active fault mapping. Moreover, InSAR analysis, based on a 6-year data recording, concluded that no horizontal rates have been traced in the E–W direction; if they do exist, they would be below resolution (less than 2 mm/yr). Peak vertical subsidence values of a few mm/yr are traced towards the hanging wall of the Serres fault zone within the Quaternary sediments at the eastern margin of Strymon basin but are attributed mainly to groundwater extraction. However, it is noteworthy that geodetic strain analysis implies: (a) that a couple of areas need further study to trace potentially active faults by palaeoseismological means; (b) the fault trace of the Serres fault zone might be further prolonged 8–10 km eastwards, where Quaternary sediments cover the fault. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 4545 KiB  
Article
Signals of Surface Deformation Areas in Central Chile, Related to Seismic Activity—Using the Persistent Scatterer Method and GIS
by Luciana das Dores de Jesus da Silva, Henry Montecino Castro, Mauricio Ivan Aguayo Arias, Lisdelys González-Rodríguez, Lien Rodríguez-López and Luiz Mateus Cotias Simões
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 2575; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12052575 - 02 Mar 2022
Viewed by 2000
Abstract
Interferometric synthetic aperture radar is an effective means of measuring changes in the altitude of the Earth’s surface. In this research, the areas of surface deformation associated with low- and medium-intensity seismic events in Central Chile were analyzed using SENTINEL 1 satellite radar [...] Read more.
Interferometric synthetic aperture radar is an effective means of measuring changes in the altitude of the Earth’s surface. In this research, the areas of surface deformation associated with low- and medium-intensity seismic events in Central Chile were analyzed using SENTINEL 1 satellite radar interferograms and geographical information system (GIS) tools. The persistent scatterer method was used to reduce noise from conventional InSAR methods. The results revealed that the coastal zone of Central Chile has a high density of daily earthquakes with a prevalence (93.03%) of low- and medium-intensity earthquakes. Monthly deformation maps were developed for the coast of the Biobio region in Central Chile. A clear deformation pattern is defined along the coast, being greater in the Arauco, Lota and Lebu areas. It was also shown that there was a slight upward trend in the north and northeast zone (i.e., δup ~3 mm/year), while there was an obvious accentuated upward trend (i.e., δup ~24 mm/year) in the southern part. This movement increases as latitude increases. This pattern is related to the daily seismic activity, the product of the movement between plates, and the geological faults located in the area. The deformation and trend maps provide certainty in terms of where hotspots are located, e.g., the most hazardous areas in the study zone, which can be applied to urban planning and/or safety assessment. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

43 pages, 19843 KiB  
Article
Revisiting the Most Destructive Earthquake Sequence in the Recent History of Greece: Environmental Effects Induced by the 9, 11 and 12 August 1953 Ionian Sea Earthquakes
by Spyridon Mavroulis and Efthymis Lekkas
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(18), 8429; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188429 - 11 Sep 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4143
Abstract
The August 1953 seismic sequence comprised the most destructive events in the recent history of Greece. The mainshock on 12 August, and its foreshocks on 9 and 11 August, devastated the southern Ionian Islands. The existing literature emphasized the destructive effects of the [...] Read more.
The August 1953 seismic sequence comprised the most destructive events in the recent history of Greece. The mainshock on 12 August, and its foreshocks on 9 and 11 August, devastated the southern Ionian Islands. The existing literature emphasized the destructive effects of the earthquakes on buildings, as well as to the emergency response and recovery actions. This resulted in a large gap in capturing the full picture of the earthquake’s environmental effects. The present study aims to fill this gap by reconstructing the most complete picture possible of the primary and secondary effects on the environment of the southern Ionian Islands by the August 1953 earthquakes. This reconstruction is based on all available sources, comprising not only the existing scientific literature, but especially sources that have not been considered to date, including newspapers of local and national circulation. In total, 120 cases of the earthquake’s environmental effects were identified, comprised of 33 cases of primary and 87 cases of secondary effects. In descending order of occurrence, slope failures, co-seismic uplift, hydrological anomalies, ground cracks, tsunami, liquefaction, dust clouds, hydrocarbon-related phenomena, jumping stones and vegetation effects were distributed mainly in Cephalonia Island and secondarily in the Ithaki and Zakythos Islands. The primary effects were mainly detected in eastern Cephalonia, which presented uplift of up to 70 cm, while the majority of the secondary effects were triggered in specific zones with characteristics that made them susceptible to the occurrence of earthquake-related hazards. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

49 pages, 4342 KiB  
Article
Primary and Secondary Environmental Effects Triggered by the 30 October 2020, Mw = 7.0, Samos (Eastern Aegean Sea, Greece) Earthquake Based on Post-Event Field Surveys and InSAR Analysis
by Spyridon Mavroulis, Ioanna Triantafyllou, Andreas Karavias, Marilia Gogou, Katerina-Navsika Katsetsiadou, Efthymios Lekkas, Gerassimos A. Papadopoulos and Issaak Parcharidis
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(7), 3281; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11073281 - 06 Apr 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4969
Abstract
On 30 October 2020, an Mw = 7.0 earthquake struck the eastern Aegean Sea. It triggered earthquake environmental effects (EEEs) on Samos Island detected by field surveys, relevant questionnaires, and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) analysis. The primary EEEs detected in the field [...] Read more.
On 30 October 2020, an Mw = 7.0 earthquake struck the eastern Aegean Sea. It triggered earthquake environmental effects (EEEs) on Samos Island detected by field surveys, relevant questionnaires, and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) analysis. The primary EEEs detected in the field comprise coseismic uplift imprinted on rocky coasts and port facilities around Samos and coseismic surface ruptures in northern Samos. The secondary EEEs were mainly observed in northern Samos and include slope failures, liquefaction, hydrological anomalies, and ground cracks. With the contribution of the InSAR, subsidence was detected and slope movements were also identified in inaccessible areas. Moreover, the type of the surface deformation detected by InSAR is qualitatively identical to field observations. As regards the EEE distribution, effects were generated in all fault blocks. By applying the Environmental Seismic Intensity (ESI-07) scale, the maximum intensities were observed in northern Samos. Based on the results from the applied methods, it is suggested that the northern and northwestern parts of Samos constitute an almost 30-km-long coseismic deformation zone characterized by extensive primary and secondary EEEs. The surface projection of the causative offshore northern Samos fault points to this zone, indicating a depth–surface connection and revealing a significant role in the rupture propagation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop