Special Issue "Optical Trapping"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Optics and Lasers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Mathieu L. Juan
Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria
Interests: optical forces, micro-/nano-mechanics, quantum optics, near-field optics, superconducting qubits

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since the pioneering work of Arthur Ashkin, 40 years ago, optical trapping has played a central role in a broad range of applications, in both physics and biology. Over the years, the optical trapping toolbox evolved from the simple manipulation to the accurate measurement and control of the position of trapped objects. The forces in the pico-Newton range, along the micrometer precision, provided by optical traps constitute a powerful tool to study various phenomena at the micron scale such as molecular physics and microrheology. Taking advantage of concepts from near-field optics, the capabilities of optical traps have been further extended to the nano-scale, offering also the possibility to integrate optical manipulation on-chip in order to develop integrated lab-on-a-chip platforms. In a completely different context, optical trapping recently received a lot of interest in the field of quantum opto-mechanics for its capacity to levitate resonators, providing a promising platform for the study of massive particles in the quantum regime.

This Special Issue “Optical Trapping” aims at compiling some of the most recent work relying on the use of optical forces and their various application in physics.

Dr. Mathieu L. Juan
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Optical forces
  • Near-field optics
  • Optical levitation
  • Optomechanics
  • Microrheology
  • Lab-on-a-chip
  • Sensing

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
An Evaluation of the Zeeman Shift of the 87Sr Optical Lattice Clock at the National Time Service Center
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 1440; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10041440 - 20 Feb 2020
Abstract
The Zeeman shift plays an important role in the evaluation of optical lattice clocks since a strong bias magnetic field is applied for departing Zeeman sublevels and defining a quantization axis. We demonstrated the frequency correction and uncertainty evaluation due to Zeeman shift [...] Read more.
The Zeeman shift plays an important role in the evaluation of optical lattice clocks since a strong bias magnetic field is applied for departing Zeeman sublevels and defining a quantization axis. We demonstrated the frequency correction and uncertainty evaluation due to Zeeman shift in the 87Sr optical lattice clock at the National Time Service Center. The first-order Zeeman shift was almost completely removed by stabilizing the clock laser to the average frequency of the two Zeeman components of mF = ±9/2. The residual first-order Zeeman shift arose from the magnetic field drift between measurements of the two stretched-state center frequencies; the upper bound was inferred as 4(5) × 10−18. The quadratic Zeeman shift coefficient was experimentally determined as –23.0(4) MHz/T2 and the final Zeeman shift was evaluated as 9.20(7) × 10−17. The evaluation of the Zeeman shift is a foundation for overall evaluation of the uncertainty of an optical lattice clock. This measurement can provide more references for the determination of the quadratic coefficient of 87Sr. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Trapping)
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Open AccessArticle
Optical Trapping, Sizing, and Probing Acoustic Modes of a Small Virus
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10010394 - 04 Jan 2020
Abstract
Prior opto-mechanical techniques to measure vibrational frequencies of viruses work on large ensembles of particles, whereas, in this work, individually trapped viral particles were studied. Double nanohole (DNH) apertures in a gold film were used to achieve optical trapping of one of the [...] Read more.
Prior opto-mechanical techniques to measure vibrational frequencies of viruses work on large ensembles of particles, whereas, in this work, individually trapped viral particles were studied. Double nanohole (DNH) apertures in a gold film were used to achieve optical trapping of one of the smallest virus particles yet reported, PhiX174, which has a diameter of 25 nm. When a laser was focused onto these DNH apertures, it created high local fields due to plasmonic enhancement, which allowed stable trapping of small particles for prolonged periods at low powers. Two techniques were performed to characterize the virus particles. The particles were sized via an established autocorrelation analysis technique, and the acoustic modes were probed using the extraordinary acoustic Raman (EAR) method. The size of the trapped particle was determined to be 25 ± 3.8 nm, which is in good agreement with the established diameter of PhiX174. A peak in the EAR signal was observed at 32 GHz, which fits well with the predicted value from elastic theory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Trapping)
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Open AccessArticle
Optical Conveyor Belts for Chiral Discrimination: Influence of De-Phasing Parameter
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 1304; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9071304 - 28 Mar 2019
Abstract
A numerical analysis is carried out of the influence of the de-phasing parameter of an optical conveyor belt in the enantiomeric separation. The optical conveyor belt is obtained by the interference of a Laguerre Gaussian and a Gaussian beam with different beam waists, [...] Read more.
A numerical analysis is carried out of the influence of the de-phasing parameter of an optical conveyor belt in the enantiomeric separation. The optical conveyor belt is obtained by the interference of a Laguerre Gaussian and a Gaussian beam with different beam waists, which are temporally de-phased. In order to obtain the maximum separation distance between enantiomers, we calculate the optimum range of values of the de-phasing parameter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Trapping)
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Open AccessArticle
Optical Assembling of Micro-Particles at a Glass–Water Interface with Diffraction Patterns Caused by the Limited Aperture of Objective
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1522; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091522 - 01 Sep 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Optical tweezers can manipulate micro-particles, which have been widely used in various applications. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that optical tweezers can assemble the micro-particles to form stable structures at the glass–solution interface in this paper. Firstly, the particles are driven by the optical [...] Read more.
Optical tweezers can manipulate micro-particles, which have been widely used in various applications. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that optical tweezers can assemble the micro-particles to form stable structures at the glass–solution interface in this paper. Firstly, the particles are driven by the optical forces originated from the diffraction fringes, which of the trapping beam passing through an objective with limited aperture. The particles form stable ring structures when the trapping beam is a linearly polarized beam. The particle distributions in the transverse plane are affected by the particle size and concentration. Secondly, the particles form an incompact structure as two fan-shaped after the azimuthally polarized beam passing through a linear polarizer. Furthermore, the particles form a compact structure when a radially polarized beam is used for trapping. Thirdly, the particle patterns can be printed steady at the glass surface in the salt solution. At last, the disadvantage of diffraction traps is discussed in application of optical tweezers. The aggregation of particles at the interfaces seriously affects the flowing of particles in microfluidic channels, and a total reflector as the bottom surface of sample cell can avoid the optical tweezers induced particle patterns at the interface. The optical trapping study utilizing the diffraction gives an interesting method for binding and assembling microparticles, which is helpful to understand the principle of optical tweezers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Trapping)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
From Far-Field to Near-Field Micro- and Nanoparticle Optical Trapping
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 1375; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10041375 - 18 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Optical tweezers are a very well-established technique that have developed into a standard tool for trapping and manipulating micron and submicron particles with great success in the last decades. Although the nature of light enforces restrictions on the minimum particle size that can [...] Read more.
Optical tweezers are a very well-established technique that have developed into a standard tool for trapping and manipulating micron and submicron particles with great success in the last decades. Although the nature of light enforces restrictions on the minimum particle size that can be efficiently trapped due to Abbe’s diffraction limit, scientists have managed to overcome this problem by engineering new devices that exploit near-field effects. Nowadays, metallic nanostructures can be fabricated which, under laser illumination, produce a secondary plasmonic field that does not suffer from the diffraction limit. This advance offers a great improvement in nanoparticle trapping, as it relaxes the trapping requirements compared to conventional optical tweezers although problems may arise due to thermal heating of the metallic nanostructures. This could hinder efficient trapping and damage the trapped object. In this work, we review the fundamentals of conventional optical tweezers, the so-called plasmonic tweezers, and related phenomena. Starting from the conception of the idea by Arthur Ashkin until recent improvements and applications, we present the principles of these techniques along with their limitations. Emphasis in this review is on the successive improvements of the techniques and the innovative aspects that have been devised to overcome some of the main challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Trapping)
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Open AccessReview
Plasmonic Tweezers towards Biomolecular and Biomedical Applications
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(17), 3596; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9173596 - 02 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
With the capability of confining light into subwavelength scale, plasmonic tweezers have been used to trap and manipulate nanoscale particles. It has huge potential to be utilized in biomolecular research and practical biomedical applications. In this short review, plasmonic tweezers based on nano-aperture [...] Read more.
With the capability of confining light into subwavelength scale, plasmonic tweezers have been used to trap and manipulate nanoscale particles. It has huge potential to be utilized in biomolecular research and practical biomedical applications. In this short review, plasmonic tweezers based on nano-aperture designs are discussed. A few challenges should be overcome for these plasmonic tweezers to reach a similar level of significance as the conventional optical tweezers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Trapping)
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Other

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Open AccessLetter
A High-Power and Highly Efficient Semi-Conductor MOPA System for Lithium Atomic Physics
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030471 - 30 Jan 2019
Abstract
A compact and highly efficient 670.8-nm semi-conductor master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system, with a unique optical design, is demonstrated. The MOPA system achieves a continuous-wave (CW) output power of 2.2 W, which is much higher than commercial products using semi-conductor devices. By [...] Read more.
A compact and highly efficient 670.8-nm semi-conductor master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system, with a unique optical design, is demonstrated. The MOPA system achieves a continuous-wave (CW) output power of 2.2 W, which is much higher than commercial products using semi-conductor devices. By comparing solid state lasers and dye lasers, higher wall-plug efficiency (WPE) of 20 % is achieved. Our developed laser system also achieves spectral line-width of 0.3 pm (200 MHz) and mode-hop free tuning range of 49 pm (32.6 GHz), which is very suitable for experiments of lithium atomic physics at several-watt power levels, such as Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) and isotope absorption spectroscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Trapping)
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