Special Issue "Human Skeletal Muscle and Tendon Characteristics in Sport and Rehabilitation"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 January 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Adam Kawczyński
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Guest Editor
University School of Physical Education in Wrocław, Department of Paralimpic Sports
Interests: Skeletal muscle sensory-motor and elastic properties in relation to muscle pain and training.
Prof. Dariusz Mroczek
Website
Guest Editor
University School of Physical Education in Wrocław, Department of Biological and Motor Sport Bases
Interests: His current project is “central and peripheral fatigue in sports team games”. Research interest is also focused on the assessment of viscoelastic properties in fatigue and motor control training.
Dr. Sebastian Klich
Website
Guest Editor
University School of Physical Education in Wrocław, Department of Paralimpic Sports
Interests: Dr. Klich's research focuses on sport and exercise physiology and biomechanics, specifically in the mechanical and morphological properties of rotator cuff muscles. Dr. Klich currently investigates central and peripheral factors of fatigue and the influence of injury.

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mechanical loadings may provoke alterations of the morphological properties and viscoelasticity of tendons and muscles. In this case, tendon loadings may affect muscle properties (e.g., tendon thickness and viscoelastic characteristics of the muscle belly). During repetitive sports actions, fatigue induces modifications in muscle characteristics, such as stiffness and creep, and in the synchronization of synergic muscle activity, which in turn results in non-functional kinematics. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate both the morphological and viscoelastic properties of muscles and tendons during fatigue exercise. The investigated area may include a whole series of different measurements (i.e., myotonometry, ultrasonography, and algometry). The greatest advantage of those measurements is the direct monitoring of overloading and fatigue alterations in muscle properties. Additionally, final findings might be assessed in sport science, medicine, rehabilitation, and public health, as a preventive method.

This research topic “Human Skeletal Muscle and Tendon Characteristics in Sport and Rehabilitation” determines the link between recreational activity, professional sports performance, rehab, and well-being. Potential topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Recreational activity as a benefit for health.
  • Optimization of sports performance by investigating muscle mechanical (viscoelastic), morphological, and architectonical properties.
  • Skeletal muscle monitoring as an injury preventive method.
  • Muscle and tendon characteristics in rehabilitation and medicine.
  • Optimization of rehab and athletic training after musculoskeletal injuries.
  • Digitalization in in modern sport and medicine.

Best Regards,

Prof. Adam Kawczyński
Prof. Dariusz Mroczek
Dr. Sebastian Klich
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • mechanical properties
  • muscle stiffness
  • ultrasound
  • myotonometry
  • sport
  • prevention

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Pressure Applied during Deep Friction Massage: Characterization and Relationship with Time of Onset of Analgesia
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2705; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082705 - 14 Apr 2020
Abstract
This study aims to determine if a dose–response relationship exists between the pressure applied during deep friction massage (DFM) and the time to the onset of analgesia in an asymptomatic patellar tendon. For this purpose, pressures applied by physiotherapists during DFM (study 1) [...] Read more.
This study aims to determine if a dose–response relationship exists between the pressure applied during deep friction massage (DFM) and the time to the onset of analgesia in an asymptomatic patellar tendon. For this purpose, pressures applied by physiotherapists during DFM (study 1) were characterized and then, based on these pressures, the effects of different DFM pressures on the time to the onset of analgesia were assessed (study 2). First, the mean pressure applied by 40 physiotherapists during a DFM session was assessed with a pressure sensor through an observational, cross-sectional and analytical study. Next, the effects of different pressure intensities (the median, the percentile 25 (P25), and the percentile 75 (P75) of the mean pressure obtained in study 1) were studied in a crossover trial enrolling 30 participants with an asymptomatic patellar tendon. A pressure sensor was used to register the pressures applied during DFM. Our main results indicated that the physiotherapists applied pressures with a wide variation ((mean pressure: 2.317 kg/cm2 (P25: 1.022 kg/cm2; P75: 4.161 kg/cm2)). It was also shown that higher pressures had shorter times to the onset of analgesia (pressure: 1 kg/m2, time to the onset of analgesia: 67.0 s (P25: 84.5 s; P75: 113.5 s); pressure: 2.3 kg/m2, time to the onset of analgesia: 59.0 s (P25: 73.5 s; P75: 87.3 s); pressure: 4.2 kg/m2, time to the onset of analgesia: 37.8 s (P25: 54.0 s; P75: 62.0 s)) (p ≤ 0.001). In conclusion, the mean DFM pressure obtained by the physiotherapists was 2.3 kg/cm2 (P25: 1.02 kg/cm2; P75: 4.16 kg/cm2). Higher pressures of DFM resulted in shorter times to the onset of analgesia. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effects of tDCS on Muscle Stiffness in Children with Cerebral Palsy Measured by Myotonometry: A Preliminary Study
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2616; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072616 - 10 Apr 2020
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the biceps brachii and flexor carpi radialis stiffness in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The authors also aimed to verify the relationship between spasticity [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the biceps brachii and flexor carpi radialis stiffness in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The authors also aimed to verify the relationship between spasticity and muscle stiffness. Methods: Twelve children with CP (mean ± SD; age, 8 ± 1.3 years; height, 118.7 ± 4.1 cm; weight, 23.0 ± 2.2 kg) were involved in the study. Muscle stiffness was estimated using a MyotonPRO device in a MultiScan pattern of five measurements. Simultaneously, the tDCS stimulation was performed. Spasticity was assessed by a neurologist using the Ashworth Scale. Results: Stiffness of the flexor carpi radialis muscle decreased significantly after tDCS therapy (p = 0.04). There was no significant change in stiffness of the biceps brachii. For all participants, the Spearman rank correlation showed statistically significant and positive relationships between muscle stiffness and the Ashworth Scale (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Transcranial direct current stimulation has a decreasing effect on stiffness and spasticity of the flexor carpi radialis in children with CP. The MyotonPRO device provides objective data and correlates with spasticity measurements. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Which Type of Exercise Is More Beneficial for Cognitive Function? A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Open-Skill Exercise versus Closed-Skill Exercise among Children, Adults, and Elderly Populations
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2737; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082737 - 15 Apr 2020
Abstract
A large number of studies have described a positive relationship between physical exercise and cognition. Physical exercise can be divided into closed-skill exercise (CSE) and open-skill exercise (OSE) based on the predictability of the performance environment. It remains unknown whether either of these [...] Read more.
A large number of studies have described a positive relationship between physical exercise and cognition. Physical exercise can be divided into closed-skill exercise (CSE) and open-skill exercise (OSE) based on the predictability of the performance environment. It remains unknown whether either of these types of exercise is more beneficial for cognitive function. Therefore, the purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of OSE versus CSE on cognition. Eligible studies included cross-sectional studies and intervention studies that had a clear definition of OSE and CSE, and these were used to compare the cognitive performance differences between the two classes of exercise. A total of 15 cross-sectional studies and 4 intervention studies were included in this meta-analysis. Among the cross-sectional studies, the overall effect size for OSE versus CSE was 0.304 (95% confidence interval (CI) (−0.097, 1.213); p < 0.05). Further subgroup analysis showed that the overall effect size for OSE versus CSE was 0.247 for inhibition and 0.360 for cognitive flexibility (both p < 0.05). In contrast, no significant differences between the two exercise modes were observed in the intervention studies. In particular, there were no significant differences in visuospatial attention or in processing speed between the two exercise modes. Taken together, these results suggest that OSE is superior to CSE, especially for executive function, according to the 15 cross-sectional studies examined. However, data from the intervention studies indicate that OSE is not superior. Therefore, additional well-designed, long-term intervention studies are needed to elucidate the potential efficacy of OSE in all populations. Full article
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