Next Article in Journal
A Steady-State Model to Simulate Groundwater Flow in Unconfined Aquifer
Next Article in Special Issue
Which Type of Exercise Is More Beneficial for Cognitive Function? A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Open-Skill Exercise versus Closed-Skill Exercise among Children, Adults, and Elderly Populations
Previous Article in Journal
Development of an Unmanned Surface Vehicle for the Emergency Response Mission of the ‘Sanchi’ Oil Tanker Collision and Explosion Accident
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effects of tDCS on Muscle Stiffness in Children with Cerebral Palsy Measured by Myotonometry: A Preliminary Study
Open AccessArticle

Pressure Applied during Deep Friction Massage: Characterization and Relationship with Time of Onset of Analgesia

1
CESPU, Institute of Research and Advanced Training in Health Sciences and Technologies, 4585-116 Gandra-Paredes, Portugal
2
Santa Maria Health School, 4049-024 Porto, Portugal
3
Applied Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (2AI), IPCA-Instituto Politécnico do Cávado e do Ave, 4750-810 Barcelos, Portugal
4
Research Centre in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
5
Institute of Biomedicine-iBiMED, School of Health Sciences, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2705; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082705
Received: 17 March 2020 / Revised: 9 April 2020 / Accepted: 10 April 2020 / Published: 14 April 2020
This study aims to determine if a dose–response relationship exists between the pressure applied during deep friction massage (DFM) and the time to the onset of analgesia in an asymptomatic patellar tendon. For this purpose, pressures applied by physiotherapists during DFM (study 1) were characterized and then, based on these pressures, the effects of different DFM pressures on the time to the onset of analgesia were assessed (study 2). First, the mean pressure applied by 40 physiotherapists during a DFM session was assessed with a pressure sensor through an observational, cross-sectional and analytical study. Next, the effects of different pressure intensities (the median, the percentile 25 (P25), and the percentile 75 (P75) of the mean pressure obtained in study 1) were studied in a crossover trial enrolling 30 participants with an asymptomatic patellar tendon. A pressure sensor was used to register the pressures applied during DFM. Our main results indicated that the physiotherapists applied pressures with a wide variation ((mean pressure: 2.317 kg/cm2 (P25: 1.022 kg/cm2; P75: 4.161 kg/cm2)). It was also shown that higher pressures had shorter times to the onset of analgesia (pressure: 1 kg/m2, time to the onset of analgesia: 67.0 s (P25: 84.5 s; P75: 113.5 s); pressure: 2.3 kg/m2, time to the onset of analgesia: 59.0 s (P25: 73.5 s; P75: 87.3 s); pressure: 4.2 kg/m2, time to the onset of analgesia: 37.8 s (P25: 54.0 s; P75: 62.0 s)) (p ≤ 0.001). In conclusion, the mean DFM pressure obtained by the physiotherapists was 2.3 kg/cm2 (P25: 1.02 kg/cm2; P75: 4.16 kg/cm2). Higher pressures of DFM resulted in shorter times to the onset of analgesia. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cyriax; pain; patellar tendon; manual therapy; physical therapists Cyriax; pain; patellar tendon; manual therapy; physical therapists
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Chaves, P.; Simões, D.; Paço, M.; Pinho, F.; Duarte, J.A.; Ribeiro, F. Pressure Applied during Deep Friction Massage: Characterization and Relationship with Time of Onset of Analgesia. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 2705.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop