Special Issue "Progressive Cement and Glass-Based Composites and Structures"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Ondřej Jankovský
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6, Czech Republic
Interests: inorganic chemistry; composites; graphene-based materials; thermodynamics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Milena Pavlíková
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Faculty of Civil Engineering (FSV), Czech Technical University in Prague, Thákurova 7, 166 29 Prague, Czech Republic
Interests: materials engineering; materials chemistry; silicates; building materials; glass-based composites; inorganic binders

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Special Issue ‘Progressive Cement and Glass-Based Composites and Structures‘ aims at the preparation and characterization of high-performance composites that should find use in specific engineering applications especially in the building industry. Today, a number of new progressive composite materials meeting specific rising requirements on their functionality, performance, and durability at specific climate conditions are under development, taking into account their sustainability, eco-efficiency, and production costs. As design, development, and testing of these high-performance materials represent a highly actual issue for materials engineers and chemists, we believe this newly announced Special Issue represents a great possibility for presentation and publication of very recent results and findings received in this field of progressive cement and glass-based composite materials and structures. 

The Special Issue will include synthesis and characterization of various composites based on various types of cement or glass. Specific attention will be given to materials’ durability and service life. Hence, proposed topics include but are not limited to the following:

  • Environmentally friendly composites for building industry;
  • Graphene-cement composites;
  • Graphene oxide–cement composites;
  • CNT–cement composites;
  • Mechanical and thermal properties of composites;
  • Magnesium–oxychloride composites;
  • Development of innovative cement-based composites with various admixtures;
  • Development of innovative glass-based composites with polymer admixtures and additives;
  • New composites for repairs and renewal;
  • Multilayered construction composites;
  • Full scale testing of composite-based structures.

We believe that this topic is very real and interesting, and hence, we invite you to submit your contributions to this Special Issue with the best of your research activities.

Assoc. Prof. Ondřej Jankovský
Prof. Milena Pavlíková
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cement-based composites
  • glass-based composites
  • building chemistry
  • magnesium–oxychlorides
  • durability and mechanical performance of nano-based composites
  • structural analysis
  • functional properties

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
Experimental Study on the Strength and Durability for Slag Cement Mortar with Bentonite
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 1176; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11031176 - 27 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 577
Abstract
This study focused on improving the durability of concrete infrastructures located in marine environments. When structures made of concrete are exposed to a marine environment, the combined effects of mechanical and chemical actions, such as attacks from sulfate and chloride, may deteriorate the [...] Read more.
This study focused on improving the durability of concrete infrastructures located in marine environments. When structures made of concrete are exposed to a marine environment, the combined effects of mechanical and chemical actions, such as attacks from sulfate and chloride, may deteriorate the material, then cause corrosion of the embedded reinforced steel bars, and finally result in shortening of the service life of the structure. Therefore, proposed in this work is a method mainly focused on improving the strength and durability of concrete composed with slag cement as a binder, which due to its pozzolanic reaction is commonly applied in construction projects in marine environments. The durability of slag cement mortar can be improved through the application of bentonite material by utilizing bentonite’s very finely divided form and its reactivity to sulfate so that the larger capillary pores in concrete can be filled. It was found that a slight (approximately 0.25%) replacement of slag cement with bentonite material effectively improved the durability of the slag cement mortar in terms of moisture absorption, compressive strength, and weight loss after a sulfate resistance test and the evaluation for chloride permeability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progressive Cement and Glass-Based Composites and Structures)
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Article
Magnesium Oxybromides MOB-318 and MOB-518: Brominated Analogues of Magnesium Oxychlorides
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 4032; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10114032 - 11 Jun 2020
Viewed by 805
Abstract
The search for environmentally sustainable building materials is currently experiencing significant expansion. It is increasingly important to find new materials or reintroduce those that have been set aside to find a good replacement for Portland cement, which is widely used despite being environmentally [...] Read more.
The search for environmentally sustainable building materials is currently experiencing significant expansion. It is increasingly important to find new materials or reintroduce those that have been set aside to find a good replacement for Portland cement, which is widely used despite being environmentally insufficient and energy-intensive. Magnesium oxybromides, analogues to well-known magnesium oxychloride cements, fit both categories of new and reintroduced materials. In this contribution, two magnesium oxybromide phases were prepared and thoroughly analyzed. The stoichiometries of the prepared phases were 5Mg(OH)2∙MgBr2∙8H2O and 3Mg(OH)2∙MgBr2∙8H2O. The phase analysis was determined using X-ray diffraction. The morphology was analyzed with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The chemical composition was studied using X-ray fluorescence and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was also used. The thermal stability and the mechanism of the release of gasses linked to the heating process, such as water and hydrobromic acid evaporation, were analyzed using simultaneous thermal analysis combined with mass spectroscopy. The obtained results were compared with the data available for magnesium oxychlorides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progressive Cement and Glass-Based Composites and Structures)
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Article
Carbon Dioxide Uptake by MOC-Based Materials
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2254; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072254 - 26 Mar 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 930
Abstract
In this work, carbon dioxide uptake by magnesium oxychloride cement (MOC) based materials is described. Both thermodynamically stable magnesium oxychloride phases with stoichiometry 3Mg(OH)2∙MgCl2∙8H2O (Phase 3) and 5Mg(OH)2∙MgCl2∙8H2O (Phase 5) were [...] Read more.
In this work, carbon dioxide uptake by magnesium oxychloride cement (MOC) based materials is described. Both thermodynamically stable magnesium oxychloride phases with stoichiometry 3Mg(OH)2∙MgCl2∙8H2O (Phase 3) and 5Mg(OH)2∙MgCl2∙8H2O (Phase 5) were prepared. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were performed to confirm the purity of the studied phases after 7, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 days. Due to carbonation, chlorartinite was formed on the surface of the examined samples. The Rietveld analysis was performed to calculate the phase composition and evaluate the kinetics of carbonation. The SEM micrographs of the sample surfaces were compared with those of the bulk to prove XRD results. Both MOC phases exhibited fast mineral carbonation and high maximum theoretical values of CO2 uptake capacity. The materials based on MOC cement can thus find use in applications where a higher concentration of CO2 in the environment is expected (e.g., in flooring systems and wall panels), where they can partially mitigate the harmful effects of CO2 on indoor air quality and contribute to the sustainability of the construction industry by means of reducing the carbon footprints of alternative building materials and reducing CO2 concentrations in the environment overall. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progressive Cement and Glass-Based Composites and Structures)
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Article
A Novel Polymer Concrete Composite with GFRP Waste: Applications, Morphology, and Porosity Characterization
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(6), 2060; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10062060 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1113
Abstract
Composite materials reinforced with recycled fibers gather a great deal of interest with regards to construction applications. A novel polymer concrete composite was proposed, comprised of a surface layer and a structural composite reinforced with recycled glass fibers. The novel multi-material composite included [...] Read more.
Composite materials reinforced with recycled fibers gather a great deal of interest with regards to construction applications. A novel polymer concrete composite was proposed, comprised of a surface layer and a structural composite reinforced with recycled glass fibers. The novel multi-material composite included a large amount of glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) waste (30%), which is expected to help protect the environment. Large panels comprised of this polymer concrete composite, which reproduce the appearance of natural stone, were manufactured. A new methodology for porosity analysis of a large panel comprised of a multi-material composite was proposed, utilizing three-dimensional (3D) X-ray computed tomography (CT). The volume of pores was distributed between the constituent composite materials and then statistically analyzed. Homogeneous distribution of the pores within the novel multi-material composite was found. The observed mean porosities of the composite panel were 0.146% for the surface layer material and 31.3% for the structural composite material. The mean density of the panel, determined by the CT density method, was 1.73 g/cm3. The composite materials porosity provides a favorable effect for achieving lightweight structures. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, it was observed that a good connection interface between the constituent composite materials existed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progressive Cement and Glass-Based Composites and Structures)
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Article
Synthesis, Structure, and Thermal Stability of Magnesium Oxychloride 5Mg(OH)2∙MgCl2∙8H2O
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 1683; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10051683 - 02 Mar 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 880
Abstract
Today, low-energy and low-carbon footprint alternatives to Portland cement are searched because of huge CO2 emissions coming from Portland clinker calcination. Because of some superior properties of magnesium oxychloride cement (MOC) and the lower carbon footprint of its production, MOC became an [...] Read more.
Today, low-energy and low-carbon footprint alternatives to Portland cement are searched because of huge CO2 emissions coming from Portland clinker calcination. Because of some superior properties of magnesium oxychloride cement (MOC) and the lower carbon footprint of its production, MOC became an intensively studied material with high application potential for the design and development of construction products. In this contribution, magnesium oxychloride with stoichiometry 5Mg(OH)2∙MgCl2∙8H2O (Phase 5) was prepared and characterized. The kinetics of formation and the phase composition of the material were determined using X-ray diffraction and consequent Rietveld analysis. The morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy, and the chemical composition was determined by both energy-dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence. Moreover, the simultaneous thermal analysis in combination with mass spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was employed to study the thermal stability. Using mass spectroscopy, we were able to clarify the mechanism of water and hydrochloric acid release, which was not previously reported. The observed structural and chemical changes induced by exposure of studied samples to elevated temperatures were linked with the measured residual macro and micro parameters, such as bulk density, specific density, porosity, water absorption, compressive strength, and pore size distribution. The Phase 5 revealed a needle-like crystalline morphology which formed rapidly and was almost completed after 96 h, resulting in relatively high material strength. The four-day compressive strength of magnesium oxychloride cement was similar to the 28-day compressive strength of Portland cement. The thermal stability of Phase 5 was low as the observed disruptive thermal processes were completed at temperatures lower than 470 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progressive Cement and Glass-Based Composites and Structures)
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Article
Influence of Waste Plastic Aggregate and Water-Repellent Additive on the Properties of Lightweight Magnesium Oxychloride Cement Composite
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(24), 5463; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9245463 - 12 Dec 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1004
Abstract
The aim of the present study is to improve the thermal and hygric performance of magnesium oxychloride (MOC) cement composites by the incorporation of waste plastic-based aggregate and the use of the inner and surface hydrophobic agents. The crushed waste expanded polypropylene particles [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study is to improve the thermal and hygric performance of magnesium oxychloride (MOC) cement composites by the incorporation of waste plastic-based aggregate and the use of the inner and surface hydrophobic agents. The crushed waste expanded polypropylene particles were used as a full replacement of natural silica sand. The aggregate properties were evaluated in terms of their physical and thermal parameters. The caustic calcined magnesite was studied by SEM, XRF, and XRD spectroscopy. The MOC cement composites were characterized by SEM/EDS, XRD, and FT-IR spectroscopy and measurement of their structural properties, strength parameters, thermal conductivity, and volumetric heat capacity. Assessment of water- and water vapor transport properties was also conducted. The results show significantly improved thermal parameters of MOC cement composite containing expanded polypropylene (EPP) as aggregate and indicate high efficiency of surface hydrophobic agent (impregnation) as a barrier against the transport of liquid and gaseous moisture. The resulting lightweight EPP-MOC cement composite with improved thermal insulation function and suitable mechanical properties can be used to produce thermal insulation floors, ceilings, or wall panels reducing the operational energy demand of buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progressive Cement and Glass-Based Composites and Structures)
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Review

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Review
Hydrotalcites in Construction Materials
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(22), 7989; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10227989 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 755
Abstract
Hydrotalcites are layered double hydroxides displaying a variety of stoichiometry caused by the different arrangement of the stacking of the layers, ordering of the metal cations, as well as the arrangement of anions and water molecules, in the interlayer galleries. The compounds of [...] Read more.
Hydrotalcites are layered double hydroxides displaying a variety of stoichiometry caused by the different arrangement of the stacking of the layers, ordering of the metal cations, as well as the arrangement of anions and water molecules, in the interlayer galleries. The compounds of the hydrotalcite group show a wide range of the possible applications due to their specific properties, such as their large surface area, ion exchange ability, the insolubility in water and most of the organic sorbents, and others. Affordability, wide possibilities of manufacturing, and presence of sufficient natural deposits make hydrotalcites potentially very useful for the construction industry, as either a building material itself or an additive in mortars, concrete or in polymers composites used in constructions. Similar possible application of such material is in leakage control in a radioactive waste repository. The effect of use of these materials for ion exchange, anti-corrosion protection, radioactive ions containment, and similar purposes in building materials is examined in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progressive Cement and Glass-Based Composites and Structures)
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