Special Issue "Environmentally Friendly Gas Turbines"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Mechanical Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Theoklis Nikolaidis
Website
Guest Editor
Centre for Propulsion Engineering, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, UK
Interests: modelling-simulation advanced numerical methods; steady state/transient performance; engine’s control system; variable and novel cycles; particulate/multiphase flows and their effects on engine’s performance; alternative fuels; health monitoring
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Prof. Dr. Pericles Pericles Pilidis

Guest Editor
Centre for Propulsion Engineering, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK
Interests: gas turbine performance; gas turbines for air, land and sea applications; gas turbine methods; combined cycle gas turbines; power plant integration; TERA (Techno economic Environmental Risk Analysis); power plant asset management
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Soheil Jafari
Website
Guest Editor
Centre for Propulsion Engineering, School of Aerospace, Transport and Manufacturing (SATM), Cranfield University, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK
Interests: propulsion engineering; thermal management systems, control engineering, global optimization algorithms
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Future aircraft propulsion systems should be able to meet ambitious targets and severe limitations set by governments and organizations for the environment (e.g., the Advisory Council for Aviation Research and Innovation in Europe has a target of a 75% reduction in CO2 emissions and a 90% reduction of NOx emissions by 2050). These targets cannot be achieved just through marginal improvements in turbine technology or aircraft design.

In other words, revolutionary concepts, ideas, and solutions are required to deal with future environmental issues and concerns in the aviation sector. The most important aspect in this regard is the impact of the proposed solutions and ideas on the environment. In recent years,

  • Hybrid electric propulsion has been investigated as part of efforts to improve fuel efficiency, emissions, and noise levels in commercial transport aircraft. The term “hybrid electric” is really meant to encompass many different methods for using both airplane fuel and electricity to drive propulsion systems;
  • Sustainable aviation fuels (SAF) have been explored to find sustainable solutions for the aviation sector and to develop a CO2 roadmap, which have given estimates of the impact of sustainable fuels on UK aviation’s carbon emissions;
  • Other novel configurations for air travel are being considered as well (e.g., the ionic wind propulsion project, the novel aircraft configurations project)

This Special Issue of Applied Sciences, "Environmentally Friendly Gas Turbines", aims to cover innovative technology in the development of gas turbines from the component to the engine level and from novel fuels to new architectures. It focuses on environmentally friendly power systems ideas, concepts, modelling, performance analysis, control, optimization, systems, and sub-systems.

Dr. Theoklis Nikolaidis
Prof. Dr. Pericles Pericles Pilidis
Dr. Soheil Jafari
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Hybrid Electric Propulsion
  • Turbo-electric Propulsion
  • All-electric propulsion
  • Ion thrusters
  • New aero-engine architectures
  • Sustainable Alternative Fuels (SAF)
  • Environmentally friendly aviation
  • Emission reduction
  • Thermal Management Systems
  • Fuel economy

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Optimization Design of a 2.5 Stage Highly Loaded Axial Compressor with a Bezier Surface Modeling Method
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 3860; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10113860 - 01 Jun 2020
Abstract
Due to the complexity of the internal flow field of compressors, the aerodynamic design and optimization of a highly loaded axial compressor with high performance still have three problems, which are rich engineering design experience, high dimensions, and time-consuming calculations. To overcome these [...] Read more.
Due to the complexity of the internal flow field of compressors, the aerodynamic design and optimization of a highly loaded axial compressor with high performance still have three problems, which are rich engineering design experience, high dimensions, and time-consuming calculations. To overcome these three problems, this paper takes an engineering-designed 2.5-stage highly loaded axial flow compressor as an example to introduce the design process and the adopted design philosophies. Then, this paper verifies the numerical method of computational fluid dynamics. A new Bezier surface modeling method for the entire suction surface and pressure surface of blades is developed, and the multi-island genetic algorithm is directly used for further optimization. Only 32 optimization variables are used to optimize the rotors and stators of the compressor, which greatly overcome the problem of high dimensions, time-consuming calculations, and smooth blade surfaces. After optimization, compared with the original compressor, the peak efficiency is still improved by 0.12%, and the stall margin is increased by 2.69%. The increase in peak efficiency is mainly due to the rotors. Compared with the original compressor, for the second-stage rotor, the adiabatic efficiency is improved by about 0.4%, which is mainly due to the decreases of total pressure losses in the range of above 30% of the span height and 10%–30% of the chord length. Besides, for the original compressor, due to deterioration of the flow field near the tip region of the second-stage stator, the large low-speed region eventually evolves from corner separation into corner stall with three-dimensional space spiral backflow. For the optimized compressor, the main reason for the increased stall margin is that the flow field of the second-stage stator with a span height above 50% is improved, and the separation area and three-dimensional space spiral backflow are reduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmentally Friendly Gas Turbines)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Advanced Constraints Management Strategy for Real-Time Optimization of Gas Turbine Engine Transient Performance
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(24), 5333; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9245333 - 06 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Motivated by the growing technology of control and data processing as well as the increasingly complex designs of the new generation of gas turbine engines, a fully automatic control strategy that is capable of dealing with different aspects of operational and safety considerations [...] Read more.
Motivated by the growing technology of control and data processing as well as the increasingly complex designs of the new generation of gas turbine engines, a fully automatic control strategy that is capable of dealing with different aspects of operational and safety considerations is required to be implemented on gas turbine engines. An advanced practical control mode satisfaction method for the entire operating envelope of gas turbine engines is proposed in this paper to achieve the optimal transient performance for the engine. A constraint management strategy is developed to generate different controller settings for short-range fighters as well as long-range intercontinental aircraft engines at different operating conditions by utilizing a model predictive control approach. Then, the designed controller is tuned and modified with respect to different realistic considerations including the practicality, physical limitations, system dynamics, and computational efforts. The simulation results from a verified two-spool turbofan engine model and controller show that the proposed method is capable of maneuverability and/or fuel economy optimization indices while satisfying all the predefined constraints successfully. Based on the parameters, natural frequencies, and dynamic behavior of the system, a set of optimized weighting factors for different engine parameters is also proposed to achieve the optimal and safe operation for the engine at different flight conditions. The paper demonstrates the effects of the prediction length and control horizon; adding new constraints on the computational effort and the controller performance are also discussed in detail to confirm the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed approach in developing a fully automatic optimized real-time controller for gas turbine engines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmentally Friendly Gas Turbines)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Diverging Nozzle Downstream on Flow Field Parameters of Rotating Detonation Combustor
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(20), 4259; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9204259 - 11 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this study, three-dimensional numerical studies have been performed to investigate the performance of a rotating detonation combustor with a diverging nozzle downstream. The effects of a diverging nozzle on the formation and propagation process of a detonation wave and typical flow field [...] Read more.
In this study, three-dimensional numerical studies have been performed to investigate the performance of a rotating detonation combustor with a diverging nozzle downstream. The effects of a diverging nozzle on the formation and propagation process of a detonation wave and typical flow field parameters in a rotating detonation combustor are mainly discussed. The results indicate that the diverging nozzle downstream is an important factor affecting the performance and design of a rotating detonation combustor. The diverging nozzle does not affect the formation and propagation process of the rotating detonation wave, while the time of two key wave collisions are delayed during the formation process of the detonation wave. With increases of the diverging angle, the rotating detonation combustor with the diverging nozzle can still maintain a certain pressure gain performance. Both the diverging nozzle and diverging angle have great influence on the flow field parameters of the rotating detonation combustor, including reducing the high pressure and temperature load, making the distribution of the outlet parameters uniform, and changing the local supersonic flow at the outlet. Among them, the outlet static pressure is reduced by up to 88.32%, and the outlet static temperature is reduced by up to 32.12%. This evidently improves the working environment of the combustor while reducing the thermodynamic and aerodynamic loads at the outlet. In particular, the diverging nozzle does not affect the supersonic characteristics of the outlet airflow, and on this basis, the Mach number becomes coincident and enhanced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmentally Friendly Gas Turbines)
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