Acoustic Emission and Related NDT for Structural Integrity and Condition Monitoring

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Acoustics and Vibrations".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2022) | Viewed by 11769

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Applied Physics, Building Engineering School, Campus Fuentenueva, University of Granada, 18072 Granada, Spain
Interests: physics and mechanics of plastic deformation and fracture; advanced materials; composites; wood; acoustic emission; signal processing
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The importance of engineering structures in contemporary civilization is huge when someone considers the human activity that they support. Non-problematic fullfilment, as well as possible extension of their designed life, is a strong pylon of sustainability as it contributes to usage of less raw materials, while it ensures safety for the public and saving of resources. In order to assure the structures’ status, monitoring technologies are paramount. Among them, acoustic emission (AE) has evolved as a crucial player due to its non-invasive nature, sensitivity and practical use. It is utilized in any field and type of structure providing unique information, complementary to other techniques. Advances in the field of monitoring are fast, coming either from the innovative materials to be inspected, advancements in the technology itself, like new sensors, wireless and contactless reception, or in processes such as the recently emerging applications in additive manufacturing, concrete curing, or cavitation of plants.

The present Special Issue aims to explore the new developments related to acoustic monitoring of materials and structures with AE as standalone technique or in combination with other optical, elastic, and electromagnetic techniques.

Prof. Dimitrios Aggelis
Prof. Antolino Gallego
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • acoustic emission (AE)
  • non-destructive evaluation (NDE)
  • structural health monitoring (SHM)
  • ultrasonic testing (UT)
  • material evaluation
  • fracture behavior
  • process monitoring
  • condition monitoring

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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22 pages, 4630 KiB  
Article
Acoustic Emission Signal Due to Fiber Break and Fiber Matrix Debonding in Model Composite: A Computational Study
by Zeina Hamam, Nathalie Godin, Claudio Fusco, Aurélien Doitrand and Thomas Monnier
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(18), 8406; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188406 - 10 Sep 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1797
Abstract
Acoustic emission monitoring is a useful technique to deal with detection and identification of damage in composite materials. Over the last few years, identification of damage through intelligent signal processing was particularly emphasized. Data-driven models are developed to predict the remaining useful lifetime. [...] Read more.
Acoustic emission monitoring is a useful technique to deal with detection and identification of damage in composite materials. Over the last few years, identification of damage through intelligent signal processing was particularly emphasized. Data-driven models are developed to predict the remaining useful lifetime. Finite elements modeling (FEM) was used to simulate AE signals due to fiber break and fiber/matrix debonding in a model carbon fiber composite and thereby better understand the AE signals and physical phenomena. This paper presents a computational analysis of AE waveforms resulting from fiber break and fiber/matrix debonding. The objective of this research was to compare the AE signals from a validated fiber break simulation to the AE signals obtained from fiber/matrix debonding and fiber break obtained in several media and to discuss the capability to detect and identify each source. Full article
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16 pages, 18645 KiB  
Article
Degradation Monitoring in Reinforced Concrete with 3D Localization of Rebar Corrosion and Related Concrete Cracking
by Charlotte Van Steen and Els Verstrynge
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 6772; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11156772 - 23 Jul 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2665
Abstract
Corrosion of the reinforcement is a major degradation mechanism affecting durability and safety of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. As the corrosion process starts internally, it can take years before visual damage can be noticed on the surface, resulting in an overall degraded condition [...] Read more.
Corrosion of the reinforcement is a major degradation mechanism affecting durability and safety of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. As the corrosion process starts internally, it can take years before visual damage can be noticed on the surface, resulting in an overall degraded condition and leading to large financial costs for maintenance and repair. The acoustic emission (AE) technique enables the continuous monitoring of the progress of internal cracking in a non-invasive way. However, as RC is a heterogeneous material, reliable damage detection and localization remains challenging. This paper presents extensive experimental research aiming at localizing internal damage in RC during the corrosion process. Results of corrosion damage monitoring with AE are presented and validated on three sample scales: small mortar samples (scale 1), RC prisms (scale 2), and RC beams (scale 3). For each scale, the corrosion process was accelerated by imposing a direct current. It is found that the AE technique can detect damage earlier than visual inspection. However, dedicated filtering is necessary to reliably localize AE events. Therefore, AE signals were filtered by a newly developed post-processing protocol which significantly improves the localization results. On the smallest scale, results were confirmed with 3D micro-CT imaging, whereas on scales 2 and 3, results were compared with surface crack width measurements and resulting rebar corrosion levels. Full article
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38 pages, 18039 KiB  
Article
Challenges and Accomplishments in Mechanical Testing Instrumented by In Situ Techniques: Infrared Thermography, Digital Image Correlation, and Acoustic Emission
by Aleksander Sendrowicz, Aleksander Omholt Myhre, Seweryn Witold Wierdak and Alexei Vinogradov
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 6718; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11156718 - 22 Jul 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3623
Abstract
A current trend in mechanical testing technologies is to equip researchers and industrial practitioners with the facilities for non-destructive characterisation of the deformation and fracture processes occurring on different scales. The synergistic effect of such a combination of destructive and non-destructive techniques both [...] Read more.
A current trend in mechanical testing technologies is to equip researchers and industrial practitioners with the facilities for non-destructive characterisation of the deformation and fracture processes occurring on different scales. The synergistic effect of such a combination of destructive and non-destructive techniques both widens and deepens existing knowledge in the field of plasticity and fracture of materials and provides the feedback sought to develop new non-destructive testing approaches and in situ monitoring techniques with enhanced reliability, accuracy and a wider scope of applications. The macroscopic standardised mechanical testing is still dominant in the research laboratories and industrial sector worldwide. The present paper reviews multiple challenges commonly faced by experimentalists, aiming at enhancing the capability of conventional mechanical testing by a combination of contemporary infrared thermography (IRT), rapid video imaging (RVI) with non-contact strain mapping possibilities enabled by the digital image correlation (DIC) method, and the acoustic emission (AE) technique providing unbeatable temporal resolution of the stochastic defect dynamics under load. Practical recommendations to address these challenges are outlined. A versatile experimental setup uniting the unique competencies of all named techniques is described alone with the fascinating possibilities it offers for the comprehensive characterisation of damage accumulation during plastic deformation and fracture of materials. The developed toolbox comprising practical hardware and software solutions brings together measuring technologies, data, and processing in a single place. The proposed methodology focuses on the characterisation of the thermodynamics, kinematics and dynamics of the deformation and fracture processes occurring on different spatial and temporal scales. The capacity of the proposed combination is illustrated using preliminary results on the tensile and fatigue behaviour of the fcc Inconel-625 alloy used as a representative example. Dissipative processes occurring in this alloy are assessed through the complex interplay between the released heat, acoustic emission waves, and expended and stored elastic energy. Full article
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Review

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16 pages, 7034 KiB  
Review
Resonant Airborne Acoustic Emission for Nondestructive Testing and Defect Imaging in Composites
by Igor Solodov, Yannick Bernhardt and Marc Kreutzbruck
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10141; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112110141 - 29 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2431
Abstract
A new version of an acoustic emission mode which is different from its traditional counterpart is discussed in view of applications for nondestructive testing. It is based on the effect of acoustic waves generation from the defect area in ambient air by local [...] Read more.
A new version of an acoustic emission mode which is different from its traditional counterpart is discussed in view of applications for nondestructive testing. It is based on the effect of acoustic waves generation from the defect area in ambient air by local standing wave vibration developed in this area at the defect resonant frequency. Another approach which does not require preliminary knowledge of local defect-resonance frequency is one that uses wideband acoustic activation by a noise-like input signal. The acoustic emission field from the defect area is a “fingerprint” of the radiation source, and thus is applicable to defect detection and imaging. This enables the use of commercial microphone scanning for detecting and imaging various defects in composites. An improvement in the acoustic-emission scanning mode based on a multiple-axis robot is studied to applications to complex shape components. A rapid, full-field imaging of the acoustic-emission field is implemented by means of an array of microphones (acoustic camera). Numerous case studies validate the potential of the resonant acoustic-emission modes for integration in the defect imaging system based on inexpensive, fully acoustic instrumental components. Full article
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