Nanoantioxidants Volume II

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 8893

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry “G. Ciamician”, University of Bologna, Via Gobetti 83, 40129 Bologna, Italy
Interests: nanoantioxidants; methods to measure antioxidant activity; mechanistic aspects of antioxidant activity; computational chemistry; kinetics of radical reactions
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Natural and engineered nanomaterials represent one of the most promising frontiers in the field of antioxidants. Natural-based biocompatible nanomaterials such as metal oxides, melanins, and lignin nanoparticles have demonstrated the possibility to act as radical scavengers with low toxicity. The possibility to easily functionalize the surface of nano-objects opens interesting applications such as modulation of the solubility and targeting.

The mechanisms of action that have been uncovered so far are the quenching of free radicals, and SOD – CAT – GPx enzyme-like behavior. The activity can be either intrinsic (such as in CeO2 nanoparticles) or due to the covalent binding of small-molecule antioxidants to the surface. Nanomaterials can also reduce lipid peroxidation by reducing photoinitiation by absorbing UV-vis radiation. Another important field that is experiencing exponential growth is the use of nanocarriers (lipid particles, nanocapsules, nanotubes, etc.) to improve small-molecule antioxidant solubility and sustained release.

This Special Issue aims to collect recent developments in the field of the radical chemistry of nano-antioxidants, with a special focus on this non-exhaustive list of topics:

1) Preparation of novel nanomaterials having antioxidant activity;
2) Studies of the interaction of nanomaterials with free radicals, and ROS in general, with a special focus on alkylperoxyl radicals that propagate the lipid peroxidation;
3) Nanocarriers or nanocapsules for targeted transport and controlled release of antioxidants;
4) Biomimetic methods for measuring the efficacy of nanoantioxidants.

Dr. Riccardo Amorati
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 2595 KiB  
Article
Carbon Nanodots Inhibit Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Induced Endothelial Inflammation through Scavenging Hydrogen Peroxide and Upregulating Antioxidant Gene Expression in EA.hy926 Endothelial Cells
by Jessica Chavez, Ajmal Khan, Kenna R. Watson, Safeera Khan, Yaru Si, Alexandra Y. Deng, Grant Koher, Mmesoma S. Anike, Xianwen Yi and Zhenquan Jia
Antioxidants 2024, 13(2), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13020224 - 10 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1173
Abstract
Carbon nanodots (CNDs) are a new type of nanomaterial with a size of less than 10 nanometers and excellent biocompatibility, widely used in fields such as biological imaging, transmission, diagnosis, and drug delivery. However, its potential and mechanism to mediate endothelial inflammation have [...] Read more.
Carbon nanodots (CNDs) are a new type of nanomaterial with a size of less than 10 nanometers and excellent biocompatibility, widely used in fields such as biological imaging, transmission, diagnosis, and drug delivery. However, its potential and mechanism to mediate endothelial inflammation have yet to be explored. Here, we report that the uptake of CNDs by EA.hy926 endothelial cells is both time and dose dependent. The concentration of CNDs used in this experiment was found to not affect cell viability. TNF-α is a known biomarker of vascular inflammation. Cells treated with CNDs for 24 h significantly inhibited TNF-α (0.5 ng/mL)-induced expression of intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and interleukin 8 (IL-8). ICAM-1 and IL-8 are two key molecules responsible for the activation and the firm adhesion of monocytes to activated endothelial cells for the initiation of atherosclerosis. ROS, such as hydrogen peroxide, play an important role in TNF-α-induced inflammation. Interestingly, we found that CNDs effectively scavenged H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner. CNDs treatment also increased the activity of the antioxidant enzyme NQO1 in EA.hy926 endothelial cells indicating the antioxidant properties of CNDs. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of CNDs may be due to the direct H2O2 scavenging properties of CNDs and the indirect upregulation of antioxidant enzyme NQO1 activity in endothelial cells. In conclusion, CND can inhibit TNF-α-induced endothelial inflammation, possibly due to its direct scavenging of H2O2 and the indirect upregulation of antioxidant enzyme NQO1 activity in endothelial cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoantioxidants Volume II)
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13 pages, 2124 KiB  
Article
Super-Antioxidant Vitamin A Derivatives with Improved Stability and Efficacy Using Skin-Permeable Chitosan Nanocapsules
by Hyeryeon Oh, Jin Sil Lee, Sunghyun Kim, Jeung-Hoon Lee, Yong Chul Shin and Won Il Choi
Antioxidants 2023, 12(11), 1913; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12111913 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1298
Abstract
Retinyl palmitate (RP) is a retinol ester with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as an antiwrinkle agent. However, it has poor aqueous solubility and easily degrades into inactive forms for topical applications. Therefore, we developed chitosan-coated nanocapsules (ChiNCs) to encapsulate RP using a [...] Read more.
Retinyl palmitate (RP) is a retinol ester with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as an antiwrinkle agent. However, it has poor aqueous solubility and easily degrades into inactive forms for topical applications. Therefore, we developed chitosan-coated nanocapsules (ChiNCs) to encapsulate RP using a simple nanoprecipitation method for protection against physiological conditions and to enable deep skin penetration. The as-prepared RP-loaded nanocapsules (RP@ChiNCs) loaded with approximately 5 wt.% RP exhibited a hydrodynamic diameter of 86 nm and surface charge of 24 mV. They had adequate stability to maintain their physicochemical properties after lyophilization in a biological buffer. Notably, ChiNCs provided RP with remarkable protection against degradation for 4 weeks at 37 °C. Thus, RP@ChiNCs exhibited good antioxidant activity in situ for sufficiently long periods without considerable changes in their efficacy. Furthermore, ChiNCs enhanced the skin penetration of lipophilic RP based on the inherent nature of chitosan. RP@ChiNCs exhibited good in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects without causing any cytotoxicity in dermal fibroblasts. Accordingly, they promoted cell proliferation in a wound-scratch test and enhanced collagen synthesis. These results suggest that RP@ChiNCs are promising candidates for cosmetic and biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoantioxidants Volume II)
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16 pages, 16304 KiB  
Article
Safe-Shields: Basal and Anti-UV Protection of Human Keratinocytes by Redox-Active Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Prevents UVB-Induced Mutagenesis
by Francesca Corsi, Erika Di Meo, Daniela Lulli, Greta Deidda Tarquini, Francesco Capradossi, Emanuele Bruni, Andrea Pelliccia, Enrico Traversa, Elena Dellambra, Cristina Maria Failla and Lina Ghibelli
Antioxidants 2023, 12(3), 757; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12030757 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1676
Abstract
Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria), biocompatible multifunctional nanozymes exerting unique biomimetic activities, mimic superoxide-dismutase and catalase through a self-regenerating, energy-free redox cycle driven by Ce3+/4+ valence switch. Additional redox-independent UV-filter properties render nanoceria ideal multitask solar screens, shielding from UV exposure, simultaneously protecting [...] Read more.
Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria), biocompatible multifunctional nanozymes exerting unique biomimetic activities, mimic superoxide-dismutase and catalase through a self-regenerating, energy-free redox cycle driven by Ce3+/4+ valence switch. Additional redox-independent UV-filter properties render nanoceria ideal multitask solar screens, shielding from UV exposure, simultaneously protecting tissues from UV-oxidative damage. Here, we report that nanoceria favour basal proliferation of primary normal keratinocytes, and protects them from UVB-induced DNA damage, mutagenesis, and apoptosis, minimizing cell loss and accelerating recovery with flawless cells. Similar cell-protective effects were found on irradiated noncancerous, but immortalized, p53-null HaCaT keratinocytes, with the notable exception that here, nanoceria do not accelerate basal HaCaT proliferation. Notably, nanoceria protect HaCaT from oxidative stress induced by irradiated titanium dioxide nanoparticles, a major active principle of commercial UV-shielding lotions, thus neutralizing their most critical side effects. The intriguing combination of nanoceria multiple beneficial properties opens the way for smart and safer containment measures of UV-induced skin damage and carcinogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoantioxidants Volume II)
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25 pages, 5184 KiB  
Article
Nanoemulsions of Clove Oil Stabilized with Chitosan Oleate—Antioxidant and Wound-Healing Activity
by Sara Perteghella, Alice Garzoni, Alessandro Invernizzi, Milena Sorrenti, Cinzia Boselli, Antonia Icaro Cornaglia, Daniele Dondi, Simone Lazzaroni, Giorgio Marrubini, Carla Caramella, Laura Catenacci and Maria Cristina Bonferoni
Antioxidants 2023, 12(2), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12020273 - 26 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2191
Abstract
Clove oil (CO) is a powerful antioxidant essential oil (EO) with anti-inflammatory, anesthetic, and anti-infective properties. It can be therefore considered a good candidate for wound-healing applications, especially for chronic or diabetic wounds or burns, where the balance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) [...] Read more.
Clove oil (CO) is a powerful antioxidant essential oil (EO) with anti-inflammatory, anesthetic, and anti-infective properties. It can be therefore considered a good candidate for wound-healing applications, especially for chronic or diabetic wounds or burns, where the balance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and detoxification is altered. However, EOs require suitable formulations to be efficiently administered in moist wound environments. Chitosan hydrophobically modified by an ionic interaction with oleic acid (chitosan oleate, CSO) was used in the present work to stabilize CO nanoemulsions (NEs). The dimensions of the NE were maintained at around 300 nm as the volume distribution for up to six months, and the CO content did not decrease to under 80% over 4 months, confirming the good stabilizing properties of CSO. The antioxidant properties of the CO NE were evaluated in vitro by a 2,2-diphenil-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) assay, and in fibroblast cell lines by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) using α-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) as a spin trap; a protective effect was obtained comparable to that obtained with α-tocopherol treatment. In a murine burn model, the ability of CO formulations to favor macroscopic wound closure was evidenced, and a histological analysis revealed a positive effect of the CO NE on the reparation of the lesion after 18 days. Samples of wounds at 7 days were subjected to a histological analysis and parallel dosage of lipid peroxidation by means of a thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay, confirming the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of the CO NE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoantioxidants Volume II)
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Review

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19 pages, 4116 KiB  
Review
On the Importance of the Starting Material Choice and Analytical Procedures Adopted When Developing a Strategy for the Nanoencapsulation of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Bioactive Antioxidants
by Maria Z. Tsimidou
Antioxidants 2023, 12(2), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12020496 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1803
Abstract
Saffron is known as the most expensive spice in the world. It is comprised of the dried stigmas of the pistil of the Crocus sativus L., which is a cultivated, sterile crocus plant. This plant material is now recognized as the unique edible [...] Read more.
Saffron is known as the most expensive spice in the world. It is comprised of the dried stigmas of the pistil of the Crocus sativus L., which is a cultivated, sterile crocus plant. This plant material is now recognized as the unique edible source of certain bioactive apocarotenoids for which in-vivo antioxidant properties have been reported. Among the latter, crocins, red-orange natural colorants, and their parent molecule crocetin prevail in bioactivity significance. This review is focused on the strategies developed so far for their nanoencapsulation in relation to the characteristics of the starting material, extraction procedures of the bioactive antioxidants and analytical methods applied for their characterization and quantification throughout the process. The literature so far points out gaps that lead to publishable data, on one hand, but not necessarily to repeatable and meaningful processes due to incomplete characterization of the starting and the released material in efficiency and stability studies of the nanoencapsulates. Accurate terminology and quantitative chromatographic or spectrophotometric procedures for the determination of the core compounds are needed. Authenticity control and quality of saffron samples, and the verification of the concentrations of compounds in commercial preparations labeled as ‘crocin,’ are prerequisites in any experimental design setup. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoantioxidants Volume II)
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