Diseases of the Small and Large Intestine, Liver and Pancreas in Small Animals

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Clinical Studies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 April 2024 | Viewed by 11301

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pisa, Via Livornese, 56122 Pisa, Italy
Interests: small animal oncology and gastroenterology

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pisa, Via Livornese, 56122 Pisa, Italy
Interests: veterinary clinical pathology; small animal gastroenterology; small animal pancreatic and hepatic diseases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are glad to present you this new Animals Special Issue on Diseases of the Small and Large Intestine, Liver and Pancreas in Small Animals.

Intestinal, pancreatic and hepatic diseases have played a pivotal role in the last 10 years of veterinary literature. Representing a daily challenge for clinicians worldwide, small-animal gastroenterology has become one of the fastest-growing research fields with new diagnostic and prognostic markers and therapeutical strategies for various intestinal, pancreatic, and liver diseases.

This Special Issue of Animals aims to collect new advances in canine and feline intestinal, pancreatic and hepatic diseases. Original research papers pertinent to this area are particularly welcome.

Dr. Alessio Pierini
Dr. Eleonora Gori
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • intestinal
  • liver
  • pancreas
  • disease
  • inflammation
  • oncology
  • marker
  • pancreatitis, IBD
  • chronic hepatitis
  • hepatopathy
  • biomarker
  • enteropathy

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 249 KiB  
Article
Monocytes Count, NLR, MLR and PLR in Canine Inflammatory Bowel Disease
by Maria Chiara Marchesi, Giulia Maggi, Valentina Cremonini, Arianna Miglio, Barbara Contiero, Carlo Guglielmini and Maria Teresa Antognoni
Animals 2024, 14(6), 837; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14060837 - 08 Mar 2024
Viewed by 615
Abstract
This is an observational retrospective study on 85 client-owned dogs, 60 with IBD and 25 clinically healthy dogs. This study aims to assess the clinical relevance of some easy to obtain and cost-effective hematological parameters including red blood cell distribution width (RDW), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte [...] Read more.
This is an observational retrospective study on 85 client-owned dogs, 60 with IBD and 25 clinically healthy dogs. This study aims to assess the clinical relevance of some easy to obtain and cost-effective hematological parameters including red blood cell distribution width (RDW), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in dogs with IBD. Comparison of clinical and laboratory parameters between dogs with IBD and control dogs was carried out and the ability to distinguish between these two groups of dogs was evaluated by calculating the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUCROC). Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis estimated the odds ratio (OR) of developing IBD with a 95% confidence interval (CI). MLR and monocytes count had the highest accuracy in facilitating the discrimination of dogs with IBD from control dogs with an AUCROC of 0.839 and 0.787 at the cut-off of >0.14% and >3.7 cells*102/µL, respectively. According to two multivariable models, monocytes count (OR = 1.29; p = 0.016), NLR (OR = 1.80; p = 0.016), and MLR > 0.14 (OR = 8.07; p < 0.001) and PLR > 131.6 (OR = 4.35; p = 0.024) were significant and independent predictors of IBD for models one and two, respectively. Monocytes count and the hematological ratios MLR, NLR, and PLR can be useful in the diagnostic work-up of dogs with IBD. Full article
12 pages, 843 KiB  
Article
Serum Bile Acids Concentrations and Liver Enzyme Activities after Low-Dose Trilostane in Dogs with Hyperadrenocorticism
by Nannicha Tinted, Smith Pongcharoenwanit, Thodsapol Ongvisespaibool, Veerada Wachirodom, Taksaon Jumnansilp, Narinthip Buckland, Piyathip Chuchalermporn, Sirikul Soontararak, Selapoom Pairor, Jörg M. Steiner, Naris Thengchaisri and Sathidpak Nantasanti Assawarachan
Animals 2023, 13(20), 3244; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13203244 - 18 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1212
Abstract
Hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) often leads to vacuolar hepatopathy. The impact of trilostane treatment on serum total bile acids (SBAs) concentrations in dogs with HAC remains unknown. This study investigated SBAs concentrations in healthy dogs and those with HAC following trilostane therapy. Ten healthy dogs [...] Read more.
Hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) often leads to vacuolar hepatopathy. The impact of trilostane treatment on serum total bile acids (SBAs) concentrations in dogs with HAC remains unknown. This study investigated SBAs concentrations in healthy dogs and those with HAC following trilostane therapy. Ten healthy dogs and fifteen dogs with HAC were prospectively enrolled. A biochemistry profile and pre- and post-prandial SBAs concentrations were determined in each dog. Dogs with HAC were reassessed at 1 and 3 months after the initiation of trilostane treatment. Dogs with HAC had significantly higher serum ALT, ALP, and GGT activities, and cholesterol, triglyceride, and pre-prandial SBAs concentrations compared to healthy dogs. After 3 months of trilostane treatment, polyuria/polydipsia and polyphagia were completely resolved in 42.8% and 35.7%, respectively. Significant improvements in serum ALT and ALP activities and cholesterol concentrations were observed within 1–3 months of trilostane treatment. However, pre- and post-prandial SBAs concentrations did not significantly decrease. These findings suggest that treatment with low-dose trilostane for 3 months appears to reduce serum liver enzyme activities, but not SBAs concentrations. Further investigation is warranted to explore the effects of low-dose trilostane treatment on SBAs concentrations for a longer duration or after achieving appropriate post-ACTH cortisol levels. Full article
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10 pages, 642 KiB  
Article
Serum and Fecal 3-Bromotyrosine Concentrations in Dogs with Chronic Inflammatory Enteropathy: Clinical Parameters and Histopathological Changes
by Panpicha Sattasathuchana, Naris Thengchaisri, Yasushi Minamoto, Tomomi Minamoto, Jonathan A. Lidbury, Jan S. Suchodolski and Jörg M. Steiner
Animals 2023, 13(17), 2804; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13172804 - 04 Sep 2023
Viewed by 799
Abstract
Chronic inflammatory enteropathies (CIEs) in dogs involve the infiltration of gastrointestinal tissue with inflammatory cells. This study aimed to assess the sensitivity of serum and fecal 3-bromotyrosine (3-BrY) concentrations in dogs with CIE. The difference in 3-BrY concentrations in dogs with different gastrointestinal [...] Read more.
Chronic inflammatory enteropathies (CIEs) in dogs involve the infiltration of gastrointestinal tissue with inflammatory cells. This study aimed to assess the sensitivity of serum and fecal 3-bromotyrosine (3-BrY) concentrations in dogs with CIE. The difference in 3-BrY concentrations in dogs with different gastrointestinal (GI) pathological changes was also assessed. In total, 68 dogs with CIE were enrolled in the study. The median serum 3-BrY concentration was 3.3 µmol/L, while the median 3-day mean and maximum fecal 3-BrY concentrations were 38.9 and 63.2 mmol/g of feces, respectively. The median serum C-reactive protein concentration was 45.0 mg/L. The median 3-day mean and maximum fecal α1-proteinase inhibitor concentrations were 6.1 and 9 µg/g of feces, respectively. Increased 3-BrY concentrations were observed in 90.9% of CIE dogs based on serum concentrations, 75.8% based on mean fecal concentrations, and 69.4% based on maximum fecal concentrations. A weak correlation (ρ = 0.31, p < 0.0118) was found between serum CRP and serum 3-BrY concentrations. There was no correlation between the canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index and serum or fecal 3-BrY concentrations (p > 0.05). Additionally, no significant difference in serum or fecal 3-BrY concentrations was found among CIE dogs with different GI pathological changes (p > 0.05). In conclusion, dogs with CIE have increased 3-BrY concentrations in serum and fecal samples. However, 3-BrY concentrations may not accurately indicate the severity of gastrointestinal inflammation. Full article
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10 pages, 255 KiB  
Article
Retrospective Evaluation of Gastrointestinal Signs in Hypothyroid Dogs
by Eleonora Gori, Paola Gianella, Ilaria Lippi and Veronica Marchetti
Animals 2023, 13(16), 2668; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13162668 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1203
Abstract
Few observations about gastrointestinal (GI) signs in hypothyroid dogs (hypo-T dogs) are available. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of concurrent GI signs in hypo-T dogs, describe clinicopathological, hepato-intestinal ultrasound findings in hypo-T dogs, investigate changes in GI signs after thyroid [...] Read more.
Few observations about gastrointestinal (GI) signs in hypothyroid dogs (hypo-T dogs) are available. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of concurrent GI signs in hypo-T dogs, describe clinicopathological, hepato-intestinal ultrasound findings in hypo-T dogs, investigate changes in GI signs after thyroid replacement therapy (THRT). Medical records of suspected hypo-T dogs from two hospitals were retrospectively reviewed. The inclusion criteria were: (1) having symptoms and clinicopathological abnormalities related to hypothyroidism (i.e., mild anemia, hyperlipemia); (2) not being affected by systemic acute disease; (3) not having received any treatment affecting thyroid axis. Hypothyroidism had to be confirmed using low fT4 or TT4 with high TSH and/or inadequate TSH-stimulation test response; otherwise, dogs were assigned to a euthyroid group. Clinical history, GI signs, hematobiochemical parameters, and abdominal ultrasound findings were recorded. Hypo-T dogs were assigned to the GI group (at least 2 GI signs) and not-GI group (1 or no GI signs). Follow-up information 3–5 weeks after THRT was recorded. In total, 110 medical records were screened: 31 dogs were hypo-T, and 79 were euthyroid. Hypo-T dogs showed a higher prevalence of GI signs (44%), especially constipation and diarrhea (p = 0.03 and p = 0.001), than euthyroid dogs (24%) (p = 0.04). Among hypo-T dogs, no difference in hematological parameters between GI and non-GI groups was found. Hypo-T dogs had a higher prevalence of gallbladder alterations than euthyroid dogs (20/25; 80% and 32/61; 52% p = 0.04). The hypo-T GI group showed a significant improvement in the GI signs after THRT (p < 0.0001). Specific investigation for concurrent GI diseases in hypo-T dogs was lacking; however, improvement in GI signs following THRT supports this association between GI signs and hypothyroidism. Full article
19 pages, 1265 KiB  
Article
Fecal Microbiota, Bile Acids, Sterols, and Fatty Acids in Dogs with Chronic Enteropathy Fed a Home-Cooked Diet Supplemented with Coconut Oil
by Carla Giuditta Vecchiato, Carlo Pinna, Chi-Hsuan Sung, Francesca Borrelli De Andreis, Jan S. Suchodolski, Rachel Pilla, Costanza Delsante, Federica Sportelli, Ludovica Maria Eugenia Mammi, Marco Pietra and Giacomo Biagi
Animals 2023, 13(3), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13030502 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2368
Abstract
Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are considered to be interesting energy sources for dogs affected by chronic enteropathies (CE). This study analyzed the clinical scores, fecal microbiota, and metabolomes of 18 CE dogs fed a home-cooked diet (HCD) supplemented with virgin coconut oil (VCO), [...] Read more.
Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are considered to be interesting energy sources for dogs affected by chronic enteropathies (CE). This study analyzed the clinical scores, fecal microbiota, and metabolomes of 18 CE dogs fed a home-cooked diet (HCD) supplemented with virgin coconut oil (VCO), a source of MCFA, at 10% of metabolizable energy (HCD + VCO). The dogs were clinically evaluated with the Canine Chronic Enteropathy Activity Index (CCECAI) before and at the end of study. Fecal samples were collected at baseline, after 7 days of HCD, and after 30 days of HCD + VCO, for fecal score (FS) assessment, microbial analysis, and determination of bile acids (BA), sterols, and fatty acids (FA). The dogs responded positively to diet change, as shown by the CCECAI improvement (p = 0.001); HCD reduced fecal fat excretion and HCD + VCO improved FS (p < 0.001), even though an increase in fecal moisture occurred due to HCD (p = 0.001). HCD modified fecal FA (C6:0: +79%, C14:0: +74%, C20:0: +43%, C22:0: +58%, C24:0: +47%, C18:3n−3: +106%, C20:4n−6: +56%, and monounsaturated FA (MUFA): −23%, p < 0.05) and sterol profile (coprostanol: −27%, sitostanol: −86%, p < 0.01). VCO increased (p < 0.05) fecal total saturated FA (SFA: +28%, C14:0: +142%, C16:0 +21%, C22:0 +33%) and selected MCFAs (+162%; C10:0 +183%, C12:0 +600%), while reducing (p < 0.05) total MUFA (−29%), polyunsaturated FA (−26%), campesterol (−56%) and phyto-/zoosterols ratio (0.93:1 vs. 0.36:1). The median dysbiosis index was <0 and, together with fecal BA, was not significantly affected by HCD nor by VCO. The HCD diet increased total fecal bacteria (p = 0.005) and the abundance of Fusobacterium spp. (p = 0.028). This study confirmed that clinical signs, and to a lesser extent fecal microbiota and metabolome, are positively influenced by HCD in CE dogs. Moreover, it has been shown that fecal proportions of MCFA increased when MCFAs were supplemented in those dogs. The present results emphasize the need for future studies to better understand the intestinal absorptive mechanism of MCFA in dogs. Full article
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11 pages, 1226 KiB  
Article
Comparative Evaluation of Peripheral Blood Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio, Serum Albumin to Globulin Ratio and Serum C-Reactive Protein to Albumin Ratio in Dogs with Inflammatory Protein-Losing Enteropathy and Healthy Dogs
by Federica Cagnasso, Antonio Borrelli, Enrico Bottero, Elena Benvenuti, Riccardo Ferriani, Veronica Marchetti, Piero Ruggiero, Barbara Bruno, Cristiana Maurella and Paola Gianella
Animals 2023, 13(3), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13030484 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1500
Abstract
Few routinely available biomarkers are clinically useful in assessing dogs with inflammatory protein-losing enteropathy caused by immunosuppressive-responsive enteropathy (IRE-PLE). Only the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been studied, while no information exists on the use of the albumin to globulin ratio (AGR) [...] Read more.
Few routinely available biomarkers are clinically useful in assessing dogs with inflammatory protein-losing enteropathy caused by immunosuppressive-responsive enteropathy (IRE-PLE). Only the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been studied, while no information exists on the use of the albumin to globulin ratio (AGR) and C-reactive protein to albumin ratio (CRP/ALB). We aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of the NLR, AGR and CRP/ALB in a population of dogs with IRE-PLE. The medical records of 53 IRE-PLE dogs were reviewed at the time of diagnosis (T0) and 1 month after the initiation of immunosuppressants (T1). A control group of 68 healthy dogs was used for comparison. At T0, the median values of the NLR and AGR of sick dogs were significantly higher and lower than those of healthy dogs, respectively. With the increase in the chronic enteropathy activity index, AGR and CRP/ALB significantly decreased and increased, respectively. At T1, NLR and AGR significantly increased, while CRP/ALB significantly decreased. NLR, AGR and CRP/ALB did not differ significantly between dogs classified as responders and nonresponders according to the chronic enteropathy activity index. Further studies are needed to provide more information on this subject. Full article
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22 pages, 5338 KiB  
Article
Alterations in Healthy Adult Canine Faecal Microbiome and Selected Metabolites as a Result of Feeding a Commercial Complete Synbiotic Diet with Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415
by Stinna Nybroe, Pernille B. Horsman, Kamilla Krag, Therese G. Hosbjerg, Kathrine Stenberg, Bekzod Khakimov, Jørgen Baymler, Charlotte R. Bjørnvad and Ida N. Kieler
Animals 2023, 13(1), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13010144 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2888
Abstract
In dogs, the use of probiotics for preventive or therapeutic purposes has become increasingly common, however the evidence for beneficial effects are often limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding a diet containing Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 [...] Read more.
In dogs, the use of probiotics for preventive or therapeutic purposes has become increasingly common, however the evidence for beneficial effects are often limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding a diet containing Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 on faecal quality, faecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, serum concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, cobalamin and folate as well as faecal microbiome in adult dogs. Eleven healthy client owned dogs were enrolled in a randomized, double-blinded crossover study. All dogs were fed the same balanced diet with or without incorporation of Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 for 16 days each. Blood and faecal samples were collected at baseline and during the feeding trial and owners recorded daily faecal scores. An Enterococcus spp. ASV, likely representing E. faecium NCIMB 10415 was detected in the faecal microbiome of some dogs 18–19 days after withdrawal of oral supplementation. Inclusion of E. faecium decreased circulating cholesterol (p = 0.008) compared to baseline. There were no differences in cholesterol concentrations between diets. Owners reported 0.6 ± 0.3) days less of loose stools compared to the control diet. Comparing to baseline, both diets significantly increased faecal concentration of acetate and butyrate, decreased serum cobalamin and increased faecal microbial diversity. Decreased serum cobalamin, and increased faecal acetate correlated with decreases in the Fusobacterium, Streptococcus, Blautia, and Peptoclostridium. Except for effects on circulating cholesterol and faecal score, effects were observed regardless of the addition of E. faecium. It is therefore likely that these effects can be contributed to dietary prebiotic effects on the faecal microbiome. Full article
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