Special Issue "Advances in Protein and Amino Acid Nutrition for Improving Animals’ Growth and Health"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Adel Pezeshki
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Animal and Food Sciences, Oklahoma State University, 206c Animal Science Building, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
Interests: nutritional physiology; proteins; amino acids; energy balance; metabolism; metabolic health; growth

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Proteins and amino acids are involved in many metabolic and biochemical functions in the cell. Consumption of proteins elicits different behavioral and physiological responses, which are under homeostatic control. An alteration in dietary protein density or source produces differential adaptive responses in energy balance and metabolism, which are partly due to changes in the dietary amino acid profile. The mechanisms by which proteins and amino acids modulate energy balance are not fully understood. Therefore, the overall objective of this Special Issue is to provide new insights into the role of dietary protein and amino acids on energy balance and metabolism and their underlying mechanisms of action across different animals’ species that can lead to improvement in animal growth and health. The specific objective is to explore the effects of dietary protein content and source as well as individual amino acids on food/feed intake, energy expenditure, nutrient utilization, gut microbiota, protein turnover, the parameters of growth at cellular and whole-body levels and metabolic diseases (e.g., diabetes, obesity, ketosis, fatty liver, cardiovascular disease, renal dysfunctions). We welcome original research articles, reviews, viewpoints, letters, essays, etc. from different research areas such as animal science, veterinary medicine, nutritional sciences, biochemistry, biology, biotechnology, etc. for submission to this Special Issue.

Dr. Adel Pezeshki
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • proteins
  • amino acids
  • growth
  • health
  • energy balance

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
A Novel Corn-Expressed Phytase Improves Daily Weight Gain, Protein Efficiency Ratio and Nutrients Digestibility and Alters Fecal Microbiota in Pigs Fed with Very Low Protein Diets
Animals 2020, 10(10), 1926; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10101926 - 20 Oct 2020
Abstract
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a novel corn-expressed phytase (CEP) on growth, nutrients digestibility, bone characteristics and fecal microbiota of pigs fed with very low-protein, -calcium (Ca) and -phosphorous (P) diets. Forty-eight barrows were subjected to 6 [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a novel corn-expressed phytase (CEP) on growth, nutrients digestibility, bone characteristics and fecal microbiota of pigs fed with very low-protein, -calcium (Ca) and -phosphorous (P) diets. Forty-eight barrows were subjected to 6 groups for 4 weeks: positive control-adequate protein (PC), negative control-reduced protein (NC), NC + low-dose CEP, i.e., 2000 FTU/kg (LD), NC + high-dose CEP, i.e., 4000 FTU/kg (HD), LD with 0.12% unit reduced Ca and 0.15% unit reduced available P (LDR), and HD with 0.12% unit reduced Ca and 0.15% unit reduced available P (HDR). Compared to NC, LD and HDR had a higher average daily gain (ADG) and gain:protein ratio (G:P), HD and HDR had greater apparent fecal digestibility of Ca and P and bone mineral density and LDR and HDR had lower serum osteocalcin. The feces of LD was enriched in Lachnospiraceae, while the HD had a higher abundance of Succinvibrio and LDR had a higher abundance of Bifidobacterium and Actinobacteria. In conclusion, supplementation of protein-restricted diets with a CEP decreased their negative effects on ADG and G:P ratio, increased the digestibility of Ca and P regardless of the levels of these minerals in the diet, improved bone characteristics and produced differential effects on fecal bacterial population. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of a Grain Source (Corn Versus Barley) and Starter Protein Content on Performance, Ruminal Fermentation, and Blood Metabolites in Holstein Dairy Calves
Animals 2020, 10(10), 1722; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10101722 - 23 Sep 2020
Abstract
The effects of a grain source (corn grain (CG) vs. barley grain (BG)) and starter protein content (19% vs. 22% CP, dry matter basis) on growth performance, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and blood metabolites were evaluated in Holstein dairy calves. Forty 3-day-old female calves [...] Read more.
The effects of a grain source (corn grain (CG) vs. barley grain (BG)) and starter protein content (19% vs. 22% CP, dry matter basis) on growth performance, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and blood metabolites were evaluated in Holstein dairy calves. Forty 3-day-old female calves with a starting body weight of 39.3 kg were subjected to four treatments in a completely randomized design with two by two factorial arrangements. Treatments were: (1) CG + 19% CP (CG-19CP); (2) CG + 22% CP (CG-22CP); (3) BG + 19% CP (BG-19CP); and (4) BG + 22% CP (BG-22CP). All calves were weaned at 59 days of age and remained in the study until 73 days of age. Starter and total DM intake were not affected by grain source and dietary protein content (p > 0.05). The average daily gain and feed efficiency were improved, and ruminal total short-chain fatty acid, propionate, and butyrate concentrations were increased in BG calves compared to CG calves (p < 0.05). The ruminal concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (d 71; p = 0.02) and acetate (d 35; p = 0.02) were increased in CG fed calves compared to BG. The greatest wither height (p = 0.03) and blood insulin concentration (p = 0.03) were seen in BG-22CP treatment. In conclusion, BG has marginal benefit in the height of calves when fed with diet containing 22% CP which may be recommendable in replacement heifer rearing programs. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Hyperhomocysteinemia Induced by Methionine Excess is Effectively Suppressed by Betaine in Geese
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1642; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091642 - 12 Sep 2020
Abstract
The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of excess Methionine (Met) on the growth performance, serum homocysteine levels, apoptotic rates, and Bax and Bcl-2 protein levels in geese and to study the role of Bet (betaine) in relieving excess Met-induced [...] Read more.
The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of excess Methionine (Met) on the growth performance, serum homocysteine levels, apoptotic rates, and Bax and Bcl-2 protein levels in geese and to study the role of Bet (betaine) in relieving excess Met-induced hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy). In this study, 150 healthy male 14-day-old Yangzhou geese of similar body weight were randomly distributed into three groups with five replicates per treatment and 10 geese per replicate: the control group (fed a control diet), the Met toxicity group (fed the control diet +1% Met), and the Bet detoxification group (fed the control diet +1% Met +0.2% Bet). At 28, 49, and 70 d of age, the geese in the Met toxicity group had significantly lower body weights than those in the control group (p < 0.05). The serum homocysteine levels in geese at 70 d of age in the detoxification group were significantly lower than those in the Met toxicity group (p < 0.05). Compared with the control, Met significantly increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis rates, while Bet reduced them. In conclusion, our results suggest that excess methionine reduces body weight induced by myocardial apoptosis, and Bet can be used to effectively lower plasma homocysteine levels. Full article
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