Special Issue "Recent Advances of Swine Viral Disease Research in China: Epidemiology, Virus-Host Interactions and Control"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Clinical Studies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 February 2023 | Viewed by 3492

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Su Li
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Harbin Veterinary Research Institute (HVRI), Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Harbin 150069, China
Interests: virus–host interactions involved in the regulation of African swine fever virus; classical swine fever virus replication
Prof. Dr. Hua-Ji Qiu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Harbin Veterinary Research Institute (HVRI), Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Harbin 150069, China
Interests: classical swine fever; African swine fever; pseudorabies; vaccines; innate and adaptive immunity; virus-host interactions; pathogenesis; diagnostic assays
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

China has the largest pig industry and is the biggest consumer of pork products around the world. In the past few decades, endemic and emerging swine viral diseases such as African swine fever virus (ASFV), classical swine fever (CSFV), pseudorabies virus (PRV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), porcine circovirus 4 (PCV4), swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV), and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) have resulted in huge economic losses in China. To date, Chinese scientists have achieved great progress in preventing and controlling swine viral diseases. This Special Issue on “Recent Advances of Swine Viral Disease Research in China: Epidemiology, Virus–Host Interactions and Control” has thus been set up with the goal to share knowledge and experience in the aforementioned research fields in China.

In this Special Issue, we will cover the following topics of interest for the understanding of the biological characteristics of the viruses: epidemiology, viral genetic diversity and evolution, new serological/molecular diagnostics, virus structure, virus–cell interactions, vaccines and antivirals, and control and prevention measures. We welcome original research articles and reviews including—but not limited to—all the abovementioned areas.

The only limitation is that the main part of the study has to have been carried out in China or by Chinese researchers.

Prof. Dr. Su Li
Prof. Dr. Hua-Ji Qiu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • epidemiology
  • diagnostic
  • virus–host interactions
  • viral replication, control, and prevention
  • vaccines
  • antivirals
  • emergence and evolution
  • viral immunology
  • viral structure

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule Family Member 1 Inhibits Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Replication
Animals 2022, 12(24), 3542; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12243542 - 15 Dec 2022
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Abstract
The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes a highly contagious disease in domestic swine. Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family member 1 (SLAMF1) is a costimulatory factor that is involved in innate immunity, inflammation, and infection. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of [...] Read more.
The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes a highly contagious disease in domestic swine. Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family member 1 (SLAMF1) is a costimulatory factor that is involved in innate immunity, inflammation, and infection. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of the SLAMF1 gene inhibited PRRSV replication significantly and reduced the levels of key signaling pathways, including MyD88, RIG-I, TLR2, TRIF, and inflammatory factors IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-β, TNF-α, and IFN-α in vitro. However, the knockdown of the SLAMF1 gene could enhance replication of the PRRSV and the levels of key signaling pathways and inflammatory factors. Overall, our results identify a new, to our knowledge, antagonist of the PRRSV, as well as a novel antagonistic mechanism evolved by inhibiting innate immunity and inflammation, providing a new reference and direction for PRRSV disease resistance breeding. Full article
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Article
Molecular and Structural Evolution of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3388; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233388 - 01 Dec 2022
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Abstract
To analyze the evolutionary characteristics of the highly contagious porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) at the molecular and structural levels, we analyzed the complete genomes of 647 strains retrieved from the GenBank database. The results showed that the spike (S) gene exhibited larger [...] Read more.
To analyze the evolutionary characteristics of the highly contagious porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) at the molecular and structural levels, we analyzed the complete genomes of 647 strains retrieved from the GenBank database. The results showed that the spike (S) gene exhibited larger dS (synonymous substitutions per synonymous site) values than other PEDV genes. In the selective pressure analysis, eight amino acid (aa) sites of the S protein showed strong signals of positive selection, and seven of them were located on the surface of the S protein (S1 domain), suggesting a high selection pressure of S protein. Topologically, the S gene is more representative of the evolutionary relationship at the genome-wide level than are other genes. Structurally, the evolutionary pattern is highly S1 domain-related. The haplotype networks of the S gene showed that the strains are obviously clustered geographically in the lineages corresponding to genotypes GI and GII. The alignment analysis on representative strains of the main haplotypes revealed three distinguishable nucleic acid sites among those strains, suggesting a putative evolutionary mechanism in PEDV. These findings provide several new fundamental insights into the evolution of PEDV and guidance for developing effective prevention countermeasures against PEDV. Full article
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Article
First Identification and Phylogenetic Analysis of Porcine Circovirus Type 4 in Fur Animals in Hebei, China
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3325; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233325 - 28 Nov 2022
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Abstract
A novel circovirus called porcine circovirus type 4 (PCV4) was recently detected in pigs suffering from severe clinical diseases in Hunan province, China. There are few reports on the origin and evolution of PCV4, although some researchers have conducted epidemiological investigations of PCV4 [...] Read more.
A novel circovirus called porcine circovirus type 4 (PCV4) was recently detected in pigs suffering from severe clinical diseases in Hunan province, China. There are few reports on the origin and evolution of PCV4, although some researchers have conducted epidemiological investigations of PCV4 and found that PCV4 is widespread in pigs. Based on the previous study, we detected PCV2 in farmed foxes and raccoon dogs with reproductive failure. To explore whether the PCV4 genome also exists in fur animals, we detected 137 cases admitted from fur animal farms in Hebei China between 2015 and 2020, which were characterized by inappetence, lethargy, depression, abortion, and sterility. The overall infection rate of PCV4 was 23.36% (32/137), including 20.37% (22/108) for raccoon dogs, 18.75% (3/16) for foxes, and 53.85% (7/13) for minks. Finally, five raccoon dog-origin PCV4 strains and one fox-origin PCV4 strain were sequenced in our study, whose nucleotide identities with other representative PCV4 strains varied from 96.5% to 100%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete genomes of PCV4 strains indicated a close relationship with those of PCV4 strains identified from pigs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to detect PCV4 in fur animals. Interestingly, we also identified PCV4 in a mixed farm (feeding pigs and raccoon dogs at the same time). In summary, our findings extend the understanding of the molecular epidemiology of PCV4 and provide new evidence for its cross-species transmission. Full article
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Article
Molecular Characterization of the Nsp2 and ORF5s of PRRSV Strains in Sichuan China during 2012–2020
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3309; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233309 - 26 Nov 2022
Viewed by 636
Abstract
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important pathogen that poses a serious threat to the global pig industry. Sichuan Province is one of the largest pig breeding provinces in China. There is a lack of reports on the continuous surveillance [...] Read more.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important pathogen that poses a serious threat to the global pig industry. Sichuan Province is one of the largest pig breeding provinces in China. There is a lack of reports on the continuous surveillance and systematic analysis of prevalent strains of PRRSV in Sichuan Province in recent years. To fill this gap, a total of 539 samples were collected from 13 breeding regions in Sichuan during 2012–2020. The detection result showed that the positive rate of PRRSV was 52.32% (282/539). The ORF5s and Nsp2 were obtained and further analyzed, with Chinese reference strains downloaded from the GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the PRRSV strains sequenced in this study belonged to PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2 (lineage 1, 3, 5 and 8). In total, 168 PRRSV-2 strains were selected for ORF5 analyses, and these strains were classified into sub-lineage 8.7 (HP-PRRSV), sub-lineage 5.1 (classical PRRSV), sub-lineage 1.8 (NADC30-like), sub-lineage 1.5 (NADC34-like) and sub-lineage 3.5 (QYYZ-like), accounting for 60.71% (102/168), 11.31% (19/168), 18.45% (31/168), 2.97% (5/168) and 6.55% (11/168) of the total analyzed strains, respectively. The Nsp2 of identified PRRSV strains exhibited a nucleotide identity of 44.5–100%, and an amino acid identity of 46.82–100%. The ORF5 of the identified PRRSV strains exhibited a nucleotide identity of 81.3–100%, and an amino acid identity of 78.5–100%. A sequence analysis of ORF5 revealed that the mutation sites of GP5 were mainly concentrated in HVR1 and HVR2 and the virulence sites. In summary, the HP-PRRSV, NADC30-like PRRSV, Classic-PRRSV, QYYZ-like PRRSV, NADC34-like PRRSV and PRRSV-1 strains exist simultaneously in pigs in Sichuan. NADC30-like PRRSV was gradually becoming the most prevalent genotype currently in Sichuan province. This study suggested that PRRSV strains in Sichuan were undergoing genomic divergence. Full article
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Review

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Review
Modulation of Host Antiviral Innate Immunity by African Swine Fever Virus: A Review
Animals 2022, 12(21), 2935; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12212935 - 26 Oct 2022
Viewed by 750
Abstract
African swine fever (ASF), caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a highly contagious and fatal disease found in swine. However, the viral proteins and mechanisms responsible for immune evasion are poorly understood, which has severely hindered the development of vaccines. This [...] Read more.
African swine fever (ASF), caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a highly contagious and fatal disease found in swine. However, the viral proteins and mechanisms responsible for immune evasion are poorly understood, which has severely hindered the development of vaccines. This review mainly focuses on studies involving the innate antiviral immune response of the host and summarizes the latest studies on ASFV genes involved in interferon (IFN) signaling and inflammatory responses. We analyzed the effects of candidate viral proteins on ASFV infection, replication and pathogenicity and identified potential molecular targets for novel ASFV vaccines. These efforts will contribute to the construction of novel vaccines and wonder therapeutics for ASF. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. Tentative paper title: Spatial epidemiology of Swine Viral Disease and its role in prevention and control
Submitting authors: Dr. Juan Qiu

2. Tentative paper title: The epidemiology of porcine circovirus type 3 in China: A systematic review
Submitting authors: Dr. Chuanmin Liu

3. Tentative paper title: First identification and phylogenetic analysis of porcine circovirus type 4 in fur animals in Hebei, China
Submitting authors: Yanjin Wang, Shijie Yan, Yujie Yang, Shuaiqiang Sun, Yuting Ji, Ping Rui, Zengjun Ma, Hua-Ji Qiu, Tao Song

 

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