Special Issue "Decoding the Genetics of Bovine Mastitis"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Genetics and Genomics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 August 2022) | Viewed by 2443

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Zhangping Yang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Animal Science and Technology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China
Interests: bovine mastitis; gene regulation network construction; gene expression; epigenetic
Prof. Dr. Zhi Chen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Animal Science and Technology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China
Interests: milk fat traits; gene regulation network construction; gene expression; epigenetic; circRNA; lincRNA miRNA; mRNA
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The tens of thousands of years of wild animal domestication, natural selection, and artificial selection have seen the emergence of the existing livestock species we have all over the world today. With the improvement of genetic theories, conventional animal breeding techniques have developed from general phenotypic selection to the use of genetic methods to estimate breeding values. Moreover, great contributions have been made to the genetic improvement of livestock in the past few decades too. Since the 1980s, the appearance of various molecular genetic markers and the development of modern biotechnology provided new methods for improving animal genetic breeding. The integration of various omics information, such as DNA, RNA, protein, epigenetic regulation, brings new opportunities for the mining of important economic traits of animals and the analysis of molecular genetic mechanisms. Functional genes can be mined and screened from different levels (including circRNA, lincRNA miRNA, and mRNA) and perspectives by obtaining information on the genome, transcriptome, proteome, epigenome, and metagenome. In this way, gene networks and regulatory pathways can be studied more efficiently, thus laying a solid foundation for analyzing the mechanism of functional genes.

Mastitis in dairy cow causes significant economic losses through the decreased production and milk quality. The compromised milk also poses a health hazard if it is consumed. Pathogenic microbial infection is the main cause of mastitis. Pathogens can colonize and multiply in the mammary gland, and can enter and persist in host cells. Most antibiotics cannot enter cells or may be ineffective if their cellular concentration is too low. Pathogens can also develop resistance to antibiotics. Residual antibiotics in milk present significant food safety problems for human health. Therefore, non-antibiotic methods for the prevention and treatment of bovine mastitis have attracted great interest. This research topic will focus on applying the advances to explore gene regulation and its molecular mechanism in bovine mastitis.

Prof. Dr. Zhangping Yang
Prof. Dr. Zhi Chen
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • bovine mastitis
  • gene regulation network construction
  • gene expression
  • epigenetic
  • circRNA
  • lincRNA
  • miRNA
  • mRNA

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
The Characteristics of Multilocus Sequence Typing, Virulence Genes and Drug Resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from Cattle in Northern Jiangsu, China
Animals 2022, 12(19), 2627; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12192627 (registering DOI) - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 124
Abstract
Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) induced bovine mastitis has been becoming one of the dominantly pathogenic bacteria in cases of bovine mastitis, and is threatening public health through dairy products. In order to explore the characteristics of multilocus sequence typing (MLST), virulence [...] Read more.
Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) induced bovine mastitis has been becoming one of the dominantly pathogenic bacteria in cases of bovine mastitis, and is threatening public health through dairy products. In order to explore the characteristics of multilocus sequence typing (MLST), virulence gene carrying, and the relationship between virulence genes and the antibiotic resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae from dairy cattle in northern Jiangsu, 208 dairy milk samples were collected from four dairy farms in northern Jiangsu. A total of 68 isolates were obtained through bacterial isolation, purification, and 16S rDNA identification. Eleven virulence genes were detected by specific PCR. The susceptibility of the isolates to antimicrobials was analyzed using the Kirby–Bauer method. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to analyze the correlation between the presence of virulence genes and the phenotype of drug resistance. ST 2661 was the most prevalent type of K. pneumoniae (13/68, 19.1%) among the 23 ST types identified from the 68 isolates. The virulence gene allS was not detected, but the positive detection rates of the virulence genes fimH, ureA, uge and wabG were 100.0%. Notably, the detection rates of genes rmpA and wcaG, related to the capsular polysaccharide, were 4.4% and 11.8%, respectively, which were lower than those of genes related to siderophores (kfuBC, ybtA and iucB at 50.0%, 23.5%, and 52.9%, respectively). The K. pneumoniae isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and meropenem. However, the resistance rate to penicillin was the highest (58/68, 85.3%), along with resistance to amoxicillin (16/68, 23.5%). The results revealed the distribution of 23 ST types of K. pneumoniae from the milk from bovine-mastitis-infected dairy cows in northern Jiangsu, and the expression or absence of the virulence gene kfuBC was related to the sensitivity to antibiotics. The current study provides important information relating to the distribution and characteristics of K. pneumoniae isolated from dairy cows with clinical bovine mastitis, and is indicative of strategies for improving the treatment of K. pneumoniae-induced bovine mastitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decoding the Genetics of Bovine Mastitis)
Article
Genome-Wide Association Study for Udder Conformation Traits in Chinese Holstein Cattle
Animals 2022, 12(19), 2542; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12192542 - 22 Sep 2022
Viewed by 353
Abstract
Udder conformation traits are one of the most economic traits in dairy cows, greatly affecting animal health, milk production, and producer profitability in the dairy industry. Genetic analysis of udder structure and scores have been developed in Holstein cattle. In our research, we [...] Read more.
Udder conformation traits are one of the most economic traits in dairy cows, greatly affecting animal health, milk production, and producer profitability in the dairy industry. Genetic analysis of udder structure and scores have been developed in Holstein cattle. In our research, we conducted a genome-wide association study for five udder traits, including anterior udder attachment (AUA), central suspensory ligament (CSL), posterior udder attachment height (PUAH), posterior udder attachment width (PUAW), and udder depth (UD), in which the fixed and random model circulating probability unification (FarmCPU) model was applied for the association analysis. The heritability and the standard errors of these five udder traits ranged from 0.04 ± 0.00 to 0.49 ± 0.03. Phenotype data were measured from 1000 Holstein cows, and the GeneSeek Genomic Profiler (GGP) Bovine 100 K SNP chip was used to analyze genotypic data in Holstein cattle. For GWAS analysis, 984 individual cows and 84,407 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) remained after quality control; a total of 18 SNPs were found at the GW significant threshold (p < 5.90 × 10−7). Many candidate genes were identified within 200kb upstream or downstream of the significant SNPs, which include MGST1, MGST2, MTUS1, PRKN, STXBP6, GRID2, E2F8, CDH11, FOXP1, SLF1, TMEM117, SBF2, GC, ADGRB3, and GCLC. Pathway analysis revealed that 58 Gene Ontology (GO) terms and 18 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were enriched with adjusted p values, and these GO terms and the KEGG pathway analysis were associated with biological information, metabolism, hormonal growth, and development processes. These results could give valuable biological information for the genetic architecture of udder conformation traits in dairy Holstein cattle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decoding the Genetics of Bovine Mastitis)
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Article
Sulfur Amino Acid Metabolism and the Role of Endogenous Cystathionine-γ-lyase/H2S in Holstein Cows with Clinical Mastitis
Animals 2022, 12(11), 1451; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12111451 - 04 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 849
Abstract
H2S plays an important role in various inflammatory diseases. However, the role of H2S and synthetic enzymes in Holstein cows with CM is unknown. The aim of this study was to identify DEPs associated with sulfide metabolism and further [...] Read more.
H2S plays an important role in various inflammatory diseases. However, the role of H2S and synthetic enzymes in Holstein cows with CM is unknown. The aim of this study was to identify DEPs associated with sulfide metabolism and further investigate their roles in dairy cows with CM. From 3739 DEPs generated by data-independent acquisition proteomics, we identified a total of 17 DEPs included in 44 GO terms and five KEGG pathways related to sulfide metabolism, including CTH and cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS). Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence staining results showed that CTH and CBS proteins were present mainly in the cytoplasm of mammary epithelial cells. Endogenous H2S production in the serum of the CM group was significantly lower than that of the healthy Holstein cows. CTH and CBS mRNA and protein levels in the mammary glands of the CM group were significantly downregulated compared to those of the healthy group. These results indicate that CTH and H2S were correlated with the occurrence and development of CM in Holstein cows, which provides important insights into the function and regulatory mechanism of CTH/H2S in Holstein cows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decoding the Genetics of Bovine Mastitis)
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Article
Differential mRNA Expression Profiling Reveals the Role of MiR-375 in Inflammation of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells
Animals 2022, 12(11), 1431; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12111431 - 01 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 648
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate post-transcriptional gene expression and several biological processes. Bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) mediate critical immune responses in the mammary gland and the occurrence of mastitis. Current research focuses on miRNA regulation of [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate post-transcriptional gene expression and several biological processes. Bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) mediate critical immune responses in the mammary gland and the occurrence of mastitis. Current research focuses on miRNA regulation of bMECs, but the miR-375 regulatory mechanism in bMECs is unclear. This study explored the role of miR-375 by profiling the transcriptome of miR-375-silenced bMECs using RNA-seq and identifying differentially expressed mRNAs (DIE-mRNAs). There were 63 DIE-mRNAs, including 48 down-regulated and 15 up-regulated mRNAs between miR-375-silenced bMECs and the controls. The Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology (GO) functional analysis showed that the DIE-mRNAs enriched nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 1 (NR4A1) and protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 5 (PTPN5) anti-inflammatory genes of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. However, they showed an opposite trend to the expression of miR-375 silencing, suggesting that miR-375 promotes bMEC inflammation through the MAPK signaling pathway. The findings of this study provide a new reference for understanding the regulation of bMEC inflammation and cow mastitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decoding the Genetics of Bovine Mastitis)
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