Special Issue "Advances in Dietary Protein Research: Shaping Innovative Feeds for a Sustainable Ocean"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Aquatic Animals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 June 2022) | Viewed by 6858

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Cláudia Aragão
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Guest Editor
Aquaculture Research Group, Centre of Marine Sciences (CCMAR)/Universidade do Algarve, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
Interests: aquaculture; nutrition, amino acids; taurine; alternative ingredients; fish welfare
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Sofia Engrola
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centre of Marine Sciences (CCMAR), Faro, Portugal
Interests: aquaculture; nutrition; growth; protein metabolism; feeding strategies; animal robustness
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Benjamín Costas
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR), University of Porto, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
Interests: nutritional immunology; functional feeds; amino acids; sustainable aquaculture; animal welfare
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Aquaculture has been facing the challenge to find alternative ingredients for innovative feed formulations that foster a sustainable future growth. Protein is the most expensive ingredient in feeds for fish and shrimp, and research on alternative proteins to fishmeal is being fruitful in the surge of sustainable feeds. Current knowledge indicates that the importance of protein and its constituents (amino acids) goes beyond growth, and aspects such as fish health and welfare must be taken into consideration in the development of novel feeds.

In this Special Issue, we invite contributions focusing on protein nutrition in fish and shrimp, at all developmental stages, in the following research topics:

  • Protein and amino acid requirements;
  • Alternative/non-conventional dietary proteins;
  • Inclusion of protein hydrolysates and amino acids as nutritional strategies to improve fish performance and robustness;
  • Effects of alternative proteins, hydrolysates, and amino acids on stress and/or immune responses, as well as their impacts on health and welfare.

Gathering information not only on how alternative proteins, hydrolysates, and amino acids affect growth performance and feed efficiency but also on their impacts on the immune system and disease resistance is of utmost importance to the development of innovative diets for fish and shrimp that guarantee a sustainable ocean future.

Dr. Cláudia Aragão
Dr. Sofia Engrola
Dr. Benjamín Costas
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • protein nutrition
  • alternative proteins
  • protein hydrolysates
  • amino acids
  • fish nutrition
  • shrimp nutrition
  • nutrition and health
  • nutrition and welfare
  • nutrition and immune response
  • nutrition and stress response

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Metabolic Fate Is Defined by Amino Acid Nature in Gilthead Seabream Fed Different Diet Formulations
Animals 2022, 12(13), 1713; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12131713 - 02 Jul 2022
Viewed by 493
Abstract
The sustainability of the Aquaculture industry relies on optimising diets to promote nitrogen retention and maximise fish growth. The aim of this study was to assess how different dietary formulations influence the bioavailability and metabolic fate of distinct amino acids in gilthead seabream [...] Read more.
The sustainability of the Aquaculture industry relies on optimising diets to promote nitrogen retention and maximise fish growth. The aim of this study was to assess how different dietary formulations influence the bioavailability and metabolic fate of distinct amino acids in gilthead seabream juveniles. Amino acids (lysine, tryptophan, and methionine) were selected based on their ketogenic and/or glucogenic nature. Seabream were fed practical diets with different protein (44 and 40%) and lipid contents (21 and 18%): 44P21L, 44P18L, 40P21L, and 40P18L. After three weeks of feeding, the fish were tube-fed the correspondent diet labelled with 14C-lysine, 14C-tryptophan, or 14C-methionine. The amino acid utilisation was determined based on the evacuation, retention in gut, liver, and muscle, and the catabolism of the tracer. The metabolic fate of amino acids was mainly determined by their nature. Tryptophan was significantly more evacuated than lysine or methionine, indicating a lower availability for metabolic purposes. Methionine was more retained in muscle, indicating its higher availability. Lysine was mainly catabolised, suggesting that catabolism is preferentially ketogenic, even when this amino acid is deficient in diets. This study underpins the importance of optimising diets considering the amino acids’ bioavailability and metabolic fate to maximise protein retention in fish. Full article
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Article
Growth and Welfare of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Response to Graded Levels of Insect and Poultry By-Product Meals in Fishmeal-Free Diets
Animals 2022, 12(13), 1698; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12131698 - 30 Jun 2022
Viewed by 452
Abstract
This study compared the nutrient-energy retention, digestive function, growth performance, and welfare of rainbow trout (ibw 54 g) fed isoproteic (42%), isolipidic (24%), fishmeal-free diets (CV) over 13 weeks. The diets consisted of plant-protein replacement with graded levels (10, 30, 60%) of protein [...] Read more.
This study compared the nutrient-energy retention, digestive function, growth performance, and welfare of rainbow trout (ibw 54 g) fed isoproteic (42%), isolipidic (24%), fishmeal-free diets (CV) over 13 weeks. The diets consisted of plant-protein replacement with graded levels (10, 30, 60%) of protein from poultry by-product (PBM) and black soldier fly H. illucens pupae (BSFM) meals, either singly or in combination. A fishmeal-based diet was also tested (CF). Nitrogen retention improved with moderate or high levels of dietary PBM and BSFM relative to CV (p < 0.05). Gut brush border enzyme activity was poorly affected by the diets. Gastric chitinase was up-regulated after high BSFM feeding (p < 0.05). The gut peptide and amino acid transport genes were differently regulated by protein source and level. Serum cortisol was unaffected, and the changes in metabolites stayed within the physiological range. High PBM and high BSFM lowered the leukocyte respiratory burst activity and increased the lysozyme activity compared to CV (p < 0.05). The BSFM and PBM both significantly changed the relative percentage of lymphocytes and monocytes (p < 0.05). In conclusion, moderate to high PBM and BSFM inclusions in fishmeal-free diets, either singly or in combination, improved gut function and nutrient retention, resulting in better growth performance and the good welfare of the rainbow trout. Full article
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Article
Porcine Protein Hydrolysates (PEPTEIVA®) Promote Growth and Enhance Systemic Immunity in Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata)
Animals 2021, 11(7), 2122; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11072122 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1839
Abstract
The effects of porcine plasma protein hydrolysate (PPH) on growth, feed efficiency, and immune responses was evaluated in Sparus aurata. Fish were fed two isoproteic (48% protein), isolipidic (17% fat), and isoenergetic diets (21.7 MJ/kg) diets, one of them containing 5% PPH [...] Read more.
The effects of porcine plasma protein hydrolysate (PPH) on growth, feed efficiency, and immune responses was evaluated in Sparus aurata. Fish were fed two isoproteic (48% protein), isolipidic (17% fat), and isoenergetic diets (21.7 MJ/kg) diets, one of them containing 5% PPH at the expense of fishmeal. Both diets were tested for 92 days. A significant increase in growth was observed in fish fed the PPH diet in comparison to the control group (182.2 ± 4.4 vs. 173.8 ± 4.1 g), as well as an increase in feed intake without worsening FCR values. An ex vivo assay, with splenocytes incubated with lipopolysaccharide, was conducted to evaluate the cellular immune competence of fish. Genes involved in humoral immunity (lys, IgM), pro- (tnf-α, il-1β), and anti-inflammatory (tgf-β1, il10) cytokines were upregulated in the PPH group in comparison to the control group. The inclusion of PPH in diets enhanced the antibacterial capacity of skin mucus, as the co-culture of selected bacteria (E. coli, V. anguillarum, and P. anguilliseptica) with skin mucus indicated. The present results showed that the PPH in low fishmeal diets (2%) promoted growth and feed efficiency, as well as enhancing the immune response, which indicates that this is a safe and functional ingredient for aquafeeds. Full article
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Article
Dietary Histidine, Threonine, or Taurine Supplementation Affects Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata) Immune Status
Animals 2021, 11(5), 1193; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051193 - 21 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1157
Abstract
AAs have become interesting feed ingredients to be used in functional fish feeds as not only are they protein building blocks, but they also participate in several other key metabolic processes. In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of transcriptomics, hematology, and humoral [...] Read more.
AAs have become interesting feed ingredients to be used in functional fish feeds as not only are they protein building blocks, but they also participate in several other key metabolic processes. In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of transcriptomics, hematology, and humoral immune parameters (plasma and skin mucus) were measured twice over the course of the feeding trial (four weeks). Plasma antiprotease activity increased in fish fed Thr compared to those fed the CTRL and Tau treatments, regardless of sampling time. The bactericidal activity in skin mucus decreased in fish fed Tau and His treatments compared to those fed the CTRL diet after two weeks. The membrane IgT (mIgT) was upregulated in fish fed Tau after four weeks, while C-type lectin domain family domain 10 member (clec10a) was downregulated in fish fed Thr after two weeks of feeding. By comparing the molecular signatures of head-kidney by means of a PLS-DA, it is possible to visualize that the main difference is between the two sampling points, regardless of diet. Altogether, these results suggest that dietary supplementation with these AAs at the tested levels causes mild immune-modulation effects in gilthead seabream, which should be further studied under disease challenge conditions. Full article
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Review

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Review
Alternative Proteins for Fish Diets: Implications beyond Growth
Animals 2022, 12(9), 1211; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12091211 - 07 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1023
Abstract
Aquaculture has been challenged to find alternative ingredients to develop innovative feed formulations that foster a sustainable future growth. Given the most recent trends in fish feed formulation on the use of alternative protein sources to decrease the dependency of fishmeal, it is [...] Read more.
Aquaculture has been challenged to find alternative ingredients to develop innovative feed formulations that foster a sustainable future growth. Given the most recent trends in fish feed formulation on the use of alternative protein sources to decrease the dependency of fishmeal, it is fundamental to evaluate the implications of this new paradigm for fish health and welfare. This work intends to comprehensively review the impacts of alternative and novel dietary protein sources on fish gut microbiota and health, stress and immune responses, disease resistance, and antioxidant capacity. The research results indicate that alternative protein sources, such as terrestrial plant proteins, rendered animal by-products, insect meals, micro- and macroalgae, and single cell proteins (e.g., yeasts), may negatively impact gut microbiota and health, thus affecting immune and stress responses. Nevertheless, some of the novel protein sources, such as insects and algae meals, have functional properties and may exert an immunostimulatory activity. Further research on the effects of novel protein sources, beyond growth, is clearly needed. The information gathered here is of utmost importance, in order to develop innovative diets that guarantee the production of healthy fish with high quality standards and optimised welfare conditions, thus contributing to a sustainable growth of the aquaculture industry. Full article
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