Anesthesia and Analgesia in Companion Animals Surgery

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Clinical Studies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2024) | Viewed by 2915

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Messina, Viale Palatucci, 13, 98168 Messina, Italy
Interests: veterinary pharmacology and toxicology; hematological biomarkers; inflammatory response; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species; animal welfare

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Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Science, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
Interests: anaesthesia; surgery; small animals; large animals
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Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Sciences Medicine, University of Parma, 43126 Parma, Italy
Interests: animal health; drug delivery; smart devices for drug delivery; biomaterials; surgery; anesthesiology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Surgery induces inflammatory oxidative stress. Inflammation, pain and stress induced by surgery could negatively influence the healing of the excised tissues and the evolution of surgical lesions. The anesthetic protocol chosen could be decisive in the healing of the tissues and in the evolution of any pathologies present. Balanced general anesthesia can reduce the side effects induced by surgical stress. There are several classes of drugs used to induce general anesthesia and control perioperative pain in companion animals: opioids, α-2 adrenergic receptor agonists, local anesthetics nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, sedatives, hypnotics, halogenated anesthetics, and neuromuscular blocking cyclohexamines. Surgery itself can cause significant physiological inflammatory oxidative stress. Several studies in humans and laboratory animals have shown that there is an increase in inflammatory oxidative stress after surgery. However, there are few studies on companion animals.

We are pleased to invite you in this Special Issue aims to evaluate the effect of balanced general anesthesia protocols on the inflammatory oxidative stress induced by surgery in pets, in order to suggest perioperative therapeutic programs aimed at preserving the body from post-surgical pathologies.

Suggested themes and article types for submissions. Influence of anesthetics and analgesics on haematological, biochemical and inflammatory oxidative stress parameters in pets undergoing surgery.

Dr. Vincenzo Nava
Dr. Giovanna L. Costa
Prof. Dr. Fabio Leonardi
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • anesthesia
  • analgesia
  • companion animals
  • hematological
  • biochemical parameters
  • inflammatory oxidative status
  • surgery

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 3710 KiB  
Article
Description and Evaluation of Dye and Contrast Media Distribution of Ultrasound-Guided Rectus Sheath Block in Cat Cadavers
by Gonzalo Polo-Paredes, Marta Soler, Francisco Gil, Francisco G. Laredo, Amalia Agut, Sara Carrillo-Flores and Eliseo Belda
Animals 2024, 14(12), 1743; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14121743 - 9 Jun 2024
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Abstract
The rectus sheath block is an ultrasound-guided anaesthetic technique which aims to provide analgesia to the abdominal midline. This study aimed to assess the distribution of 0.4 mL kg−1 of a mixture of methylene blue and iopromide injected into each hemiabdomen in [...] Read more.
The rectus sheath block is an ultrasound-guided anaesthetic technique which aims to provide analgesia to the abdominal midline. This study aimed to assess the distribution of 0.4 mL kg−1 of a mixture of methylene blue and iopromide injected into each hemiabdomen in the internal rectus sheath in cat cadavers. We hypothesise that this technique would be feasible and would cover the rami ventrales of the last thoracic and the first lumbar spinal nerves. The study was divided into two phases. Phase 1 aimed to study the anatomical structures of the ventral abdominal wall (four cats were dissected). Phase 2 (ten cadavers) consisted of an ultrasound-guided injection of the mixture mentioned above and the assessment of its distribution by computed tomography and anatomical dissection. The results showed the staining of the cranioventral abdominal wall with a craniocaudal spread of four (three to eight) vertebral bodies. Methylene blue stained three (one to four) rami ventrales, affecting T10 (60%), T11 (100%), T12 (90%), T13 (50%) and L1 (5%). Based on these results, it could be stated that this technique could supply anaesthesia to the midline of the abdominal midline cranial to the umbilicus in clinical patients, but it may not be able to provide anaesthesia to the middle and caudal midline abdominal region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anesthesia and Analgesia in Companion Animals Surgery)
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11 pages, 942 KiB  
Article
Can a Sacrococcygeal Epidural of 0.25% Bupivacaine Prevent the Activation of the Sympathetic Nervous System during Feline Ovariectomy?
by João Martins, António Eliseu, Sónia Campos, Lénio Ribeiro, Pablo Otero, Patrícia Cabral, Bruno Colaço and José Diogo dos-Santos
Animals 2024, 14(12), 1732; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14121732 - 8 Jun 2024
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Abstract
The ovariectomy (OVE) procedure can trigger somatosensory and visceral peritoneal nociception. Sacrococcygeal epidural (ScE) anesthesia may complement or replace systemic analgesia used for feline OVE, reducing opioid consumption and their related undesirable adverse effects and consequently reducing or completely blocking the sympathetic nervous [...] Read more.
The ovariectomy (OVE) procedure can trigger somatosensory and visceral peritoneal nociception. Sacrococcygeal epidural (ScE) anesthesia may complement or replace systemic analgesia used for feline OVE, reducing opioid consumption and their related undesirable adverse effects and consequently reducing or completely blocking the sympathetic nervous system activation during this procedure. The present study aimed to evaluate the activation of the sympathetic nervous system resulting from adding an ScE injection of bupivacaine 0.25% (0.3 mL kg−1) in feline OVE and identify whether this translates to hemodynamic variables stability. A Parasympathetic Tone Activity (PTA) monitor was applied given that it performs analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) detecting changes in sympathetic and parasympathetic tone, making it a good tool for detecting activation of the sympathetic nervous system during the study. Two groups of animals were evaluated in five perioperative times, namely, the control group (CG) (n = 18) with systemic analgesia alone and the sacrococcygeal epidural group (ScEG) (n = 20) with 0.25% bupivacaine combined with systemic analgesia. Thirty-eight female cats were selected. All animals assigned to CG and ScEG were premedicated with dexmedetomidine (20 μg kg−1 IM) and methadone (0.2 mg kg−1 IM). General anesthesia was induced with propofol IV ad effectum and maintained with isoflurane in 100% oxygen. Heart rate, non-invasive systolic and median blood pressure, respiratory rate, and instantaneous parasympathetic tone activity were recorded. Compared to systemic analgesia alone (CG), sacrococcygeal epidural (ScEG) reduced the rise of common hemodynamic variables but did not prevent sympathetic nervous system activation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anesthesia and Analgesia in Companion Animals Surgery)
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12 pages, 5613 KiB  
Article
Modified Ultrasound-Guided Dorsal Quadratus Lumborum Block in Cat Cadavers
by Gonzalo Polo-Paredes, Francisco G. Laredo, Francisco Gil, Marta Soler, Amalia Agut and Eliseo Belda
Animals 2023, 13(24), 3798; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13243798 - 9 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1396
Abstract
The quadratus lumborum (QL) block is an ultrasound-guided locoregional anesthesia technique which aims to provide analgesia to the abdomen. The main objective of this study was to assess a modified ultrasound-guided dorsal QL block in cat cadavers. For this purpose, a volume of [...] Read more.
The quadratus lumborum (QL) block is an ultrasound-guided locoregional anesthesia technique which aims to provide analgesia to the abdomen. The main objective of this study was to assess a modified ultrasound-guided dorsal QL block in cat cadavers. For this purpose, a volume of 0.4 mL kg−1 of a mixture of iopromide and methylene blue was administered between the psoas minor muscle and the vertebral body (VB) of the first lumbar vertebra, and its distribution was assessed in thirteen cat cadavers. We hypothesized that this injection point would be feasible, offering a more cranial distribution of the injectate and a more consistent staining of the truncus sympathicus. The study was divided into two phases. Phase 1 consisted of an anatomical study (three cadavers were dissected). Phase 2 consisted of the ultrasound-guided administration of the injectate and the assessment of its distribution by computed tomography and anatomical dissection. The results showed a consistent distribution of contrast media within five (4–8) VBs from T10 to L5. Methylene blue stained three (2–6) rami ventrales, affecting T11 (10%), T12 (20%), T13 (60%), L1 (85%), L2 (95%) and L3 (65%). The truncus sympathicus was dyed in all cadavers with a spread of five (3–7) VBs. Finally, the splanchnicus major nerve was stained in all cadavers (100%). These results suggest that this technique could provide analgesia to the abdominal viscera and the abdominal wall, probably with the exception of the cranial aspects of the abdominal wall. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anesthesia and Analgesia in Companion Animals Surgery)
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