Special Issue "Radar and Aerospace"

A special issue of Aerospace (ISSN 2226-4310).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2017).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Yan (Rockee) Zhang

Intelligent Aerospace Radar Team (IART), School of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Advanced Radar Research Center (ARRC), University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019-0390, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: radar and aerospace; intelligent airborne radar system
Guest Editor
Dr. Mark E. Weber

NOAA-National Severe Storms Laboratory and CIMMS, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019-0390, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: radar development and forecast algorithms to improve decision support in air traffic control

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Radar has been an important sensor for aerospace since World War II. Today we are entering the next generation of airspace management and next generation of the users of airspace. We also have new challenges and threats in the domestic and international airspace. For example, the proliferation of unmanned aerial systems (UAS), especially small-medium UAS, demand that we have new capabilities in radar systems, including ground-based, marine, and airborne. New sources of radar clutter, such as wind farms, also require us to enhance our radar architectures and processing algorithms. New devices, components and fabrication technologies, are enabling radar to better serve aerospace applications. We have an exciting opportunity to capture the front line of these innovations in this Special Issue of Aerospace.

This Special Issue will focus on novel concepts, technologies and applications of radar in aerospace. A preliminary list of such areas includes: (1) Radar for next generation air-traffic management and monitoring, (2) Intelligent algorithms in airborne and spaceborne radars, especially algorithms based on machine intelligence. (3) Sense and Avoid (SAA) radar concepts and developments, including both ground and airborne systems. (4) Radar for detection, classification and monitoring of different types of hazards in the airspace, including both natural (weather hazards, birds) and man-made (collision air-traffic, uncontrolled drones, and wake vortices), especially radars using intelligent processing algorithms for these hazards. (5) New architectures, system components (such as antennae) and cognitive technologies that support radar-sensing improvements.

Dr. Yan (Rockee) Zhang
Dr. Mark E. Weber
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Aerospace is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • radar sensor
  • radar systems
  • aviation safety
  • ATC/ATM
  • air-surveillance
  • unmanned aerial system (UAS)
  • machine intelligence
  • sense and avoid (SAA)
  • hazards detection
  • clutter mitigation
  • multi-function

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
An Efficient Processing Architecture for Range Profiling Using Noise Radar Technology
Received: 4 November 2017 / Revised: 24 December 2017 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 6 January 2018
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Abstract
The importance of high resolution range profiles (HRRPs) for radar applications like tracking or classification is well known. In the scientific literature several approaches have been investigated to obtain HRRPs from wideband radar signals. Recent works show that noise radar waveforms can be [...] Read more.
The importance of high resolution range profiles (HRRPs) for radar applications like tracking or classification is well known. In the scientific literature several approaches have been investigated to obtain HRRPs from wideband radar signals. Recent works show that noise radar waveforms can be exploited in this sense due to their high resolution and low peak to sidelobe ratio (PSLR) properties. However their use can cause some issues in applications where long time integrations are required, e.g., in the presence of a low effective radiated power (ERP) transmitter: recording the reference signal in this case would be difficult due to the big quantity of data. This work proposes a real time digital processing schematic based on linear feedback shift registers (LFSRs) which is very flexible and has a low computational burden: its internal state can be easily controlled and reproduced in reception, where a multichannel correlator is exploited as matched filter. The resulting signal, compared to typical “pulse compression” and noise radar waveforms, shows similar performances but a lower order of complexity in terms of real time generation and reception. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar and Aerospace)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Radar and ADS-B Influences on Aircraft Detect and Avoid (DAA) Systems
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 2 September 2017 / Accepted: 8 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5101 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Detect and Avoid (DAA) systems are complex communication and locational technologies comprising multiple independent components. DAA technologies support communications between ground-based and space-based operations with aircraft. Both manned and unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) rely on DAA communication and location technologies for safe flight [...] Read more.
Detect and Avoid (DAA) systems are complex communication and locational technologies comprising multiple independent components. DAA technologies support communications between ground-based and space-based operations with aircraft. Both manned and unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) rely on DAA communication and location technologies for safe flight operations. We examined the occurrence and duration of communication losses between radar and automatic dependent surveillance–broadcast (ADS-B) systems with aircraft operating in proximate airspace using data collected during actual flight operations. Our objectives were to identify the number and duration of communication losses for both radar and ADS-B systems that occurred within a discrete time period. We also investigated whether other unique communication behavior and anomalies were occurring, such as reported elevation deviations. We found that loss of communication with both radar and ADS-B systems does occur, with variation in the length of communication losses. We also discovered that other unexpected behaviors were occurring with communications. Although our data were gathered from manned aircraft, there are also implications for UAS that are operating within active airspaces. We are unaware of any previously published work on occurrence and duration of communication losses between radar and ADS-B systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar and Aerospace)
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Open AccessArticle
Good Code Sets from Complementary Pairs via Discrete Frequency Chips
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 30 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 7 May 2017
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Abstract
It is shown that replacing the sinusoidal chip in Golay complementary code pairs by special classes of waveforms that satisfy two conditions, symmetry/anti-symmetry and quazi-orthogonality in the convolution sense, renders the complementary codes immune to frequency selective fading and also allows for concatenating [...] Read more.
It is shown that replacing the sinusoidal chip in Golay complementary code pairs by special classes of waveforms that satisfy two conditions, symmetry/anti-symmetry and quazi-orthogonality in the convolution sense, renders the complementary codes immune to frequency selective fading and also allows for concatenating them in time using one frequency band/channel. This results in a zero-sidelobe region around the mainlobe and an adjacent region of small cross-correlation sidelobes. The symmetry/anti-symmetry property results in the zero-sidelobe region on either side of the mainlobe, while quasi-orthogonality of the two chips keeps the adjacent region of cross-correlations small. Such codes are constructed using discrete frequency-coding waveforms (DFCW) based on linear frequency modulation (LFM) and piecewise LFM (PLFM) waveforms as chips for the complementary code pair, as they satisfy both the symmetry/anti-symmetry and quasi-orthogonality conditions. It is also shown that changing the slopes/chirp rates of the DFCW waveforms (based on LFM and PLFM waveforms) used as chips with the same complementary code pair results in good code sets with a zero-sidelobe region. It is also shown that a second good code set with a zero-sidelobe region could be constructed from the mates of the complementary code pair, while using the same DFCW waveforms as their chips. The cross-correlation between the two sets is shown to contain a zero-sidelobe region and an adjacent region of small cross-correlation sidelobes. Thus, the two sets are quasi-orthogonal and could be combined to form a good code set with twice the number of codes without affecting their cross-correlation properties. Or a better good code set with the same number codes could be constructed by choosing the best candidates form the two sets. Such code sets find utility in multiple input-multiple output (MIMO) radar applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar and Aerospace)
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Open AccessArticle
Chirp Signals and Noisy Waveforms for Solid-State Surveillance Radars
Received: 1 December 2016 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 14 March 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (4861 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since the advent of “pulse compression” radar, the “chirp” signal (Linear Frequency Modulation, LFM) has been one of the most widely used radar waveforms. It is well known that, by changing its modulation into a Non-Linear Frequency Modulation (NLFM), better performance in terms [...] Read more.
Since the advent of “pulse compression” radar, the “chirp” signal (Linear Frequency Modulation, LFM) has been one of the most widely used radar waveforms. It is well known that, by changing its modulation into a Non-Linear Frequency Modulation (NLFM), better performance in terms of Peak-to-Sidelobes Ratio (PSLR) can be achieved to mitigate the masking effect of nearby targets and to increase the useful dynamic range. Adding an appropriate amplitude modulation, as occurs in Hybrid-NLFM (HNLFM), the PSLR can reach very low values (e.g., PSLR < −60 dB), comparable to the two-way antenna sidelobes in azimuth. On the other hand, modern solid-state power amplifier technology, using low-power modules, requires them to be combined at the Radio Frequency (RF) stage in order to achieve the desired transmitted power. Noise Radar Technology (NRT) represents a valid alternative to deterministic waveforms. It makes use of pseudo-random waveforms—realizations of a noise process. The higher its time-bandwidth (or BT) product, the higher the (statistical) PSLR. With practical BT values, the achievable PSLR using pure random noise is generally not sufficient. Therefore, the generated pseudorandom waveforms can be “tailored” (TPW: Tailored Pseudorandom Waveforms) at will through suitable algorithms in order to achieve the desired sidelobe level, even only in a limited range interval, as shown in this work. Moreover, the needed high BT, i.e., the higher time duration T having fixed the bandwidth B, matches well with the low power solid-state amplifiers of Noise Radar. Focusing the interest on (civil) surveillance radar applications, such as ATC (Air Traffic Control) and marine radar, this paper proposes a general review of the two classes of waveforms, i.e., HNLFM and TPW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar and Aerospace)
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Open AccessArticle
Sense and Avoid Airborne Radar Implementations on a Low-Cost Weather Radar Platform
Received: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (8741 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Traditionally, multi-mission applications in airborne radar are implemented through very expensive phased array architectures. The emerging applications from civilian surveillance, on the other hand, prefer low-cost and low-SWaP (space, weight and power) systems. This study introduces asoftware-basedsolutionthatintendstouselow-costhardwareandadvancedalgorithms/processing backend to meet the remote sensing [...] Read more.
Traditionally, multi-mission applications in airborne radar are implemented through very expensive phased array architectures. The emerging applications from civilian surveillance, on the other hand, prefer low-cost and low-SWaP (space, weight and power) systems. This study introduces asoftware-basedsolutionthatintendstouselow-costhardwareandadvancedalgorithms/processing backend to meet the remote sensing goals for multi-mission applications. The low-cost airborne radar platform from Garmin International is used as a representative example of the system platform. The focus of this study is the optimal operating mode, data quality and algorithm development in cases of all-weather sense and avoid (SAA) applications. The main challenges for the solution are the resolution limitation due to the small aperture size, limitations from the field-of-view (FOV) and the scan speed from mechanical scanning. We show that the basic operational needs can be satisfied with software processing through various algorithms. The concept and progress of polarimetric airborne radar for dual-function operations at X-band Generation 1 (PARADOX1) based on the platform are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar and Aerospace)
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Open AccessArticle
Electromagnetic Simulation and Alignment of Dual-Polarized Array Antennas in Multi-Mission Phased Array Radars
Received: 19 November 2016 / Revised: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (18594 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electromagnetic (EM) simulation of dual-polarized antennas is necessary for precise initial alignments, calibration and performance predictions of multi-function phased array radar systems. To achieve the required flexibility and scalability, a novel Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) solution is developed for rectangular, cylindrical and non-orthogonal coordinate [...] Read more.
Electromagnetic (EM) simulation of dual-polarized antennas is necessary for precise initial alignments, calibration and performance predictions of multi-function phased array radar systems. To achieve the required flexibility and scalability, a novel Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) solution is developed for rectangular, cylindrical and non-orthogonal coordinate systems to simulate various types of array antenna manifolds. Scalable array pattern predictions and beam generations are obtained by combining the FDTD simulation solutions with the Near-Field (NF) chamber measurements. The effectiveness and accuracy of this approach are validated by comparing different simulations and comparing simulations with measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar and Aerospace)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
An Implementation of Real-Time Phased Array Radar Fundamental Functions on a DSP-Focused, High-Performance, Embedded Computing Platform
Received: 22 July 2016 / Revised: 11 August 2016 / Accepted: 2 September 2016 / Published: 9 September 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (8934 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper investigates the feasibility of a backend design for real-time, multiple-channel processing digital phased array system, particularly for high-performance embedded computing platforms constructed of general purpose digital signal processors. First, we obtained the lab-scale backend performance benchmark from simulating beamforming, pulse compression, [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the feasibility of a backend design for real-time, multiple-channel processing digital phased array system, particularly for high-performance embedded computing platforms constructed of general purpose digital signal processors. First, we obtained the lab-scale backend performance benchmark from simulating beamforming, pulse compression, and Doppler filtering based on a Micro Telecom Computing Architecture (MTCA) chassis using the Serial RapidIO protocol in backplane communication. Next, a field-scale demonstrator of a multifunctional phased array radar is emulated by using the similar configuration. Interestingly, the performance of a barebones design is compared to that of emerging tools that systematically take advantage of parallelism and multicore capabilities, including the Open Computing Language. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar and Aerospace)
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Graphical abstract

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