Aircraft Modeling, Simulation and Control II

A special issue of Aerospace (ISSN 2226-4310). This special issue belongs to the section "Aeronautics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2023) | Viewed by 8770

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, Politecnico di Milano, via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano, Italy
Interests: aircraft design; electric aircraft; hybrid-electric aircraft; optimal design; aircraft modeling and simulation; airship design; wind turbine control
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Following the great interest shown by contributors and readers for the topics of a previous Special Issue in MDPI's Aerospace journal, I am pleased to announce the launch of a second volume of an open access Special Issue dedicated to Aircraft Modeling for Design, Simulation, and Control. The aim of this Special Issue is to provide an insight into the state-of-the-art of aircraft/aircraft component modeling and simulation, with applications in the study of flying vehicle design and control problems. As Guest Editor of this Special Issue, I would like to invite you to submit full research articles and review manuscripts addressing (but not limited to) the following topics:

  • Aircraft/airship flight mechanics for design and control: dynamic modeling aimed at flying vehicle performance assessment, control design, simulation, preliminary aircraft design and sizing;
  • Aircraft/airship component modeling for design and control: component modeling, including structure, onboard plants, energy management system, power-plants, and aimed at tackling design, sizing, and control problems;
  • Design and preliminary sizing techniques for aircraft/airships featuring innovative propulsion systems and/or unconventional configurations: procedures for optimal design, heuristics, best-practices, and case studies;
  • Propulsion systems integration in aircraft/airship design: strategies and procedures for the design and sizing of aircraft featuring innovative propulsion systems;
  • The modeling, simulation and control of interacting flying vehicles: dynamic simulation and of interacting aircraft (e.g., coordinated flight, target-seeking problems, formation flight, swarms, homing on target, etc.), trajectory planning, control for coordination/homing. 

Research works adopting a theoretical approach or an experience-driven practical approach are similarly welcome, as well as in-depth assessments of case studies. Thank you for your interest and I look forward to receiving your valuable contributions.

Dr. Carlo E. D. Riboldi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Aerospace is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 4570 KiB  
Article
A Static Stability Analysis Method for Passively Stabilized Sounding Rockets
by Riccardo Cadamuro, Maria Teresa Cazzola, Nicolò Lontani and Carlo E. D. Riboldi
Aerospace 2024, 11(3), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace11030242 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1101
Abstract
Sounding rockets constitute a class of rocket with a generally simple layout, being composed of a cylindrical center-body, a nosecone, a number of fins placed symmetrically around the longitudinal axis (usually three or four), and possibly a boat-tail. This type of flying craft [...] Read more.
Sounding rockets constitute a class of rocket with a generally simple layout, being composed of a cylindrical center-body, a nosecone, a number of fins placed symmetrically around the longitudinal axis (usually three or four), and possibly a boat-tail. This type of flying craft is typically not actively controlled; instead, a passive stabilization effect is obtained through suitable positioning and sizing of the fins. Therefore, in the context of dynamic performance analysis, the margin of static stability is an index of primary interest. However, the classical approach to static stability analysis, which consists in splitting computations in two decoupled domains, namely, around the pitch and yaw axis, provides a very limited insight to the missile performance for this type of vehicle due to the violation of the classical assumptions of planar symmetry and symmetric flight conditions commonly adopted for winged aircraft. To tackle this issue, this paper introduces a method for analyzing static stability through a novel index, capable of more generally assessing the level of static stability for sounding rockets, exploiting the same information on aerodynamic coefficients typically required for more usual (i.e., decoupled) static stability analyses, and suggests a way to assess the validity and shortcoming of the method in each case at hand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aircraft Modeling, Simulation and Control II)
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23 pages, 15671 KiB  
Article
A330-300 Wake Encounter by ARJ21 Aircraft
by Haotian Luo, Weijun Pan, Yidi Wang and Yuming Luo
Aerospace 2024, 11(2), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace11020144 - 8 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1110
Abstract
Today, aviation has grown significantly in importance. However, the challenge of flight delays has become increasingly severe due to the need for safe separation between aircraft to mitigate wake turbulence effects. The primary emphasis of this investigation resides in elucidating the evolutionary attributes [...] Read more.
Today, aviation has grown significantly in importance. However, the challenge of flight delays has become increasingly severe due to the need for safe separation between aircraft to mitigate wake turbulence effects. The primary emphasis of this investigation resides in elucidating the evolutionary attributes of wake vortices in homogeneous isotropy turbulence. The large eddy simulation (LES) method is used to scrutinize the dynamic evolution of wake vortices engendered by an A333 aircraft in the atmospheric milieu and assess its ramifications on the ARJ21 aircraft. The research endeavor commences by formulating an LES methodology for the evolution of aircraft wake vortices, integrating adaptive grid technology to reduce the necessary grid volume significantly. This approach enables the implementation of axial and non-axial grid adaptive refinement, leading to more accurate simulations of both axial and non-axial vortices. Numerical simulations are conducted using the LES approach to scrutinize three distinct rates of turbulence dissipation amidst the ambient atmospheric turbulence, and the results are juxtaposed with Lidar measurements (Wind3D 6000 LiDAR) of wake vortices acquired at Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport (CTU). Subsequently, the rolling moment of the following aircraft is calculated, and three-dimensional hazard zones are determined for the A333. It is found that during the approach phase, the wake turbulence separation minima for an ARJ21 (CAT-F) following an A333 (CAT-B) is 3.35 NM, which represents a reduction of approximately 33% compared to ICAO RECAT (Wake Turbulence Re-categorization). The findings validate the dependability of the fine-grained mesh used in the vortex core region, engendered through the adaptive grid method, which proficiently captures the Crow instability and the interconnected phenomena of vortices in the numerical examination of aircraft wake. The safety of wake encounters primarily depends on the magnitude of environmental turbulence and the development of structural instability in wake vortices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aircraft Modeling, Simulation and Control II)
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33 pages, 12216 KiB  
Article
Preliminary Analysis of the Stability and Controllability of a Box-Wing Aircraft Configuration
by Karim Abu Salem, Giuseppe Palaia, Alessandro A. Quarta and Mario R. Chiarelli
Aerospace 2023, 10(10), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace10100874 - 8 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2046
Abstract
This paper presents a study on the aeromechanical characteristics of a box-wing aircraft configuration with a focus on stability, controllability, and the impact of aeromechanical constraints on the lifting system conceptual design. In the last decade, the box-wing concept has been the subject [...] Read more.
This paper presents a study on the aeromechanical characteristics of a box-wing aircraft configuration with a focus on stability, controllability, and the impact of aeromechanical constraints on the lifting system conceptual design. In the last decade, the box-wing concept has been the subject of several investigations in the aeronautical scientific community, as it has the potential to improve classic aerodynamic performance, aiming at reducing fuel consumption per unit of payload transported, and thus contributing to a reduction in aviation greenhouse emissions. This study characterises the aeromechanical features of a box-wing aircraft, with a specific focus on the correlations between the aeromechanical constraints and the (main) aircraft design parameters. The proposed approach provides specific insights into the aeromechanical characteristics of the box-wing concept, both in the longitudinal and lateral plane, which are useful to define some overall design criteria generally applicable when dealing with the conceptual design of such an unconventional aircraft configuration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aircraft Modeling, Simulation and Control II)
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12 pages, 435 KiB  
Article
Robust Controller Design for a Generic Helicopter Model: An AI-Aided Application for Terrain Avoidance
by Baris Baspinar
Aerospace 2023, 10(9), 757; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace10090757 - 27 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1008
Abstract
This paper focuses on robust controller design for a generic helicopter model and terrain avoidance problem via artificial intelligence (AI). The helicopter model is presented as a hybrid system that covers hover and forward dynamics. By defining a set of easily accessible parameters, [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on robust controller design for a generic helicopter model and terrain avoidance problem via artificial intelligence (AI). The helicopter model is presented as a hybrid system that covers hover and forward dynamics. By defining a set of easily accessible parameters, it can be used to simulate the motion of different helicopter types. A robust control structure based on reinforcement learning is proposed to ensure the system is robust against model parameter uncertainties. The developed generic model can be utilized in many helicopter applications that have been attempted to be solved with sampling-based algorithms or reinforcement learning approaches that take the dynamical constraints into consideration. This study also focuses on the helicopter terrain avoidance problem to illustrate how the model can be useful in these types of applications and provide an artificial intelligence-aided solution to terrain avoidance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aircraft Modeling, Simulation and Control II)
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21 pages, 10505 KiB  
Article
Modal Analysis and Flight Validation of Compound Multi-Body Aircraft
by Entong Zhu, Zhou Zhou and Huida Li
Aerospace 2023, 10(5), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace10050442 - 10 May 2023
Viewed by 1218
Abstract
The flight dynamics of a compound aircraft are highly coupled and significantly different from those of a single aircraft. In this paper, the characteristic flight dynamics of a three-unit connected aircraft are analyzed in detail. By distinguishing the aircraft’s modes into a symmetric [...] Read more.
The flight dynamics of a compound aircraft are highly coupled and significantly different from those of a single aircraft. In this paper, the characteristic flight dynamics of a three-unit connected aircraft are analyzed in detail. By distinguishing the aircraft’s modes into a symmetric mode group and an asymmetric mode group, the mechanisms by which the relative roll modes of the compound aircraft significantly impact the rigid-body modes of the vehicle become clear. The trim configuration of a compound aircraft has a profound influence on its stability and flight modes. In addition, the relative roll modes can be separated from the full-state model by appropriate simplifications, and the modal coupling mechanism and evolution law can be analytically derived. The key parameters which have a significant influence on the trim configuration and flight modes of the aircraft are pointed out in this paper. Finally, the common failure modes of compound aircraft are identified. A flight experiment with test data verifies the correctness of the above theoretical analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aircraft Modeling, Simulation and Control II)
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12 pages, 3044 KiB  
Article
Trim Tab Flight Stabilisation System Performance Assessment under Degraded Actuator Speeds
by Albert Zajdel, Mariusz Krawczyk and Cezary Szczepański
Aerospace 2023, 10(5), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace10050429 - 30 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1414
Abstract
One of the areas involved in changing current aircraft into more electric ones is decreasing energy consumption by the aircraft’s automatic flight control. Therefore, some aircraft types have tested the possibility of controlling the flight in automatic mode or stabilising the flight with [...] Read more.
One of the areas involved in changing current aircraft into more electric ones is decreasing energy consumption by the aircraft’s automatic flight control. Therefore, some aircraft types have tested the possibility of controlling the flight in automatic mode or stabilising the flight with trimmers. Previous research on cost-effective and less electrical-energy-consuming automatic stabilisation systems for an aircraft resulted in constructing a laboratory model of the system. Such a feature is beneficial for initiatives like Future Sky, electric aircraft and aircraft stabilisation system retrofits. The system was developed using model-based design and next tuned and tested in model, pilot and hardware-in-the-loop simulations. The implementation of this system does not modify the pilot’s primary manual controls. Instead, the electrical trim system is used for automatic stabilisation or manual trimming, depending on the chosen operation mode. The paper presents the development process of the laboratory model of the system and its simulation under degraded actuator speeds. The results were the basis for its control performance assessment. First, the control performance measure was defined. Then the simulation scenarios that compare system behaviour in stabilisation mode after aerodynamic disturbance with three different trim tab actuator speeds were described. The performance measure is highly degraded by the slower actuator speeds, although altitude and heading are finally stabilised in all cases. Moreover, the performance of stabilisation in a lateral channel is less affected by the slowest actuator than in a longitudinal channel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aircraft Modeling, Simulation and Control II)
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