Special Issue "High-Resolution Actuators"

A special issue of Actuators (ISSN 2076-0825).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2015).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Mathieu Grossard
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Interactive Robotics Laboratory (IRL) CEA LIST – DIGITEO Labs, Rue Noetzlin, Bâtiment 660, 91190 Gif sur Yvettes, France
Interests: optimal design; modeling and advanced control of actuators; compliant structures; smart material-based actuators; cable-driven actuators and piezoelectric transducers
Dr. Micky Rakotondrabe
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
FEMTO-ST Institute, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté (UBFC), CNRS 24, rue Alain Savary, 25000 Besançon, France
Interests: piezoelectric actuators and actuators; smart materials based systems; design and optimization; control; observers; linear and nonlinear systems; energy harvesting; microrobotics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Driven by increasing societal, economic, and technological pressures, high-resolution actuators must achieve ever increasing accuracy requirements and functional integration into the system. High-resolution actuators have been used for many decades for the development of actuators in different applications, such as microrobotics for micromanipulation and microassembly, scanning probe microscopy, medical, military, aerospace, robots, and, more generally, in mechatronic systems dedicated to tasks that require high-resolution features. These actuators are based on smart materials and also more conventional mechatronic actuators that can achieve interesting performances with a high-resolution, either in position or in force.

  • The advantages of smart materials-based actuators (piezoelectric, magnetic, magnetostrictive, electroactive polymers, magnetoactive polymers, shape memory alloys, magnetic shape memory alloys, thermally active materials, …) are numerous including the high resolution of positioning and the ease of integration in miniaturized systems. Some of them can provide very high bandwidth, whilst others a very high stiffness, or high range of deformation and thus of positioning.
  • Optimal designs of mechatronic actuators together with appropriate control strategies have often lead to very interesting solutions in terms of force or position characteristics. Nonlinear phenomena at the basis of the design rationale (friction, backlash, hysteresis, …) can be efficiently treated to provide the actuation with high-resolution performances in terms of position or force.

The objective of this Special Issue is to investigate new techniques, technologies, results, principles and surveys for actuators that are characterized by high-resolution performances. The issue will provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners to present their most recent accomplishments, challenges, advances in this area, and we also encourage future research directions in the field. Contributions from industry are encouraged, and both theoretical and experimental works are welcome. Potential topics include, but are not limited, to:

–Position- and/or force-controlled actuators with high resolution

–Nonlinear modeling of high resolution actuators (friction, hysteresis, creep, …)

–Novel multiphysic transduction for actuators

–Improved smart materials for high performances actuators

–Optimal or robust design of actuators

–Actuators with self-sensing measurement

–Smart materials-based actuators with collocated sensors

–Piezoelectric, magnetic or magnetostrictive actuators

–Electroactive and magnetoactive polymers-based actuators

–Shape memory alloys and magnetic shape memory alloys-based actuators

–Thermal actuators

–Electrostatic actuators

–Hybrid actuators

Dr. Micky RAKOTONDRABE
Dr. Mathieu GROSSARD
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Actuators is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • Novel actuators for mechatronic systems
  • Design, modeling and control of actuators
  • Smart materials-based actuators

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
High Resolution Actuators
Actuators 2016, 5(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/act5020018 - 17 Jun 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4338
Abstract
Driven by increasing societal, economic, and technological pressures, high-resolution actuators must achieve ever increasing accuracy requirements and functional integration into the system.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Resolution Actuators)

Research

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Article
Development of a New Backdrivable Actuator for Haptic Interfaces and Collaborative Robots
Actuators 2016, 5(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/act5020017 - 09 Jun 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6231
Abstract
Industrial robots are most often position controlled and insensitive to external forces. In many robotic applications, however, such as teleoperation, haptics for virtual reality, and collaborative robotics, a close cooperation between humans and robots is required. For such applications, force sensing and control [...] Read more.
Industrial robots are most often position controlled and insensitive to external forces. In many robotic applications, however, such as teleoperation, haptics for virtual reality, and collaborative robotics, a close cooperation between humans and robots is required. For such applications, force sensing and control capabilities are required for stable interactions with the operator and environment. The robots must also be backdrivable, i.e., the robot must be able to follow user’s induced movements with the least possible resistance. High force efficiency is also desirable. These requirements are different from the design drivers of traditional industrial robots and call for specific actuators and reducers. Many such devices were proposed in the literature. However, they suffer from several drawbacks, offering either a limited reduction ratio or being complex and bulky. This paper introduces a novel solution to this problem. A new differential cable drive reducer is presented. It is backdrivable, has a high efficiency, and a potentially infinite reduction ratio. A prototype actuator using such a reducer has been developed and integrated on a test bench. The experimental characterization of its performance confirms its theoretical advantages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Resolution Actuators)
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Article
Getting Started with PEAs-Based Flapping-Wing Mechanisms for Micro Aerial Systems
Actuators 2016, 5(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/act5020014 - 20 May 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5369
Abstract
This paper introduces recent advances on flapping-wing Micro and Nano Aerial Vehicles (MAVs and NAVs) based on Piezoelectric Actuators (PEA). Therefore, this work provides essential information to address the development of such bio-inspired aerial robots. PEA are commonly used in micro-robotics and precise [...] Read more.
This paper introduces recent advances on flapping-wing Micro and Nano Aerial Vehicles (MAVs and NAVs) based on Piezoelectric Actuators (PEA). Therefore, this work provides essential information to address the development of such bio-inspired aerial robots. PEA are commonly used in micro-robotics and precise positioning applications (e.g., micro-positioning and micro-manipulation), whereas within the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) domain, motors are the classical actuators used for rotary or fixed-wing configurations. Therefore, we consider it pertinent to provide essential information regarding the modeling and control of piezoelectric cantilever actuators to accelerate early design and development stages of aerial microrobots based on flapping-wing systems. In addition, the equations describing the aerodynamic behavior of a flapping-wing configuration are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Resolution Actuators)
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Article
Multi-Mode Vibration Suppression in MIMO Systems by Extending the Zero Placement Input Shaping Technique: Applications to a 3-DOF Piezoelectric Tube Actuator
Actuators 2016, 5(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/act5020013 - 29 Apr 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4954
Abstract
Piezoelectric tube actuators are extensively used in scanning probe microscopes to provide dynamic scanning motions in open-loop operations. Furthermore, they are employed as micropositioners due to their high bandwidth, high resolution and ease of excitation. However, these piezoelectric micropositioners exhibit badly damped vibrations [...] Read more.
Piezoelectric tube actuators are extensively used in scanning probe microscopes to provide dynamic scanning motions in open-loop operations. Furthermore, they are employed as micropositioners due to their high bandwidth, high resolution and ease of excitation. However, these piezoelectric micropositioners exhibit badly damped vibrations that occur when the input excites the dynamic response, which tends to degrade positioning accuracy and performance. This paper deals with vibrations’ feedforward control of a multi-degrees of freedom (DOF) piezoelectric micropositioner in order to damp the vibrations in the direct axes and to reduce the cross-couplings. The novelty in this paper relative to the existing vibrations feedforward controls is the simplicity in design approach, the minimal number of shaper impulses for each input required to damp all modes of vibration at each output, and the account for the strong cross-couplings which only occur in multi-DOF cases. A generalization to a multiple degrees of freedom actuator is first proposed. Then simulation runs on a 3-DOF piezoelectric tube micropositioner have been effectuated to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. Finally, experimental tests were carried out to validate and to confirm the predicted simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Resolution Actuators)
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Article
Modeling and Design Optimization of A Shaft-Coupled Motor and Magnetic Gear
Actuators 2016, 5(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/act5010010 - 21 Mar 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 5452
Abstract
This paper presents the modeling and design of an actuator consisting of an electrical motor and a magnetic gear. To minimize the overall actuator dimensions, both of the electromagnetic devices need to be optimally designed and matched. An issue in performing a simultaneous [...] Read more.
This paper presents the modeling and design of an actuator consisting of an electrical motor and a magnetic gear. To minimize the overall actuator dimensions, both of the electromagnetic devices need to be optimally designed and matched. An issue in performing a simultaneous design as such arises from a high number of design variables that significantly increases the complexity of the optimization problem. A method to reduce the design variables is discussed in this paper, which is the application of response surface methodology (RSM) to represent the optimized torques of the electrical motor and magnetic gear as polynomial functions of their respective dimensions. Prior to the application of RSM, optimization problem statements are defined for the electrical motor and magnetic gear, for which the optimization objective and constraint functions are derived from analytical electromagnetic models of the considered electromagnetic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Resolution Actuators)
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Communication
A Smart Polymer Composite Based on a NiTi Ribbon and a Magnetic Hybrid Material for Actuators with Multiphysic Transduction
Actuators 2015, 4(4), 301-313; https://doi.org/10.3390/act4040301 - 03 Dec 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5460
Abstract
A smart composite material constituted of a magnetic hybrid film and a NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) ribbon was obtained and characterized. The magnetic hybrid film was joined to the NiTi ribbon in order to combine the properties of both materials. This new [...] Read more.
A smart composite material constituted of a magnetic hybrid film and a NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) ribbon was obtained and characterized. The magnetic hybrid film was joined to the NiTi ribbon in order to combine the properties of both materials. This new composite material combines magnetic properties of the hybrid film, (Fe2O3-CMC)/(polyvinyl butyral), and the shape memory properties of the NiTi ribbon, which has a chemical composition of Ti-50.13 at. % Ni. This smart composite material has a mass of 18.3% NiTi ribbon and 81.7% magnetic hybrid film. Results obtained by DSC show that the smart composite material presents a small delay of transformation during warming and cooling because the magnetic hybrid film acts like a thermal insulator. Thermomechanical results indicate that the hybrid material also acts as a mechanical reinforcement, since it is observed that the Stress-Assisted Two-Way Memory Effect (SATWME) of the smart composite is lower than the SATWME of the SMA ribbon. The density current values of phase transformations were clearly identified with a thermomechanical apparatus developed in our laboratory. Finally, displacements of the smart composite material in cantilever configuration are obtained by applying an external magnetic field. All these results demonstrate that the smart composite material can be activated by temperature, electrical current, stress, and/or magnetic field, offering good expectations for actuating applications with multiphysic transduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Resolution Actuators)
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Article
Force-Sensing Actuator with a Compliant Flexure-Type Joint for a Robotic Manipulator
Actuators 2015, 4(4), 281-300; https://doi.org/10.3390/act4040281 - 03 Dec 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 7336
Abstract
This paper deals with the mechatronic design of a novel self-sensing motor-to-joint transmission to be used for the actuation of robotic dexterous manipulators. Backdrivability, mechanical simplicity and efficient flexure joint structures are key concepts that have guided the mechanical design rationale to provide [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the mechatronic design of a novel self-sensing motor-to-joint transmission to be used for the actuation of robotic dexterous manipulators. Backdrivability, mechanical simplicity and efficient flexure joint structures are key concepts that have guided the mechanical design rationale to provide the actuator with force sensing capabilities. Indeed, a self-sensing characteristic is achieved by the specific design of high-resolution cable-driven actuators based on a DC motor, a ball-screw and a monolithic compliant anti-rotation system together with a novel flexure pivot providing a frictionless mechanical structure. That novel compliant pivot with a large angular range and a small center shift has been conceived of to provide the inter-phalangeal rotational degree of freedom of the fingers’ joints to be used for integration in a multi-fingered robotic gripper. Simultaneously, it helps to remove friction at the joint level of the mechanism. Experimental tests carried out on a prototype show an accurate matching between the model and the real behavior. Overall, this mechatronic design contributes to the improvement of the manipulation skills of robotic grippers, thanks to the combination of high performance mechanics, high sensitivity to external forces and compliance control capability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Resolution Actuators)
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Article
Design and Characterization of a High-Precision Digital Electromagnetic Actuator with Four Discrete Positions
Actuators 2015, 4(4), 217-236; https://doi.org/10.3390/act4040217 - 21 Oct 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4648
Abstract
A high-precision planar digital electromagnetic actuator with two displacement directions and four discrete positions is presented in this paper. The four discrete positions are located at each corner of a square cavity where a mobile permanent magnet moves thanks to Lorentz forces generated [...] Read more.
A high-precision planar digital electromagnetic actuator with two displacement directions and four discrete positions is presented in this paper. The four discrete positions are located at each corner of a square cavity where a mobile permanent magnet moves thanks to Lorentz forces generated when a driving current passes through two orthogonal wires placed below the cavity. Four fixed permanent magnets are placed around the cavity in order to ensure high-precision magnetic holding of the mobile magnet at each discrete position. An analytical model of the actuator is presented and used to characterize its properties (switching time, energy consumption, and displaceable mass). Based on this model, an experimental prototype has been developed and then characterized. Comparisons between experimental and simulated results are carried out and show good agreement. The positioning repeatability errors have also been characterized according to the input signal in order to qualify the digital behavior of this high-precision actuator. Finally, an application of this digital actuator as a linear conveyor is presented and experimentally tested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Resolution Actuators)
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Article
Parameters Identification for a Composite Piezoelectric Actuator Dynamics
Actuators 2015, 4(1), 39-59; https://doi.org/10.3390/act4010039 - 17 Mar 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5157
Abstract
This work presents an approach for identifying the model of a composite piezoelectric (PZT) bimorph actuator dynamics, with the objective of creating a robust model that can be used under various operating conditions. This actuator exhibits nonlinear behavior that can be described using [...] Read more.
This work presents an approach for identifying the model of a composite piezoelectric (PZT) bimorph actuator dynamics, with the objective of creating a robust model that can be used under various operating conditions. This actuator exhibits nonlinear behavior that can be described using backlash and hysteresis. A linear dynamic model with a damping matrix that incorporates the Bouc–Wen hysteresis model and the backlash operators is developed. This work proposes identifying the actuator’s model parameters using the hybrid master-slave genetic algorithm neural network (HGANN). In this algorithm, the neural network exploits the ability of the genetic algorithm to search globally to optimize its structure, weights, biases and transfer functions to perform time series analysis efficiently. A total of nine datasets (cases) representing three different voltage amplitudes excited at three different frequencies are used to train and validate the model. Four cases are considered for training the NN architecture, connection weights, bias weights and learning rules. The remaining five cases are used to validate the model, which produced results that closely match the experimental ones. The analysis shows that damping parameters are inversely proportional to the excitation frequency. This indicates that the suggested hysteresis model is too general for the PZT model in this work. It also suggests that backlash appears only when dynamic forces become dominant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Resolution Actuators)
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