Actuators and Control of Intelligent Electric Vehicles

A special issue of Actuators (ISSN 2076-0825). This special issue belongs to the section "Actuators for Land Transport".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2024 | Viewed by 8062

Special Issue Editors

School of Transportation Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804, China
Interests: vehicle dynamics and control; steer-by-wire system; motion control for autonomous vehicles
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
School of Automotive Studies, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804, China
Interests: vehicle state estimation; dynamics control for autonomous vehicles
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan
Interests: in-wheel motor for electric vehicle; steer-by-wire system; motion control

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Guest Editor
School of Mechanical Engineering, Qinghai University, Xining, China
Interests: vehicle dynamics and control; motion control for autonomous vehicles
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The implementation of electrification and intelligence in automobiles has become a research hot spot in recent years. Intelligent electric vehicles (IEVs) are a transformative technology that is expected to change and improve the safety, comfort, efficiency, handling stability, and maneuverability of automobiles. As main functional components in IEVs, advanced actuators and control algorithms for steering, driving, and braking systems are of great importance. Advanced actuators yield different control frameworks and strategies for IEVs, such as anti-lock brake systems (ABS), autonomous emergency braking (AEB), electronic stability control (ESC), differential braking, active front steering (AFS), active rear steering (ARS), and active suspension systems (ASS). Thanks to advanced control frameworks and strategies, the performance of IEVs can be substantially improved.

This Special Issue welcomes papers on any aspect of advanced actuators for IEVs and the design of control algorithms. Topics of interest within the scope of this Special Issue include (but are not limited to):

  • X-by-wire actuators for IEVs;
  • Advanced actuators for steering, braking, and driving;
  • The control of active suspension systems;
  • Advanced control algorithms for IEVs;
  • Collaborative or shared control between human drivers and IEVs;
  • Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS);
  • The decision making, motion planning, and control of IEVs.

Dr. Peng Hang
Dr. Bo Leng
Dr. Wei Wang
Dr. Qiangqiang Yao
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Actuators is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • intelligent electric vehicle
  • in-wheel motor
  • close-to-wheel motor
  • electromechanical brake
  • electro-hydraulic brake
  • active suspension
  • steer-by-wire actuator
  • active steering actuator
  • rear-wheel steering actuator
  • four-wheel steering actuator

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 4113 KiB  
Article
Research on Variable Transmission Ratio Control Method to Improve Vehicle Handling Comfort Based on Steer-by-Wire System
by Jiaxin Lin, Feng Zhang, Liang Su, Guangji Song, Zhiwei Liu and Yong Zhang
Actuators 2024, 13(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/act13020048 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1263
Abstract
The steer-by-wire system severs the mechanical link between the steering wheel and the steering gear. This configuration enhances the angular transmission characteristics. Entering the nonlinear region of the tires could result in a reduction in the vehicle’s steering gain. In order to improve [...] Read more.
The steer-by-wire system severs the mechanical link between the steering wheel and the steering gear. This configuration enhances the angular transmission characteristics. Entering the nonlinear region of the tires could result in a reduction in the vehicle’s steering gain. In order to improve the comfort of vehicle steering operation, we have developed a variable transmission ratio controller for the steer-by-wire (SBW) system. This controller utilizes information on the vehicle speed and steering wheel angle to generate a variable transmission ratio coefficient, thereby adjusting the steering ratio. We introduce a multi-objective comprehensive evaluation index that takes into account vehicle lateral deviation, driver steering burden, vehicle stability, and safety. To harmonize the transmission ratio weights of constant steering gain, we employ the coefficient of variation method. Ultimately, a fuzzy neural network is employed to craft a nonlinear controller. We conducted steady-state circular motion tests, double lane-change tests, and step input tests to validate the performance of the variable transmission ratio control. The results suggest that, in comparison to conventional fixed transmission ratio systems, the variable transmission ratio control within the steer-by-wire system significantly alleviates the driver’s operational burden while enhancing the vehicle’s handling stability and safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Actuators and Control of Intelligent Electric Vehicles)
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26 pages, 1403 KiB  
Article
Design and Optimization of a Novel Electronic Mechanical Brake Actuator Based on Cam
by Zhoudong Yan, Xinbo Chen, Min Yan and Peng Hang
Actuators 2023, 12(8), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12080329 - 16 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1164
Abstract
The electronic mechanical brake (EMB) is considered an ideal actuator for brake-by-wire systems. We applied the negative radius roller cam mechanism as the clamping mechanism of the EMB, solving the problem of large size, poor load-bearing capacity, and the inefficiency of the existing [...] Read more.
The electronic mechanical brake (EMB) is considered an ideal actuator for brake-by-wire systems. We applied the negative radius roller cam mechanism as the clamping mechanism of the EMB, solving the problem of large size, poor load-bearing capacity, and the inefficiency of the existing EMBs. When designing a cam as a clamping transmission mechanism, it is necessary to take the pressure angle, contact stress, motion law, etc., as goals and constraints. Existing design methods cannot easily solve this problem. Therefore, we propose a new analysis method from the cam profile and combine it with an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to design the cam profiles. This method can handle various complex goals and constraints of the EMB and obtain the required negative radius roller cam profile. Finally, the logical consistency of the profile-based analysis method was verified, and the EMB design objectives and accuracy were compared using ADAMS. Under the same conditions, the result showed that the optimized cam mechanism requires only 40.52% motor power and only 65.65% clearance elimination time compared to the EMB with the lead screw mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Actuators and Control of Intelligent Electric Vehicles)
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12 pages, 4418 KiB  
Article
Clamping Force Control Strategy of Electro-Mechanical Brake System Using VUF-PID Controller
by Qiping Chen, Zongyu Lv, Haiyang Tong and Zuqi Xiong
Actuators 2023, 12(7), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12070272 - 03 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1860
Abstract
Clamping force control is one of the key technologies in the algorithm design and implementation of electro-mechanical braking system, whose control effects directly affect the vehicle braking performance and safety performance. In order to improve the clamping force control performance of electro-mechanical braking [...] Read more.
Clamping force control is one of the key technologies in the algorithm design and implementation of electro-mechanical braking system, whose control effects directly affect the vehicle braking performance and safety performance. In order to improve the clamping force control performance of electro-mechanical braking (EMB) system, an EMB clamping force control method based on Variable universe adaptive fuzzy PID (VUF-PID) controller is proposed, and stretching factors are added to the fuzzy PID control. According to the operation of the controlled object, the fuzzy theory domain can be adjusted in real time to keep the system in the proper parameter value and improve the adaptive ability of the system. The response characteristics and effectiveness of clamping force under step braking condition, gear switching braking condition and sine braking condition are verified by simulation experiments using MATLAB/Simulink. The results show that the proposed VUF-PID control method has strong tracking characteristics and stability characteristics, and meet the braking requirements under different braking conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Actuators and Control of Intelligent Electric Vehicles)
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21 pages, 2134 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Experimental Validation of the Performance of Electromechanical Height Adjustment Vehicle Suspension with Eccentric Mounted Screw System
by Sanjarbek Ruzimov, Luis M. Castellanos Molina, Renato Galluzzi, Raffaele Manca, Nicola Amati and Andrea Tonoli
Actuators 2023, 12(7), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12070264 - 28 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1223
Abstract
This paper describes the modeling and experimental validation of the performance of two height adjustment suspensions with concentrically and eccentrically mounted screws. In the former solution, an anti-rotation system is required for the generation of reaction torque on the power screw–nut mechanism. The [...] Read more.
This paper describes the modeling and experimental validation of the performance of two height adjustment suspensions with concentrically and eccentrically mounted screws. In the former solution, an anti-rotation system is required for the generation of reaction torque on the power screw–nut mechanism. The anti-rotation represents the main drawback of such mechanisms. In contrast, the eccentric solution attempts to solve this problem by placing the screw–nut mechanism eccentrically with respect to the shock absorber tube axis. In this paper, the working principle of the eccentric solution is explained. Its performance is compared to the concentric counterpart through simulations and experiments. Although the efficiencies of eccentric and concentric systems are very similar at the power screw, overall efficiencies differ substantially. During lifting, average efficiencies are around 3.4% and 6.5% for concentric and eccentric systems, respectively. When lowering, these values are 6.2% and 26%. The higher overall efficiency of the eccentric screw system is attributed to the anti-rotation system and the balancing of the bending moment due to the offset application of the load. To yield a complete perspective on the eccentric mounted screw solution, four prototypes are installed and tested on a demo vehicle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Actuators and Control of Intelligent Electric Vehicles)
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18 pages, 6156 KiB  
Article
A Practical Deceleration Control Method, Prototype Implementation and Test Verification for Rail Vehicles
by Tianhe Ma, Chun Tian, Mengling Wu, Jiajun Zhou and Yinhu Liu
Actuators 2023, 12(3), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/act12030128 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1629
Abstract
Currently, the theoretical braking force control mode, characterized by actual deceleration as an unstable open-loop output, is the most widely used brake control mode in trains. To overcome the shortcomings of non-deceleration control modes, a deceleration control mode is proposed to realize the [...] Read more.
Currently, the theoretical braking force control mode, characterized by actual deceleration as an unstable open-loop output, is the most widely used brake control mode in trains. To overcome the shortcomings of non-deceleration control modes, a deceleration control mode is proposed to realize the closed-loop control of train deceleration. First, a deceleration control algorithm based on parameter estimation was derived. Then, the deceleration control software logic was designed based on the existing braking system to meet the engineering requirements. Finally, the deceleration control algorithm was verified through a ground combination test bench with real brake control equipment and pneumatic brakes. The test results show that the deceleration control can make the actual braking deceleration of the train accurately track the target deceleration in the presence of disturbances, such as uncertain brake pad friction coefficients, line ramps, vehicle loads and braking force feedback errors, as well as their combined effects, and does not affect the original performance of the braking system. The average deceleration in the deceleration control mode is relatively stable, and the control error of instantaneous deceleration is smaller. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Actuators and Control of Intelligent Electric Vehicles)
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