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Taxonomy, Volume 1, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 11 articles

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10 pages, 775 KiB  
Article
An Extinct New Rail (Gallirallus, Aves: Rallidae) Species from Rapa Island, French Polynesia
by Rodrigo B. Salvador, Atholl Anderson and Alan J. D. Tennyson
Taxonomy 2021, 1(4), 448-457; https://doi.org/10.3390/taxonomy1040032 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 4676
Abstract
A new species of rail, Gallirallus astolfoi sp. nov., is described from Rapa Island (Rapa Iti), French Polynesia. The holotype (and single known specimen) is a left tarsometatarsus recovered from Tangarutu Cave. This rail species was apparently endemic to Rapa Iti and potentially [...] Read more.
A new species of rail, Gallirallus astolfoi sp. nov., is described from Rapa Island (Rapa Iti), French Polynesia. The holotype (and single known specimen) is a left tarsometatarsus recovered from Tangarutu Cave. This rail species was apparently endemic to Rapa Iti and potentially flightless. It became extinct after human colonisation of the island. Full article
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10 pages, 2720 KiB  
Article
A Brief Report of Five Newly Recorded Korean Modern Benthic Foraminiferal Species
by Somin Lee, Fabrizio Frontalini and Wonchoel Lee
Taxonomy 2021, 1(4), 438-447; https://doi.org/10.3390/taxonomy1040031 - 14 Dec 2021
Viewed by 2581
Abstract
The present study describes five newly recorded modern benthic foraminiferal species from the subtidal zone near Jeju Island and East China Sea (Korea). The newly recorded species (Karrerulina conversa, Rotaliammina trumbulli, Vertebralina striata, Pegidia dubia and Amphistegina radiata) [...] Read more.
The present study describes five newly recorded modern benthic foraminiferal species from the subtidal zone near Jeju Island and East China Sea (Korea). The newly recorded species (Karrerulina conversa, Rotaliammina trumbulli, Vertebralina striata, Pegidia dubia and Amphistegina radiata) belong to five families (Prolixoplectidae, Trochamminidae, Fischerinidae, Pegidiidae and Amphisteginidae), three orders (Lituolida, Miliolida and Rotaliida) and two classes (Globothalamea and Tubothalamea). All these five genera (Karrerulina, Rotaliammina, Vertebralina, Pegidia and Amphistegina) were also reported for the first time from Korean waters. Most of the examined specimens were highly consistent morphologically with previous records from southern China and Japan. Additionally, Amphistegina is one of the symbiont-bearing larger benthic foraminifera, known to be mainly distributed in tropical to warm subtropical waters. This study contributes to the expansion of data on the recent foraminiferal species diversity in Korean waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Taxonomy on Aquatic Life (TAL))
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13 pages, 12198 KiB  
Article
Disentangling the Taxonomic History of the Widespread and Overlooked Centric Diatom Stephanodiscus makarovae and Its Transfer to Cyclostephanos
by Konrad Schultz, Thomas Hübener, Mirko Dreßler, Olivier Jacques, Marcus Frank, Armin Springer and Anh Tu Van
Taxonomy 2021, 1(4), 425-437; https://doi.org/10.3390/taxonomy1040030 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2285
Abstract
Stephanodiscus makarovae, a taxon originally described from Russia, is morphologically similar to several other taxa within Cyclostephanos, namely C. invisitatus, C. delicatus and C. tholiformis. However, it has not yet been transferred into Cyclostephanos, perhaps due to the [...] Read more.
Stephanodiscus makarovae, a taxon originally described from Russia, is morphologically similar to several other taxa within Cyclostephanos, namely C. invisitatus, C. delicatus and C. tholiformis. However, it has not yet been transferred into Cyclostephanos, perhaps due to the difficulty in identifying it, as its original description is available only in the Russian language. To investigate its morphology, a detailed morphological comparison of S. makarovae and C. invisitatus was done from 286 SEM micrographs of 12 monoclonal strains. We performed a three-gene phylogenetic analysis with strains from eight additional taxa to independently confirm the position of S. makarovae. The morphology of S. makarovae shows key features of the genus Cyclostephanos and this attribution is supported by the phylogeny. Here we propose the transfer of the taxon S. makarovae to Cyclostephanos, considering the morphological and molecular data. According to both the molecular and morphological data, C. delicatus has a unique position within the genus; S. makarovae and C. invisitatus are morphologically very similar but genetically distinct. Furthermore, based upon the results, it was possible to reassign the authority of the transfer of S. delicatus into Cyclostephanos. Full article
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30 pages, 10650 KiB  
Article
A Synopsis of Croton (Euphorbiaceae) in Michoacán, Mexico
by Victor W. Steinmann
Taxonomy 2021, 1(4), 395-424; https://doi.org/10.3390/taxonomy1040029 - 29 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4038
Abstract
A taxonomic and nomenclatural review of the genus Croton (Euphorbiaceae) in the Mexican state of Michoacán is presented. Six sections and 20 species are here reported. The greatest diversity is in the Balsas Depression province, where at least 12 species occur. There is [...] Read more.
A taxonomic and nomenclatural review of the genus Croton (Euphorbiaceae) in the Mexican state of Michoacán is presented. Six sections and 20 species are here reported. The greatest diversity is in the Balsas Depression province, where at least 12 species occur. There is a strong tendency to thrive in tropical deciduous forest. An identification key is provided, and for each species, the following information is included: protologue citation, type information, habit, habitat, and elevation within the state, regional and global distribution, and phenology. Relevant synonyms are listed, as too are herbarium specimens. Lectotypes are designated for Croton draco, C. niveus, and C. calvescens. One species, Croton rojasii, is described as new and illustrated with photos. It is known only from tropical deciduous forest in the Zicuirán-Infiernillo Biosphere Reserve, at elevations from 400 to 700 m. It belongs to sect. Geiseleria and is remarkable because of the strongly unequal pistillate sepals, the larger of which becoming accrescent and exceeding the fruit. Full article
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21 pages, 7997 KiB  
Article
Description of New Ground Spider Species (Gnaphosidae, Araneae) from Mainland Greece
by Maria Chatzaki
Taxonomy 2021, 1(4), 374-394; https://doi.org/10.3390/taxonomy1040028 - 23 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2738
Abstract
In the course of an extensive sampling of ground spiders in mainland Greece, six new species, namely, Civizelotes akmon n.sp., Drassyllus centrohellenicus n.sp., Drassyllus covid n.sp., Drassyllus dadianus n.sp., Phaeocedus similaris n.sp., and Zeloteshistio n.sp., all belonging to the family Gnaphosidae Banks, [...] Read more.
In the course of an extensive sampling of ground spiders in mainland Greece, six new species, namely, Civizelotes akmon n.sp., Drassyllus centrohellenicus n.sp., Drassyllus covid n.sp., Drassyllus dadianus n.sp., Phaeocedus similaris n.sp., and Zeloteshistio n.sp., all belonging to the family Gnaphosidae Banks, 1892, were identified and are described. Furthermore, taxonomic comments on Civizelotes gracilis (Canestrini, 1868) and its relationship with C. pygmaeus (Miller, 1943), Drassyllus dadia Komnenov & Chatzaki, 2016, as well as on Zelotes olympi (Kulczyński, 1903) and its relationship with Z. talpinus (L. Koch, 1872) are provided. Drassodes omalosis Roewer, 1928 is removed from the synonymy of D. unicolor (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1872) and the species is revalidated. Full article
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14 pages, 2780 KiB  
Article
A New Species of Cyphocaris Boeck, 1871 (Amphipoda: Lysianassoidea: Cyphocarididae): Found off the Rocas Atoll, Northeastern Brazil
by Luiz F. Andrade, Flávio A. Alves-Júnior, Arnaud Bertrand and André R. Senna
Taxonomy 2021, 1(4), 360-373; https://doi.org/10.3390/taxonomy1040027 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2570
Abstract
A new species of the genus Cyphocaris Boeck, 1871, is described. The material examined was collected during the “Acoustics along the Brazilian Coast” (Abraços 1) project, by micronektonic trawls at a targeted depth of 525 m, off the Rocas Atoll, Rio Grande do [...] Read more.
A new species of the genus Cyphocaris Boeck, 1871, is described. The material examined was collected during the “Acoustics along the Brazilian Coast” (Abraços 1) project, by micronektonic trawls at a targeted depth of 525 m, off the Rocas Atoll, Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. Cyphocaris boecki sp. nov. can be grouped with the eyed species in the genus but differs from them—except for C. faurei K. H. Barnard, 1916 and C. latirama, Hendrycks & Conlan, 2003—in presenting a dorsally smooth pereonite 1. However, the new species can be distinguished from both by its maxilliped inner plate with two robust apical setae, pereopod 7 basis with weakly produced posterodistal lobe, telson lobes without setae, spines or apical nails, and other characters that are individually discussed among them. The new species can be readily differentiated from C. pedroi Sorrentino, Alves, Johnsson & Senna, 2016, also described from Brazil, by presenting eyes, a rounded lateral cephalic lobe, very elongated antenna 2 almost reaching body length, and pereopod 5 basis, with apically acute spur reaching about two-thirds of the propodus. This is the second record of the genus for Brazilian waters. Full article
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15 pages, 3718 KiB  
Article
Ceratozamia dominguezii (Zamiaceae): A New Cycad Species from Southeastern Mexico
by Miguel Angel Pérez-Farrera, José Said Gutiérrez-Ortega, Andrew P. Vovides, Michael Calonje and Pedro Díaz-Jiménez
Taxonomy 2021, 1(4), 345-359; https://doi.org/10.3390/taxonomy1040026 - 14 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3922
Abstract
Ceratozamia dominguezii (Zamiaceae), a new species endemic to the lowland karstic tropical rainforests of southeastern Veracruz, Mexico, is described. The new species is part of the C. robusta species complex, a group of closely related species that share unique characteristics in the genus, [...] Read more.
Ceratozamia dominguezii (Zamiaceae), a new species endemic to the lowland karstic tropical rainforests of southeastern Veracruz, Mexico, is described. The new species is part of the C. robusta species complex, a group of closely related species that share unique characteristics in the genus, such as robust trunks, large strobili, and long leaves. Compared with the other species in the complex (i.e., C. robusta, C. leptoceras, C. aurantiaca and C. subroseophylla), C. dominguezii has the longest rachides, and is characterized by having papyraceous leaflets, a unique caramel color in emerging leaves, and a dark-violet color in the central portion of distal faces of male and female sporophylls. Ceratozamia dominguezii occurs within the Uxpanapa floristic refuge, which is hypothesized to have sheltered a numerous group of tropical elements during the Neogene glaciations. The recognition of C. dominguezii contributes to clarifying the present diversity of cycads in the genus Ceratozamia, and adds discussion on the role of floristic refugia in the divergence of Neotropical plants in Mexico. Full article
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32 pages, 10927 KiB  
Article
Comparative Morphology, Phylogeny, Classification and Evolution of Interstitial Habits in Microcambevine Catfishes (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae)
by Wilson J. E. M. Costa and Axel M. Katz
Taxonomy 2021, 1(4), 313-344; https://doi.org/10.3390/taxonomy1040025 - 11 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3575
Abstract
The Microcambevinae are a catfish subfamily endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, comprising rare species with interstitial habits. Microcambevines have been classified in two genera, Listrura and Microcambeva, but the relationships among included intrageneric lineages are still poorly understood. The objectives of [...] Read more.
The Microcambevinae are a catfish subfamily endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, comprising rare species with interstitial habits. Microcambevines have been classified in two genera, Listrura and Microcambeva, but the relationships among included intrageneric lineages are still poorly understood. The objectives of this study are to conduct a phylogenetic analysis integrating morphological characters and a multigene dataset, and to propose a classification better reflecting morphological diversity and phylogenetic relationships. Phylogenetic analyses combining 57 morphological characters and a 2563 bp molecular dataset generated similar phylogenetic trees with high support values for most clades, including the two genera and some intrageneric groups. Six morphologically distinctive infrageneric lineages, three in Listrura and three in Microcambeva, are classified as subgenera, as well as two new species are described. The morphological diversity here recorded integrated to available information about habitat indicate high level of divergent specialisation among lineages. The analyses indicate a series of convergent morphological traits between Listrura and other teleosts sharing a fossorial lifestyle, as well as specialised traits independently occurring within Listrura lineages. Similarly, a great diversity of morphological traits occurs convergently in Microcambeva lineages and other teleosts sharing psammophilic habits. This study shows that combining molecular and morphological data yields well-supported phylogenies, making possible to unambiguously diagnose clades and to establish evolutionary hypothesis on morphological evolution. Full article
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11 pages, 9189 KiB  
Article
An Extraordinary Rosette and Resurrection New Spikemoss, Selaginella iridescens (Selaginellaceae) from Hainan Island, China
by Jie Yang, Meng-Hua Zhang, Ya-Rong Wang, Lang-Xing Yuan and Xian-Chun Zhang
Taxonomy 2021, 1(4), 302-312; https://doi.org/10.3390/taxonomy1040024 - 5 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3082
Abstract
Selaginella iridescens (Selaginellaceae), a new species of spikemoss from Hainan Island, China, is described based on morphological and molecular evidence. The new species morphologically resembles S. pseudotamariscina from Vietnam which was recently recognized and segregated from S. tamariscina and S. pulvinata. Some [...] Read more.
Selaginella iridescens (Selaginellaceae), a new species of spikemoss from Hainan Island, China, is described based on morphological and molecular evidence. The new species morphologically resembles S. pseudotamariscina from Vietnam which was recently recognized and segregated from S. tamariscina and S. pulvinata. Some characters of S. iridescens, including the iridescent leaves and long arista (0.35–1.20 mm long), the widely membranaceous margin of axillary leaves (ca. 2/3), dorsal leaves sulcate extending to the top, and slender main stem, dorsoventrally prostrate, distinguish it from S. pseudotamariscina. Phylogenetic results based on rbcL of 28 Selaginella species indicate that S. iridescens is sister to S. pseudotamariscina, and distant from the S. tamariscina-S.pulvinata clade. The ancestral character reconstruction result reveals that the rosette is apomorphic and has evolved independently at least six times in Selaginella. Full article
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12 pages, 1644 KiB  
Article
Cytogeography of the Solidago rugosa Mill. Complex (Asteraceae: Astereae) in Eastern North America
by John C. Semple, Jie Zhang, Rachel E. Cook and Bambang Agus Suripto
Taxonomy 2021, 1(4), 290-301; https://doi.org/10.3390/taxonomy1040023 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2094
Abstract
Chromosome numbers are reported here for the first time from 117 individuals of Solidago rugosa and S. fistulosa. Including 178 previously published reports for the two species plus S. latissimifolia, chromosome numbers have been determined from 295 individuals from 269 locations. [...] Read more.
Chromosome numbers are reported here for the first time from 117 individuals of Solidago rugosa and S. fistulosa. Including 178 previously published reports for the two species plus S. latissimifolia, chromosome numbers have been determined from 295 individuals from 269 locations. Only diploids (2n = 18) were found throughout the range of S. fistulosa on the coastal plain in the eastern U.S.A. (44 counts). Diploids (2n = 18) were found in the northern portion of the range of S. latissimifolia, and tetraploids (2n = 36) and hexaploids (2n = 54) were found in the central and southern portions of the range (nine counts in total). Diploids (2n = 18) were found throughout the range of S. rugosa in much of eastern North America in four of the five varieties (northern var. rugosa, var. sphagnophila; southern var. aspera and var. celtidifolia). Tetraploids (2n = 36) were found in all four of these varieties and exclusively in var. cronquistiana in the southern high Appalachian Mountains. Hexaploids (2n = 54) were found in var. sphagnophila at scattered locations. One possible hexaploid in var. rugosa was found in the Allegheny Mountains. The diversity in ploidy levels was independent of the size of the range and the diversity of growing conditions among the three species of S. subsect. Venosae. Full article
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12 pages, 3403 KiB  
Article
Description of a New Scaled Species of Ptychostomella (Gastrotricha: Macrodasyida) from the Brazilian Coast and a Cladistics Analysis of the Genus
by Thiago Q. Araújo and André R. S. Garraffoni
Taxonomy 2021, 1(4), 278-289; https://doi.org/10.3390/taxonomy1040022 - 8 Oct 2021
Viewed by 2127
Abstract
A new species of marine Gastrotricha from the north coast of São Paulo state, Brazil, is described. Adults of Ptychostomella sebastiana sp. nov. are unique in that they possess a pair of dorsolateral “rod-like” cephalic sensory organs and subrectangular scales covering the lateral [...] Read more.
A new species of marine Gastrotricha from the north coast of São Paulo state, Brazil, is described. Adults of Ptychostomella sebastiana sp. nov. are unique in that they possess a pair of dorsolateral “rod-like” cephalic sensory organs and subrectangular scales covering the lateral body surfaces. A cladistic analysis was performed to investigate the internal relationship of the representatives of the taxa based on morphological data. Our analysis supported the monophyly of the taxon Ptychostomella, but its internal phylogenetic relationships are not well established due to the low phylogenetic signal of morphological characters used in the present study. Full article
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