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Radiation, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2022) – 3 articles

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Commentary
COVID-19 Update: The Golden Time Window for Pharmacological Treatments and Low Dose Radiation Therapy
Radiation 2022, 2(3), 268-272; https://doi.org/10.3390/radiation2030020 - 20 Jul 2022
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Abstract
At the beginning of the COVID-19 emergence, many scientists believed that, thanks to the proofreading enzyme of SARS-CoV-2, the virus would not have many mutations. Our team introduced the concept of radiation at extremely low doses in an attempt to establish selected pressure-free [...] Read more.
At the beginning of the COVID-19 emergence, many scientists believed that, thanks to the proofreading enzyme of SARS-CoV-2, the virus would not have many mutations. Our team introduced the concept of radiation at extremely low doses in an attempt to establish selected pressure-free treatment approaches for COVID-19. The capacity of low-dose radiation to modulate excessive inflammatory responses, optimize the immune system, prevent the occurrence of dangerous cytokine storm, regulate lymphocyte counts, and control bacterial co-infections as well as different modalities were proposed as a treatment program for patients with severe COVID-19-associated pneumonia. There is now substantial evidence which indicates that it would be unwise not to further investigate low-dose radiation therapy (LDRT) as an effective remedy against COVID-19-associated pneumonia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Radiation 2022)
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Brief Report
MR-LINAC-Guided Adaptive Radiotherapy for Gastric MALT: Two Case Reports and a Literature Review
Radiation 2022, 2(3), 259-267; https://doi.org/10.3390/radiation2030019 - 13 Jul 2022
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Abstract
It is still very challenging to use conventional radiation therapy techniques to treat stomach tumors, although image-guided radiotherapy, mainly by kV X-ray imaging techniques, has become routine in the clinic. This is because the stomach is one of the most deformable organs, and [...] Read more.
It is still very challenging to use conventional radiation therapy techniques to treat stomach tumors, although image-guided radiotherapy, mainly by kV X-ray imaging techniques, has become routine in the clinic. This is because the stomach is one of the most deformable organs, and thus it is vulnerable to respiratory motions, daily diet, and body position changes. In addition, X-ray radiographs and CT volumetric images have low contrast in soft tissues. In contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide good contrast in images of soft tissues. The emerging MR-guided radiotherapy, based on the MR-LINAC system, may have the potential to solve the above difficulties due to its unique advantages. The real-time imaging feature and the high-contrast of soft tissues MR images provided by the MR-LINAC system have facilitated the therapeutic adaptive planning. Online learning capabilities could be used to optimize the automatic delineation of the target organ or tissue prior to each radiotherapy session. This could greatly improve the accuracy and efficiency of the target delineation in adaptive planning. In this clinical case report, we elaborated a workflow for the diagnosis and treatment of two patients with gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. One patient underwent MR-guided daily adaptive radiotherapy based on daily automated segmentation using the novel artificial intelligence (AI) technique for gastric delineation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Approaches for Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy)
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Article
Validation of a Saliency Map for Assessing Image Quality in Nuclear Medicine: Experimental Study Outcomes
Radiation 2022, 2(3), 248-258; https://doi.org/10.3390/radiation2030018 - 01 Jul 2022
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Abstract
Recently, the use of saliency maps to evaluate the image quality of nuclear medicine images has been reported. However, that study only compared qualitative visual evaluations and did not perform a quantitative assessment. The study’s aim was to demonstrate the possibility of using [...] Read more.
Recently, the use of saliency maps to evaluate the image quality of nuclear medicine images has been reported. However, that study only compared qualitative visual evaluations and did not perform a quantitative assessment. The study’s aim was to demonstrate the possibility of using saliency maps (calculated from intensity and flicker) to assess nuclear medicine image quality by comparison with the evaluator’s gaze data obtained from an eye-tracking device. We created 972 positron emission tomography images by changing the position of the hot sphere, imaging time, and number of iterations in the iterative reconstructions. Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the saliency map calculated from each image and the evaluator’s gaze data during image presentation was calculated. A strong correlation (r ≥ 0.94) was observed between the saliency map (intensity) and the evaluator’s gaze data. This trend was also observed in images obtained from a clinical device. For short acquisition times, the gaze to the hot sphere position was higher for images with fewer iterations during the iterative reconstruction. However, no differences in iterations were found when the acquisition time increased. Saliency by flicker could be applied to clinical images without preprocessing, although compared with the gaze image, it increased slowly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation in the Human Life—Environment and Medical Use)
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