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Hydrogen, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2023) – 13 articles

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19 pages, 3391 KiB  
Article
CO Removal from Hydrogen Stream through Methanation on Ru/C Catalysts Doped with Lanthanum and Barium
by Elżbieta Truszkiewicz, Aleksandra Bielecka, Ewa M. Iwanek (nee Wilczkowska), Milena Ojrzyńska and Andrzej Ostrowski
Hydrogen 2023, 4(2), 389-407; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrogen4020027 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1533
Abstract
The influence of the lanthanum and barium addition on the physicochemical properties and catalytic behavior of the Ru/C catalyst for CO methanation was investigated. The catalyst was doped with La or with La plus Ba. It was found out that there are various [...] Read more.
The influence of the lanthanum and barium addition on the physicochemical properties and catalytic behavior of the Ru/C catalyst for CO methanation was investigated. The catalyst was doped with La or with La plus Ba. It was found out that there are various ways the additives were applied in the study, thus changing the catalytic performance of the basic material and influencing the susceptibility of the carbon support in relation to undesired methanation. The highest catalytic activity, 23.46 (mmol CO/gC+Ru × h), was achieved for the LaRu/C system, with methane selectivity exceeding 80% over the whole temperature range. Ba addition caused a significant decrease in activity. TG-MS studies revealed that both La and Ba improved the resistance of the carbon support to undesired methanation. Detailed characterization methods, employing XRPD, Raman spectroscopy, CO chemisorption, and SEM-EDX, showed that the catalytic behavior of the studied catalysts was attributed to lanthanum distribution over the Ru/C materials surface and structural changes in the carbon support affecting electron supply to the metallic active phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrogen Production Processes)
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16 pages, 3056 KiB  
Article
Gasification of Lower Monohydric Alcohols by Solution Plasma Treatment and Its Reaction Mechanism
by Takaki Miyamoto, Eiji Minami and Haruo Kawamoto
Hydrogen 2023, 4(2), 373-388; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrogen4020026 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1159
Abstract
Solution plasma is a gas-phase discharge in the vapor bubbles in a solution and has the potential to efficiently produce H2 by decomposing aqueous alcohols. However, the mechanism of alcohol decomposition in solution plasma remains unclear. In this study, lower monohydric alcohols [...] Read more.
Solution plasma is a gas-phase discharge in the vapor bubbles in a solution and has the potential to efficiently produce H2 by decomposing aqueous alcohols. However, the mechanism of alcohol decomposition in solution plasma remains unclear. In this study, lower monohydric alcohols (methanol and ethanol, as well as 1- and 2-propanol) were treated in solution plasma, and in this paper, the gasification mechanism is discussed. The gases produced from these alcohols were mainly H2 and CO, with small ratios of C1–C3 hydrocarbons. Thus, the O/C ratio in the product gas was close to 1 for all alcohols, and most of the C atoms in the alcohols were bonded to O atoms. This excess of O atoms could have only come from water, suggesting a strong contribution of OH radicals from water for gasification. However, the C1–C3 hydrocarbons were produced solely by the decomposition of the alcohol. For both decomposition routes, possible reaction pathways are proposed that are consistent with the experimental facts such as the composition of the product gas and the intermediates detected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Hydrogen (Volume 2))
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16 pages, 6031 KiB  
Article
Natural Gas Pyrolysis in a Liquid Metal Bubble Column Reaction System—Part II: Pyrolysis Experiments and Discussion
by Christoph Michael Hofberger, Benjamin Dietrich, Inés Durán Vera, Ralf Krumholz, Leonid Stoppel, Neele Uhlenbruck and Thomas Wetzel
Hydrogen 2023, 4(2), 357-372; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrogen4020025 - 9 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 6888
Abstract
This contribution presents the results of continued investigations on the production of hydrogen by means of pyrolysis in a liquid metal bubble column reactor, as developed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology in recent years. Part I of this contribution described the motivation [...] Read more.
This contribution presents the results of continued investigations on the production of hydrogen by means of pyrolysis in a liquid metal bubble column reactor, as developed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology in recent years. Part I of this contribution described the motivation and the methodology of this study, as well as a significant scale-up, and discussed its results for pure methane pyrolysis. Here in part II, two additional experimental campaigns with methane–ethane mixtures (MEMs) and high-calorific natural gas (nGH) will be presented and discussed for the first time, using the up-scaled liquid metal bubble column reactor. It could be proven that an MEM as the feed gas led to an increase in methane conversion at low temperatures, which is consistent with the literature data. The nGH pyrolysis confirms this trend and also results in a significant rise in methane conversion compared to pure methane pyrolysis. Furthermore, the nGH pyrolysis leads to an increased methane conversion even at higher temperatures compared to MEM pyrolysis. Additionally, both MEM and nGH pyrolysis also showed a shift in the formation of by-products toward lower temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrogen Production Processes)
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19 pages, 1153 KiB  
Article
LCA Analysis Decarbonisation Potential of Aluminium Primary Production by Applying Hydrogen and CCUS Technologies
by Antonis Peppas, Chrysa Politi, Sotiris Kottaridis and Maria Taxiarchou
Hydrogen 2023, 4(2), 338-356; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrogen4020024 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2496
Abstract
The energy intensity and high emissions of extractive industries bring a major need for decarbonisation actions. In 2021, extraction and primary processing of metals and minerals were responsible for 4.5 Gt of equivalent CO2. The aluminium industry specifically accounted for total [...] Read more.
The energy intensity and high emissions of extractive industries bring a major need for decarbonisation actions. In 2021, extraction and primary processing of metals and minerals were responsible for 4.5 Gt of equivalent CO2. The aluminium industry specifically accounted for total emissions of 1.1 Gt CO2 eq. per year. Reaching the European milestone of zero emissions by 2050, requires a 3% annual reduction. To achieve this, the industry has searched for innovative solutions, considering the treatment of emitted CO2 with techniques such as Carbon Capture Utilisation and Storage (CCUS), or the prevention of CO2 formation on the first place by utilising alternative fuels such as hydrogen (H2). This study aims to comprehensively compare the overall environmental performance of different strategies for addressing not only greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction potential, but also emissions to air in general, as well as freshwater and terrestrial ecotoxicity, which are commonly overlooked. Specifically, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is conducted, analysing four scenarios for primary Al production, utilising (1) a combination of fossil fuels, specifically Natural Gas (NG), Light Fuel Oil (LFO) and Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) (conventional approach); (2) carbon capture and geological storage; (3) Carbon Capture and Utilisation (CCU) for methanol (MeOH) production and (4) green H2, replacing NG. The results show that green H2 replacing NG is the most environmentally beneficial option, accounting for a 10.76% reduction in Global Warming Potential (GWP) and 1.26% in Photochemical Ozone Formation (POF), while all other impact categories were lower compared to CCUS. The results offer a comprehensive overview to support decision-makers in comparing the overall environmental impact and the emission reduction potential of the different solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Hydrogen (Volume 2))
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15 pages, 3073 KiB  
Article
Geochemical Effects on Storage Gases and Reservoir Rock during Underground Hydrogen Storage: A Depleted North Sea Oil Reservoir Case Study
by Motaz Saeed, Prashant Jadhawar and Stefano Bagala
Hydrogen 2023, 4(2), 323-337; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrogen4020023 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2908
Abstract
In this work, geochemical modelling using PhreeqC was carried out to evaluate the effects of geochemical reactions on the performance of underground hydrogen storage (UHS). Equilibrium, exchange, and mineral reactions were considered in the model. Moreover, reaction kinetics were considered to evaluate the [...] Read more.
In this work, geochemical modelling using PhreeqC was carried out to evaluate the effects of geochemical reactions on the performance of underground hydrogen storage (UHS). Equilibrium, exchange, and mineral reactions were considered in the model. Moreover, reaction kinetics were considered to evaluate the geochemical effect on underground hydrogen storage over an extended period of 30 years. The developed model was first validated against experimental data adopted from the published literature by comparing the modelling and literature values of H2 and CO2 solubility in water at varying conditions. Furthermore, the effects of pressure, temperature, salinity, and CO2% on the H2 and CO2 inventory and rock properties in a typical sandstone reservoir were evaluated over 30 years. Results show that H2 loss over 30 years is negligible (maximum 2%) through the studied range of conditions. The relative loss of CO2 is much more pronounced compared to H2 gas, with losses of up to 72%. Therefore, the role of CO2 as a cushion gas will be affected by the CO2 gas losses as time passes. Hence, remedial CO2 gas injections should be considered to maintain the reservoir pressure throughout the injection and withdrawal processes. Moreover, the relative volume of CO2 increases with the increase in temperature and decrease in pressure. Furthermore, the reservoir rock properties, porosity, and permeability, are affected by the underground hydrogen storage process and, more specifically, by the presence of CO2 gas. CO2 dissolves carbonate minerals inside the reservoir rock, causing an increase in the rock’s porosity and permeability. Consequently, the rock’s gas storage capacity and flow properties are enhanced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrogen Generation, Storage, and Utilization)
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16 pages, 1362 KiB  
Review
Preventing Hydrogen Embrittlement: The Role of Barrier Coatings for the Hydrogen Economy
by Marcel Wetegrove, Maria Jazmin Duarte, Klaus Taube, Martin Rohloff, Hariprasad Gopalan, Christina Scheu, Gerhard Dehm and Angela Kruth
Hydrogen 2023, 4(2), 307-322; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrogen4020022 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 7822
Abstract
Hydrogen barrier coatings are protective layers consisting of materials with a low intrinsic hydrogen diffusivity and solubility, showing the potential to delay, reduce or hinder hydrogen permeation. Hydrogen barrier coatings are expected to enable steels, which are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement, specifically cost-effective [...] Read more.
Hydrogen barrier coatings are protective layers consisting of materials with a low intrinsic hydrogen diffusivity and solubility, showing the potential to delay, reduce or hinder hydrogen permeation. Hydrogen barrier coatings are expected to enable steels, which are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement, specifically cost-effective low alloy-steels or light-weight high-strength steels, for applications in a hydrogen economy. Predominantly, ceramic coating materials have been investigated for this purpose, including oxides, nitrides and carbides. In this review, the state of the art with respect to hydrogen permeation is discussed for a variety of coatings. Al2O3, TiAlN and TiC appear to be the most promising candidates from a large pool of ceramic materials. Coating methods are compared with respect to their ability to produce layers with suitable quality and their potential for scaling up for industrial use. Different setups for the characterisation of hydrogen permeability are discussed, using both gaseous hydrogen and hydrogen originating from an electrochemical reaction. Finally, possible pathways for improvement and optimisation of hydrogen barrier coatings are outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Hydrogen (Volume 2))
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12 pages, 1354 KiB  
Article
Natural Gas Pyrolysis in a Liquid Metal Bubble Column Reaction System—Part I: Experimental Setup and Methods
by Christoph Michael Hofberger, Benjamin Dietrich, Inés Durán Vera, Ralf Krumholz, Leonid Stoppel, Neele Uhlenbruck and Thomas Wetzel
Hydrogen 2023, 4(2), 295-306; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrogen4020021 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 8091
Abstract
Hydrogen is not only an important industrial chemical but also an energy carrier with increasing demand. However, the current production techniques are based on technologies that result in massive CO2 emissions. In contrast, the pyrolysis of alkanes in a liquid metal bubble [...] Read more.
Hydrogen is not only an important industrial chemical but also an energy carrier with increasing demand. However, the current production techniques are based on technologies that result in massive CO2 emissions. In contrast, the pyrolysis of alkanes in a liquid metal bubble column reactor does not lead to direct CO2 emissions. In order to transfer this technology from lab-scale to industrial applications, it has to be scaled up and the influences of the most common constituent of natural gas on the pyrolysis process have to be determined. For this study, the liquid metal bubble column technology developed at the KIT was scaled up by a factor of 3.75, referred to as the reactor volume. In this article, the experimental setup containing the reactor is described in detail. In addition, new methods for the evaluation of experimental data will be presented. The reactor, as well as the experimental results from pure methane pyrolysis (PM), will be compared to the previous generation of reactors in terms of methane conversion. It could be proven that scaling up the reactor volume did not result in a decrease in methane conversion. For part II of this publication, methane-ethane (MEM) gas mixtures and high calorific natural gas (nGH) were pyrolyzed, and the results were discussed on the basis of the present part I. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrogen Production Processes)
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8 pages, 269 KiB  
Communication
Nuclear Motion Is Classical: Spectra of Hydrogen Chloride and Ammonia
by Irmgard Frank
Hydrogen 2023, 4(2), 287-294; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrogen4020020 - 15 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1189
Abstract
The concept of classical nuclear motion is extremely successful in describing motion at the atomic scale. In describing chemical reactions, it is even far more convincing than the picture obtained by using the Schrödinger equation for time development. However, this theory must be [...] Read more.
The concept of classical nuclear motion is extremely successful in describing motion at the atomic scale. In describing chemical reactions, it is even far more convincing than the picture obtained by using the Schrödinger equation for time development. However, this theory must be subject to critical tests. In particular, it must be checked if vibrational and rotational spectra are obtained correctly. Particularly critical are the spectra of small molecules containing the light hydrogen atom, since they have a distinctive rotational structure. The present study presents computations of the spectra of ammonia and hydrogen chloride using ab initio molecular dynamics, that is, by describing nuclear motion classically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Hydrogen (Volume 2))
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15 pages, 2163 KiB  
Article
Process Assessment of Integrated Hydrogen Production from By-Products of Cottonseed Oil-Based Biodiesel as a Circular Economy Approach
by Dhyna Analyes Trirahayu, Akhmad Zainal Abidin, Ridwan P. Putra, Firda Dwita Putri, Achmad Syarif Hidayat and Muhammad Iqbal Perdana
Hydrogen 2023, 4(2), 272-286; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrogen4020019 - 8 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2209
Abstract
Cottonseed oil (CSO) is well known as one of the commercial cooking oils. However, CSO still needs to compete with other edible oils available in the market due to its small production scale and high processing cost, which makes it a potential candidate [...] Read more.
Cottonseed oil (CSO) is well known as one of the commercial cooking oils. However, CSO still needs to compete with other edible oils available in the market due to its small production scale and high processing cost, which makes it a potential candidate as a feedstock for biodiesel production. To date, transesterification is the most widely applied technique in the conversion of vegetable oil to biodiesel, with glycerol produced as a by-product. Large-scale biodiesel production also implies that more glycerol will be produced, which can be further utilized to synthesize hydrogen via the steam reforming route. Therefore here, an integrated biodiesel and hydrogen production from CSO was simulated using Aspen Hysys v11. Simulation results showed that the produced biodiesel has good characteristics compared to standard biodiesel. An optimum steam-to-glycerol ratio for hydrogen production was found to be 4.5, with higher reaction temperatures up to 750 °C resulting in higher hydrogen yield and selectivity. In addition, a simple economic analysis of this study showed that the integrated process is economically viable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrogen Production Processes)
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15 pages, 3661 KiB  
Article
Design and Scale-Up of Zero-Gap AEM Water Electrolysers for Hydrogen Production
by Adeline Loh, Xiaohong Li, Soraya Sluijter, Paige Shirvanian, Qingxue Lai and Yanyu Liang
Hydrogen 2023, 4(2), 257-271; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrogen4020018 - 4 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 6310
Abstract
The design of a 10 cm2 (3.4 cm by 3.4 cm) and a 100 cm2 (10 cm by 10 cm) anion exchange membrane (AEM) water electrolyser cell for hydrogen production are described. The AEM cells are based on a zero-gap configuration [...] Read more.
The design of a 10 cm2 (3.4 cm by 3.4 cm) and a 100 cm2 (10 cm by 10 cm) anion exchange membrane (AEM) water electrolyser cell for hydrogen production are described. The AEM cells are based on a zero-gap configuration where the AEM is sandwiched between the anode and cathode so as to minimise voltage drop between the electrodes. Nonprecious nickel-based metal alloy and metal oxide catalysts were employed. Various experiments were carried out to understand the effects of operating parameters such as current densities, electrolyte concentrations, and testing regimes on the performance of both 10 cm2 and 100 cm2 AEM electrolyser cells. Increasing electrolyte concentration was seen to result in reductions in overpotentials which were proportional to current applied, whilst the use of catalysts improved performance consistently over the range of current densities tested. Extended galvanostatic and intermittent tests were demonstrated on both 10 cm2 and 100 cm2 cells, with higher voltage efficiencies achieved with the use of electrocatalysts. Stability tests in the 100 cm2 AEM electrolyser cell assembled with catalyst-coated electrodes demonstrated that the cell voltages remained stable at 2.03 V and 2.17 V during 72 h operation in 4 M KOH and 1 M KOH electrolyte, respectively, at a current density of 0.3 A cm−2 at 323 K. The inclusion of cycling load tests in testing protocols is emphasized for rational evaluation of cell performance as this was observed to speed up the rate of degradation mechanisms such as membrane degradation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrogen Generation, Storage, and Utilization)
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20 pages, 4484 KiB  
Article
A Case Study Approach: Summary of Some Results on the Effects of Hydrogen Exposure on the Mechanical Properties of Palladium and the Alloy Systems Pd1−xMx, M = Ag, Cu, Mn; x = 5 − 0.25
by Andrew Craft
Hydrogen 2023, 4(2), 237-256; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrogen4020017 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 7567
Abstract
Selected results of investigations focused on the changes to some mechanical properties of palladium and several palladium-based alloys caused by exposure to hydrogen have been collected and presented. The findings indicate that the mechanical properties of pure palladium are highly susceptible to alteration [...] Read more.
Selected results of investigations focused on the changes to some mechanical properties of palladium and several palladium-based alloys caused by exposure to hydrogen have been collected and presented. The findings indicate that the mechanical properties of pure palladium are highly susceptible to alteration upon exposure to hydrogen. In the cases of alloying palladium with silver and copper, the alloys, as compared to palladium, appear to resist changes to mechanical properties. In the case of alloying palladium with manganese, the interesting order–disorder phenomenon plays an important role on the effects of hydrogen exposure on their mechanical properties. Full article
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11 pages, 3119 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Microscale Periodic Ni-Mg-Ni-Mg Film Structures as Metal-Hydride Hydrogen Accumulators
by Alexander G. Ivanov, Dmitri A. Karpov, Evgeniy S. Chebukov and Michael I. Yurchenkov
Hydrogen 2023, 4(2), 226-236; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrogen4020016 - 24 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1262
Abstract
Here, the authors report the results of their study on the key characteristics of microscale periodic Ni-Mg-Ni-Mg film structures as metal-hydride hydrogen accumulators, namely, the microstructure, phase state, operation temperatures and rate of the sorption/desorption processes, complete and reversible mass content of hydrogen, [...] Read more.
Here, the authors report the results of their study on the key characteristics of microscale periodic Ni-Mg-Ni-Mg film structures as metal-hydride hydrogen accumulators, namely, the microstructure, phase state, operation temperatures and rate of the sorption/desorption processes, complete and reversible mass content of hydrogen, and enthalpy of metal hydrides’ phase-formation. The study has shown that hydride-formation films can be saturated with up to 7.0–7.5 wt.% of hydrogen at pressures up to 30 atm and temperatures of 200–250 °C, with a reversible amount of stored hydrogen up to 3.4 wt.% during its desorption at a pressure of 1 atm and temperatures of 250–300 °C with the phase-formation enthalpy in the range of 19.8–46.7 kJ/mol H2 depending on the nickel content (the thickness of the nickel layer). Structural and constructive schemes are proposed for film metal-hydride hydrogen accumulators for various applications of the hydrogen power industry. Full article
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16 pages, 1673 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Hydrogen Blend Stability in Low-Pressure Gas Distribution
by Pradheep Kileti, Brian Barkwill, Vincent Spiteri, Christopher Cavanagh and Devinder Mahajan
Hydrogen 2023, 4(2), 210-225; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrogen4020015 - 14 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2832
Abstract
Natural gas distribution companies are developing ambitious plans to decarbonize the services that they provide in an affordable manner and are accelerating plans for the strategic integration of renewable natural gas and the blending of green hydrogen produced by electrolysis, powered with renewable [...] Read more.
Natural gas distribution companies are developing ambitious plans to decarbonize the services that they provide in an affordable manner and are accelerating plans for the strategic integration of renewable natural gas and the blending of green hydrogen produced by electrolysis, powered with renewable electricity being developed from large new commitments by states such as New York and Massachusetts. The demonstration and deployment of hydrogen blending have been proposed broadly at 20% of hydrogen by volume. The safe distribution of hydrogen blends in existing networks requires hydrogen blends to exhibit similar behavior as current supplies, which are also mixtures of several hydrocarbons and inert gases. There has been limited research on the properties of blended hydrogen in low-pressure natural gas distribution systems. Current natural gas mixtures are known to be sufficiently stable in terms of a lack of chemical reaction between constituents and to remain homogeneous through compression and distribution. Homogeneous mixtures are required, both to ensure safe operation of customer-owned equipment and for safety operations, such as leak detection. To evaluate the stability of mixtures of hydrogen and natural gas, National Grid experimentally tested a simulated distribution natural gas pipeline with blends containing hydrogen at up to 50% by volume. The pipeline was outfitted with ports to extract samples from the top and bottom of the pipe at intervals of 20 feet. Samples were analyzed for composition, and the effectiveness of odorant was also evaluated. The new results conclusively demonstrate that hydrogen gas mixtures do not significantly separate or react under typical distribution pipeline conditions and gas velocity profiles. In addition, the odorant retained its integrity in the blended gas during the experiments and demonstrated that it remains an effective method of leak detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Hydrogen (Volume 2))
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