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Eng, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 5 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Kinetic Modelling of Biodegradability Data of Commercial Polymers Obtained under Aerobic Composting Conditions
Eng 2021, 2(1), 54-68; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2010005 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 217
Abstract
Methods to treat kinetic data for the biodegradation of different plastic materials are comparatively discussed. Different samples of commercial formulates were tested for aerobic biodegradation in compost, following the standard ISO14855. Starting from the raw data, the conversion vs. time entries were elaborated [...] Read more.
Methods to treat kinetic data for the biodegradation of different plastic materials are comparatively discussed. Different samples of commercial formulates were tested for aerobic biodegradation in compost, following the standard ISO14855. Starting from the raw data, the conversion vs. time entries were elaborated using relatively simple kinetic models, such as integrated kinetic equations of zero, first and second order, through the Wilkinson model, or using a Michaelis Menten approach, which was previously reported in the literature. The results were validated against the experimental data and allowed for computation of the time for half degradation of the substrate and, by extrapolation, estimation of the final biodegradation time for all the materials tested. In particular, the Michaelis Menten approach fails in describing all the reported kinetics as well the zeroth- and second-order kinetics. The biodegradation pattern of one sample was described in detail through a simple first-order kinetics. By contrast, other substrates followed a more complex pathway, with rapid partial degradation, subsequently slowing. Therefore, a more conservative kinetic interpolation was needed. The different possible patterns are discussed, with a guide to the application of the most suitable kinetic model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Trendline and Monthly Variations of Nitrate in Water Supply Wells in Upper Egypt
Eng 2021, 2(1), 43-53; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2010004 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 212
Abstract
Safe drinking water is among the most important environmental as well as health challenges facing Egypt. Groundwater from the aquifer of the Nile valley in Upper Egypt accounts for about 40% of the overall source of drinking water. Nearly, all rural residents rely [...] Read more.
Safe drinking water is among the most important environmental as well as health challenges facing Egypt. Groundwater from the aquifer of the Nile valley in Upper Egypt accounts for about 40% of the overall source of drinking water. Nearly, all rural residents rely on groundwater as the source of drinking water. Irrigation water is the main source of groundwater recharge in Nile Valley. Moreover, nitrate fertilizer utilization in Egypt has risen significantly due to the requirement for further agricultural production. Nitrate levels higher than the permissible limit (45 mg/L) for drinking water have been related to health issues. To determine the effect of agrochemical nitrate on the health of pumping water, municipal water wellfields established in Upper Egypt have been examined. Pumped water from those municipal wells (60 m depth and 2000 m3/day gross pumping rate) was evaluated from 2000 to 2018 to accomplish this objective. Monthly analysis of the quality of groundwater, in particular nitrate, has been conducted. Sulfate and nitrate concentrations as well as other consistency metrics were assessed. Water sampling findings show that the water already comes under the drinking-water limits. Nevertheless, increased nitrate and sulfate values are found beyond naturally existing levels in the aquifer. Consequently, to determine the possible future likelihood of nitrate contamination in such municipal wells, the trendline of nitrate level has been used. The observations suggest that the intensive utilization of nitrogen fertilizer in Upper Egypt in the last 30 years would endanger the quality of the groundwater supply. Resultantly, the usage of nitrogen fertilizers in Upper Egypt must be regulated and continuous groundwater monitoring must be implemented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Hydraulics and Water Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Limitations of Modern Diagnostic and Prognostic Systems for a Hydraulic Unit’s Health
Eng 2021, 2(1), 27-42; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2010003 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 337
Abstract
Modern diagnostic systems for the hydraulic unit’s health play an important role in ensuring the reliability and safety of the hydroelectric power plant (HPP). However, they cannot provide timely detection of such dangerous operational defects as fatigue cracks. This article reflects two main [...] Read more.
Modern diagnostic systems for the hydraulic unit’s health play an important role in ensuring the reliability and safety of the hydroelectric power plant (HPP). However, they cannot provide timely detection of such dangerous operational defects as fatigue cracks. This article reflects two main reasons for this problem. The first one is a high level of the individuality of hydraulic units, which does not allow the effective use of statistical methods of information processing, including BIG DATA and MACHINE LEARNING technologies. The second is the fundamental impossibility to identify cracks in some key components of hydraulic units only on the basis of data analysis from a standard diagnostic system usually used at the HPP. Developed computational studies on the example of Francis turbines confirmed this. It is proposed to supplement the functionality of standard diagnostic systems with a prognostic block for an individual analytical forecast of the unit’s residual lifetime based on the calculated assessment of fatigue strength. This article presents the developed conceptual diagram and the demonstration version of the proposed analytical predictive system. The comparison of the standard vibration diagnostic system and the proposed solution as a tool for the early detection of cracks in a Francis turbine runner shows some advantages of the proposed approach. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Analysis of Septage Management in Five Cities in the Philippines
Eng 2021, 2(1), 12-26; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2010002 - 30 Jan 2021
Viewed by 236
Abstract
This study assessed and compared septage management systems in Baliwag, Calamba, Muntinlupa, Pasig, and San Fernando, the Philippines, using fecal waste flow diagrams and service delivery scorecards. According to the fecal waste flow diagrams, San Fernando is the most successful in preventing its [...] Read more.
This study assessed and compared septage management systems in Baliwag, Calamba, Muntinlupa, Pasig, and San Fernando, the Philippines, using fecal waste flow diagrams and service delivery scorecards. According to the fecal waste flow diagrams, San Fernando is the most successful in preventing its environment’s pollution. It is followed by Baliwag, Muntinlupa, and Pasig. In Calamba, all of the fecal waste is disposed of to the environment. According to the scorecards, Pasig has the most efficient septage management service, followed by San Fernando, Baliwag, Muntinlupa, and Calamba. Among the five areas, San Fernando can be considered to have the most efficient septage management system as it had the best fecal waste flow diagram and second highest ratings in the service delivery scorecard. It might have been an advantage that the city itself is managing the whole system—from implementing rules for septic tank plans, to the collection, treatment, and disposal of septage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Hydraulics and Water Engineering)
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Open AccessReview
Innovative Techniques in the Context of Actions for Flood Risk Management: A Review
Eng 2021, 2(1), 1-11; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2010001 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 532
Abstract
The general purpose of this review paper is to provide an overview of various flood protection strategies because flooding is becoming more frequent and is affecting more areas, displacing people, and increasing fatalities around the world. The concern surrounding climate change resulting in [...] Read more.
The general purpose of this review paper is to provide an overview of various flood protection strategies because flooding is becoming more frequent and is affecting more areas, displacing people, and increasing fatalities around the world. The concern surrounding climate change resulting in sea level rise, increasingly frequent storm events, and the need for adaptive actions to better control urban storm water runoff motivates the completion of this paper. Understanding the impact of climate change aside from dangerous weather conditions essential for designing effective mitigation strategies, but first, there needs to be a clear and strong understanding of the effects of extreme events. This review represents engineered storm water practices that are adaptive, in combination with the non-structural measures such as urban planning, will help reduce flood impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Hydraulics and Water Engineering)
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